17,490 research outputs found

    Dynamical Projective Operatorial Approach (DPOA) for out-of-equilibrium systems and its application to TR-ARPES

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    Efficiently simulating real materials under the application of a time-dependent field and computing reliably the evolution over time of relevant response functions, such as the TR-ARPES signal or differential transient optical properties, has become one of the main concerns of modern condensed matter theory in response to the recent developments in all areas of experimental out-of-equilibrium physics. In this manuscript, we propose a novel model-Hamiltonian method, the dynamical projective operatorial approach (DPOA), designed and developed to overcome some of the limitations and drawbacks of currently available methods. Relying on (i) many-body second-quantization formalism and composite operators, DPOA is in principle capable of handling both weakly and strongly correlated systems, (ii) tight-binding approach and wannierization of DFT band structures, DPOA naturally deals with the complexity and the very many degrees of freedom of real materials, (iii) dipole gauge and Peierls substitution, DPOA is built to address pumped systems and, in particular, pump-probe spectroscopies, (iv) a Peierls expansion we have devised ad hoc, DPOA is numerically extremely efficient and fast. The latter expansion clarifies how single- and multi-photon resonances, rigid shifts, band dressings, and different types of sidebands emerge and allows understanding the related phenomenologies. Comparing DPOA to the single-particle density-matrix approach and the Houston method (this latter is generalized to second-quantization formalism), we show how it can compute multi-particle multi-time correlation functions and go well beyond these approaches for real materials. We also propose protocols for evaluating the strength of single- and multi-photon resonances and for assigning the residual excited electronic population at each crystal momentum and band to a specific excitation process. The expression for ...Comment: 27 pages, 15 figures, 38 panel

    The association of spirometric small airways obstruction with respiratory symptoms, cardiometabolic diseases, and quality of life: Results from the Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) study

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    Background: Spirometric small airways obstruction (SAO) is common in the general population. Whether spirometric SAO is associated with respiratory symptoms, cardiometabolic diseases, and quality of life (QoL) is unknown. Methods: Using data from the Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease study (N‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ21,594), we defined spirometric SAO as the mean forced expiratory flow rate between 25 and 75% of the FVC (FEF25-75) less than the lower limit of normal (LLN) or the forced expiratory volume in 3 s to FVC ratio (FEV3/FVC) less than the LLN. We analysed data on respiratory symptoms, cardiometabolic diseases, and QoL collected using standardised questionnaires. We assessed the associations with spirometric SAO using multivariable regression models, and pooled site estimates using random effects meta-analysis. We conducted identical analyses for isolated spirometric SAO (i.e. with FEV1/FVC‚ÄČ‚Č•‚ÄČLLN). Results: Almost a fifth of the participants had spirometric SAO (19% for FEF25-75; 17% for FEV3/FVC). Using FEF25-75, spirometric SAO was associated with dyspnoea (OR‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ2.16, 95% CI 1.77‚Äď2.70), chronic cough (OR‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ2.56, 95% CI 2.08‚Äď3.15), chronic phlegm (OR‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ2.29, 95% CI 1.77‚Äď4.05), wheeze (OR‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ2.87, 95% CI 2.50‚Äď3.40) and cardiovascular disease (OR‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ1.30, 95% CI 1.11‚Äď1.52), but not hypertension or diabetes. Spirometric SAO was associated with worse physical and mental QoL. These associations were similar for FEV3/FVC. Isolated spirometric SAO (10% for FEF25-75; 6% for FEV3/FVC), was also associated with respiratory symptoms and cardiovascular disease. Conclusion: Spirometric SAO is associated with respiratory symptoms, cardiovascular disease, and QoL. Consideration should be given to the measurement of FEF25-75 and FEV3/FVC, in addition to traditional spirometry parameters

    voluModel: Modelling species distributions in three‚Äźdimensional space

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    Abstract Ecological niche modelling (ENM), species distribution modelling and related spatial analytical methods were first developed in two‚Äźdimensional (2‚ÄźD)¬†terrestrial systems; many common ENM workflows organize and analyse geographically structured occurrence and environmental data based on 2‚ÄźD latitude and longitude coordinates. This may be suitable for most terrestrial organisms, but pelagic marine species are distributed not only horizontally but also vertically. Extracting environmental data for marine species based only on latitude and longitude coordinates may result in poorly trained ENMs and inaccurate prediction of species' geographical distributions, as water conditions may vary strikingly with depth. We developed the voluModel R package to efficiently extract three‚Äźdimensional (3‚ÄźD) environmental data for training ENMs (i.e. presences and absences/pseudoabsences/background). voluModel also provides tools for 3‚ÄźD ENM projection visualization and estimation of model extrapolation risk. We present the main features of the voluModel R package and provide a simple modelling workflow for Luminous Hake, Steindachneria argentea, as an example. We also compare results from 2‚ÄźD and 3‚ÄźD spatial models to demonstrate differences in how the modelling methods perform. The use of 3‚ÄźD environmental data generates more precise estimates of environmental conditions for training ENMs. This method also improves inference of species' suitable abiotic ecological niches and potential geographic ranges. 3‚ÄźD niche modelling is important step forward for marine macroecology and biogeography, as it will yield more accurate estimates of ocean species richness and potential past and future changes in the horizontal and vertical dimensions of species' geographic ranges. The latter is particularly relevant considering ongoing climate change that may cause redistribution of species in environmental space (both in latitude and depth) over time

