296,781 research outputs found

    Vapor diffusion electrode improves fuel cell operation

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    Vapor diffusion type fuel cell electrode presents a nonwetting barrier to the liquid feedstocks so they may contact the electrolyte only in the vapor state. Thus, it effects feedstock mixing with the electrolyte at the electrolyte/catalyst interface but prevents feedstock decomposition and catalyst poisoning from liquid mingling

    Compact nonlinear model of an implantable electrode array for spinal cord stimulation (SCS)

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    We describe the construction of a model of the electrode-electrolyte interface and surrounding electrolyte in the case of a platinum-electrode array intended for spinal-cord stimulation (SCS) application. We show that a finite, two dimensional, resistor array provides a satisfactory model of the bulk electrolyte, and we identify the complexity required of that resistor array. The electrode-electrolyte interface is modelled in a fashion suitable for commonly-available, compact simulators using a nonlinear extension of the model of Franks et al. that incorporates diodes and a memristor. The electrode-electrolyte interface model accounts for the nonlinear current-overpotential characteristic and diffusion-limiting effects. We characterise a commercial, implantable, electrode array, fit the model to it, and show that the model successfully predicts subtle operational characteristics

    Foaming-electrolyte fuel cell

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    Foam structure feeds fuel gas solution into electrolyte. Fuel gas reacts at static, three-phase interface between fuel gas, electrolyte, and electrode material. The foam forms an electrical contact between main body of electrolyte and the electrode, and aids in removal of by-products of the chemical reaction

    Development by Mechanochemistry of La0.8Sr0.2Ga0.8Mg0.2O2.8 Electrolyte for SOFCs

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    In this work, a mechanochemical process using high-energy milling conditions was employed to synthesize La0.8Sr0.2Ga0.8Mg0.2O3-δ (LSGM) powders from the corresponding stoichiometric amounts of La2O3, SrO, Ga2O3, and MgO in a short time. After 60 min of milling, the desired final product was obtained without the need for any subsequent annealing treatment. A half solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) was then developed using LSGM as an electrolyte and La0.8Sr0.2MnO3 (LSM) as an electrode, both obtained by mechanochemistry. The characterization by X-ray diffraction of as-prepared powders showed that LSGM and LSM present a perovskite structure and pseudo-cubic symmetry. The thermal and chemical stability between the electrolyte (LSGM) and the electrode (LSM) were analyzed by dynamic X-ray diffraction as a function of temperature. The electrolyte (LSGM) is thermally stable up to 800 and from 900 °C, where the secondary phases of LaSrGa3O7 and LaSrGaO4 appear. The best sintering temperature for the electrolyte is 1400 °C, since at this temperature, LaSrGaO4 disappears and the percentage of LaSrGa3O7 is minimized. The electrolyte is chemically compatible with the electrode up to 800 °C. The powder sample of the electrolyte (LSGM) at 1400 °C observed by HRTEM indicates that the cubic symmetry Pm-3m is preserved. The SOFC was constructed using the brush-painting technique; the electrode-electrolyte interface characterized by SEM presented good adhesion at 800 °C. The electrical properties of the electrolyte and the half-cell were analyzed by complex impedance spectroscopy. It was found that LSGM is a good candidate to be used as an electrolyte in SOFC, with an Ea value of 0.9 eV, and the LSM sample is a good candidate to be used as cathode

    A 14% efficient nonaqueous semiconductor/liquid junction solar cell

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    We describe the most efficient semiconductor/liquid junction solar cell reported to date. Under W‐halogen (ELH) illumination, the device is a 14% efficient two‐electrode solar cell fabricated from an n‐type silicon photoanode in contact with a nonaqueous electrolyte solution. The cell′s central feature is an ultrathin electrolyte layer which simultaneously reduces losses which result from electrode polarization, electrolyte light absorption, and electrolyte resistance. The thin electrolyte layer also eliminates the need for forced convection of the redox couple and allows for precise control over the amount of water (and other electrolyte impurities) exposed to the semiconductor. After one month of continuous operation under ELH light at 100 mW/cm^2, which corresponds to the passage of over 70 000 C/cm^2, thin‐layer cells retained over 90% of their efficiency. In addition, when made with Wacker Silso cast polycrystalline Si, cells yield an efficiency of 9.8% under simulated AMl illumination. The thin‐layer cells employ no external compensation yet surpass their corresponding experimental (three‐electrode) predecessors in efficiency

    Thermal power transfer system using applied potential difference to sustain operating pressure difference

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    A thermal power transfer system using a phase change liquid gas fluid in a closed loop configuration has a heat exchanger member connected to a gas conduit for inputting thermal energy into the fluid. The pressure in the gas conduit is higher than a liquid conduit that is connected to a heat exchanger member for outputting thermal energy. A solid electrolyte member acts as a barrier between the gas conduit and the liquid conduit adjacent to a solid electrolyte member. The solid electrolyte member has the capacity of transmitting ions of a fluid through the electrolyte member. The ions can be recombined with electrons with the assistance of a porous electrode. An electrical field is applied across the solid electrolyte member to force the ions of the fluid from a lower pressure liquid conduit to the higher pressure gas conduit

    Electric cell voltage at etching and deposition of metals under an inhomogeneous constant magnetic field

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    The self-organized electric cell voltage of the physical circuit is calculated at etching and deposition of metals at the surface of a magnetized ferromagnetic electrode in an electrolyte without passing an external electrical current. This self-organized voltage arises due to the inhomogeneous distribution of concentration of the effectively dia- or paramagnetic cluster components of an electrolyte at the surface of a ferromagnetic electrode under the effect of inhomogeneous magnetostatic fields. The current density and Lorentz force are calculated in an electrolyte in the vicinity of the magnetized steel ball-shaped electrode. The Lorentz force causes the rotation of an electrolyte around the direction of an external magnetic field.Comment: 18 pages, 15 figure

    Enhanced drag in pipe turbulent flow by an aqueous electrolyte: an electroviscous effect

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    Drag enhancement is reported for turbulent pipe flow of aqueous electrolyte solutions. No electroviscous effect was obtained with laminar flow. Nor was any unusual pressure drop observed for laminar or turbulent flow of non-electrolyte aqueous solutions such as sugar. An electroviscous theory was advanced that predicted the drag enhancement for a 1/1 electrolyte solution. The theory depended on consideration of Debye length

    Secondary Li battery incorporating 12-Crown-4 ether

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    A rechargeable lithium battery which utilizes a polyethylene oxide (PEO) solid polymeric electrolyte complexed with a lithium salt is disclosed. The conductivity is increased an order of magnitude and interfacial charge transfer resistance is substantially decreased by incorporating a minor amount of 12-Crown-4 ether in the PEO-lithium salt solid electrolyte film. Batteries containing the improved electrolyte permit operation at a lower temperature with improved efficiency