    Lesion-based indicators predict long-term outcomes of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma‚Äď SIZEPASS

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    AimWe seek a simple and reliable tool to predict malignant behavior of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGL).MethodsThis single-center prospective cohort study assessed size of primary PPGLs on preoperative cross-sectional imaging and prospectively scored specimens using the Pheochromocytoma of the Adrenal Gland Scaled Score (PASS). Multiplication of PASS points with maximum lesion diameter (in mm) yielded the SIZEPASS criterion. Local recurrence, metastasis or death from disease were surrogates defining malignancy.Results76 consecutive PPGL patients, whereof 58 with pheochromocytoma and 51 female, were diagnosed at a mean age of 52.0 ¬Ī 15.2 years. 11 lesions (14.5%) exhibited malignant features at a median follow-up (FU) of 49 months (range 4-172 mo). Median FU of the remaining cohort was 139 months (range 120-226 mo). SIZEPASS classified malignancy with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.97 (95%CI 0.93-1.01; p<0.0001). Across PPGL, SIZEPASS >1000 outperformed all known predictors of malignancy, with sensitivity 91%, specificity 94%, and accuracy 93%, and an odds ratio of 72 fold (95%CI 9-571; P<0.001). It retained an accuracy >90% in cohorts defined by location (adrenal, extra-adrenal) or mutation status.ConclusionsThe SIZEPASS>1000 criterion is a lesion-based, clinically available, simple and effective tool to predict malignant behavior of PPGLs independently of age, sex, location or mutation status

    Desmuntant mites biol√≤gics a l'aula de ci√®ncies. Un recopilatori dels 70 m√©s freq√ľents

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    La margarida és una flor? Només tenim 5 sentits? Els éssers humans es poden dividir en races? El fred causa els refredats? La selva amazònica és el pulmó del planeta? El desdejuni és el menjar més important del dia? Només utilitzem el 10% del nostre cervell? Totes aquestes idees formen part dels models mentals de gran part de la població. Idees que, o bé parteixen de conceptes correctes, però mal aplicats, o són totalment falses. Així, a pesar de la sobreabundància d’informació que existeix en l’actualitat, la falta d’educació informacional i la difusió de tota mena de desordres informatius creen un caldo de cultiu perfecte per a la transmissió i replicació d’informació errònia. Aquest llibre persegueix no només recopilar i desmuntar 70 mites biològics emprant informació científica actualitzada, sinó també aportar activitats per a treballar-los a l'aula (principalment en els nivells educatius d’ESO i Batxillerat), recopilar recursos accessoris per a continuar indagant en els mateixos i donar eines per a desenvolupar una perspectiva crítica amb la informació que rebem. D’aquesta manera, volem contribuir a l’alfabetització científica de la població, tenint com a eixos vertebradors, la interdisciplinarietat, la perspectiva de gènere, el respecte a la diversitat, la promoció de la salut, la sostenibilitat i la cura del medi ambient.UV-SFPIE_PID-2079949UVSFPIE_ PID-1642158Are daisies flowers? Do we only have 5 senses? Can human beings be divided into races? Can cold weather or being chilled cause a cold? Is the Amazon rainforest the lung of the planet? Is breakfast the most important meal of the day? Do we humans only use 10% of our cerebral capacity? All of these ideas belong to the collective mindset of our society. Ideas that either originate from hypotheses that are correct but are poorly applied, or are totally fake. Thus, despite the excessive amounts of information that is available nowadays, the lack of informational education and diffusion of all kinds of informational disorders create a breeding ground that is ideal for the transmission and reapplication for misinformation. The aim of this book is not only to compilate and dismantle 70 biological myths using up-to-date scientific information but also contribute with activities that can be used in class (mainly for secondary school levels), compilate complementary resources to keep an inquiring mindset towards the same and assist with tools to develop a critic perspective with the information that we come across. That way, we want to promote the scientific alphabetization of the population taking interdisciplinarity, gender perspective, respect for diversity, healthcare promotion and sustainability and care for the environment as its axis

    Avalia√ß√£o da adequabilidade ambiental para esp√©cies exploradas pela pesca ao longo da margem atl√Ęntica da Pen√≠nsula Ib√©rica

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    One of the most remarkable effects of climate change in marine realm is the shift in the distribution of species. On the other hand, marine ecosystems are also being modified by commercial fisheries (e.g., decline of species with low reproductive rates, alterations in population size structure, habitat loss and decreased habitat quality). Fisheries combined with climate change may cause the redistribution of marine species commercially exploited by fisheries and these changes can cause considerable socio-economic impacts. Therefore, it is crucial to anticipate these changes aiming a sustainable management of marine living resources and food security. The European hake (Merluccius merluccius) is a demersal species while the horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) is a pelagic-neritic species, and both are among the most important species commercially exploited in the Northeast Atlantic. In this work, I estimated the habitat suitability along the Iberian Atlantic waters for the European hake and horse mackerel using an ensemble ecological niche model (ENM) approach. Three machine-learning algorithms (Generalized Boosting Model, Random Forest, Maximum Entropy) were selected to estimate the habitat suitability and related uncertainty maps. The predictions of habitat suitability were made for present ocean conditions (2002-2014) and then projected to future scenarios of climate change (RCP 2.6 and 8.5) for the years of 2050 and 2100. The models were fitted using both oceanographic variables (temperature, salinity, and current velocity) and physiographic variables (bathymetry, bathymetric slope, and sea bottom curvature). The variables that most contribute to the model‚Äôs predictions were bathymetry, bottom temperature, and salinity for the European hake and bathymetry and salinity for the horse mackerel. Both the ensemble and single models showed high predictive performance, with the ensemble model estimates consistently performing better than the single models. According to the model for the European hake, the most suitable areas were predicted along the continental shelf, especially along the outer edge while the most unsuitable conditions were found in areas off the continental shelf. Moreover, the ENM predicted a decrease on the habitat suitability comparatively to the present conditions for future scenarios of climate change, mainly in the northern and western Iberian Peninsula whilst in the southern areas the habitat suitability is likely to remain constant. These predictions showed high reliability between single models for the most suitable and most unsuitable areas as well as a low uncertainty. For the horse mackerel the most suitable habitat areas were also predicted for the continental shelf and the most unsuitable areas were predicted in offshore area. The projections for the habitat suitability according to future ocean conditions estimated a slightly to moderate increase in the habitat suitability for areas currently offering low habitat suitability for the species. Notwithstanding, these projections were subjected to moderate to high uncertainty. On the other hand, the ensemble prediction for the areas of higher habitat suitability for horse mackerel show low uncertainty. This study brings new insights to the potential impact of climate change in distribution of two economically important species. It is important to be aware that climate change and anthropogenic activities, such as fisheries, will continue to co-exist, putting pressure on the stocks of diverse fish species. Changes in the potential distribution of species may require new management measures for the fishing sector, such as the redefinition of fish stocks and fishing effort. This study provides relevant and spatial explicitly information that may contribute for the development of effective conservative and management measures.Um dos efeitos mais not√°veis das altera√ß√Ķes clim√°ticas no ambiente marinho √© a mudan√ßa na distribui√ß√£o das esp√©cies. Por outro lado, os ecossistemas marinhos est√£o tamb√©m a ser modificados pela pesca comercial (por exemplo, o decl√≠nio de esp√©cies com baixas taxas de reprodu√ß√£o, altera√ß√Ķes na estrutura da popula√ß√£o, perda de e diminui√ß√£o da qualidade do habitat). A pesca combinada com as altera√ß√Ķes clim√°ticas pode causar a redistribui√ß√£o de esp√©cies marinhas comercialmente exploradas, sendo que estas altera√ß√Ķes podem causar impactos socioecon√≥micos consider√°veis. Por conseguinte, √© crucial antecipar estas mudan√ßas visando uma gest√£o sustent√°vel dos recursos marinhos vivos e a seguran√ßa alimentar. A pescada europeia (Merluccius merluccius) √© uma esp√©cie demersal enquanto o carapau (Trachurus trachurus) √© uma esp√©cie pel√°gico-ner√≠tica, sendo que ambas s√£o consideradas das mais exploradas comercialmente pelo setor pesqueiro no Atl√Ęntico Nordeste. Neste trabalho, foi estimada a adequabilidade do habitat ao longo das √°guas do Atl√Ęntico Ib√©rico para a pescada europeia e para o carapau, utilizando uma abordagem ensemble de modelo de nicho ecol√≥gico (ENM). Foram selecionados tr√™s algoritmos de machine-learning (Generalized Boosting Model, Random Forest, Maximum Entropy) para estimar a adequabilidade do habitat e mapas de incerteza relacionados. As previs√Ķes de adequabilidade do habitat foram feitas para as atuais condi√ß√Ķes oce√Ęnicas (2002-2014) e depois projetadas para cen√°rios futuros de altera√ß√Ķes clim√°ticas (RCP 2.6 e 8.5) para os anos de 2050 e 2100. Os modelos foram ajustados usando tanto vari√°veis oceanogr√°ficas (temperatura, salinidade, e velocidade da corrente) como vari√°veis fisiogr√°ficas (batimetria, inclina√ß√£o batim√©trica, e curvatura do fundo do mar). As vari√°veis que mais contribu√≠ram para as previs√Ķes do modelo foram a batimetria, temperatura do fundo e salinidade para a pescada europeia e a batimetria e salinidade para o carapau. Tanto o ensemble como os modelos individuais mostraram um desempenho preditivo elevado, com as estimativas do modelo de ensemble a apresentarem um desempenho consistentemente melhor do que os modelos individuais. De acordo com o modelo para a pescada europeia, as √°reas mais adequadas foram previstas ao longo da plataforma continental, especialmente ao longo do limite da plataforma continental, enquanto as condi√ß√Ķes menos adequadas foram encontradas em √°reas fora da plataforma continental. Al√©m disso, o ENM previu uma diminui√ß√£o da adequabilidade do habitat comparativamente √†s condi√ß√Ķes atuais para cen√°rios futuros de altera√ß√Ķes clim√°ticas, principalmente no norte e oeste da Pen√≠nsula Ib√©rica, enquanto nas √°reas do sul a adequa√ß√£o do habitat estima-se que se mantenha constante. Estas previs√Ķes mostraram uma elevada confian√ßa entre modelos √ļnicos para as √°reas mais adequadas e mais inapropriadas, correspondendo a uma baixa incerteza. Para o carapau, as √°reas de habitat mais adequadas foram tamb√©m previstas para a plataforma continental e as √°reas menos adequadas foram previstas na zona offshore. As proje√ß√Ķes para a adequa√ß√£o do habitat de acordo com as futuras condi√ß√Ķes oce√Ęnicas estimaram um ligeiro a moderado aumento na adequabilidade do habitat para √°reas que atualmente oferecem uma baixa adequabilidade do habitat para a esp√©cie. N√£o obstante, estas proje√ß√Ķes foram sujeitas a uma incerteza moderada a elevada. Por outro lado, a previs√£o do ensemble para as √°reas de maior adequabilidade de habitat para o carapau, mostra uma baixa incerteza. Este estudo traz novos conhecimentos sobre o impacto potencial das altera√ß√Ķes clim√°ticas na distribui√ß√£o de duas esp√©cies economicamente importantes. √Č importante estar ciente de que as altera√ß√Ķes clim√°ticas e as atividades antropog√©nicas, tais como a pesca, continuar√£o a coexistir, exercendo press√£o sobre os stocks de diversas esp√©cies de peixes. As altera√ß√Ķes na distribui√ß√£o potencial das esp√©cies podem exigir novas medidas de gest√£o para o sector das pescas, tais como a redefini√ß√£o dos stocks de peixe e do esfor√ßo de pesca. Este estudo fornece informa√ß√£o relevante e espacialmente expl√≠cita que pode contribuir para o desenvolvimento de medidas eficazes de conserva√ß√£o e gest√£o.Mestrado em Biologia Marinha Aplicad

    Mechanistic insights into the regulation of inflammatory pathology by A20

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    A large deviation inequality for the rank of a random matrix

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    Let AA be an n√ónn \times n random matrix with independent identically distributed non-constant subgaussian entries.Then for any k‚ȧcnk \le c \sqrt{n}, rank(A)‚Č•n‚ąík \text{rank}(A) \ge n-k with probability at least 1‚ąíexp‚Ā°(‚ąíc‚Ä≤kn)1-\exp(-c'kn)

    The extended Ville's inequality for nonintegrable nonnegative supermartingales

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    Following initial work by Robbins, we rigorously present an extended theory of nonnegative supermartingales, requiring neither integrability nor finiteness. In particular, we derive a key maximal inequality foreshadowed by Robbins, which we call the extended Ville's inequality, that strengthens the classical Ville's inequality (for integrable nonnegative supermartingales), and also applies to our nonintegrable setting. We derive an extension of the method of mixtures, which applies to ŌÉ\sigma-finite mixtures of our extended nonnegative supermartingales. We present some implications of our theory for sequential statistics, such as the use of improper mixtures (priors) in deriving nonparametric confidence sequences and (extended) e-processes
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