32,159 research outputs found

    ”Do you understand what you are reading?” : A critical legal dogmatic analysis of the prohibition against discrimination in educational activities

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    This essay is based on a case of a Swedish student with dyslexia who was denied the right to his aid during the national exam in Swedish. The purpose of the study is to shed light on the problems in how practice is interpreted and how future cases can behandled. In order to examine the current law in discrimination that dyslectics experience within the school system. The study has used the legal dogmatic method,the right as it is “de lege lata'' as well as “de lege ferenda”, as the right should be. The study has concluded that even if the student is not denied the right to a free education,the study wishes to draw attention to the fact that the student may have been exposed to discrimination based on the European Convention Art.14. What the study has discovered by analyzing the material is that the adaptations offered to the student did not compensate for the absence of the compensatory aid for the national test

    The experiences of autistic doctors: a cross-sectional study

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    IntroductionMedicine may select for autistic characteristics. As awareness and diagnosis of autism are growing, more medical students and doctors may be discovering they are autistic. No studies have explored the experiences of autistic doctors. This study aimed to fill that gap.MethodsThis is a cross-sectional study. A participatory approach was used to identify the need for the project and to modify a pre-existing survey for use exploring the experiences of autistic doctors.ResultsWe received 225 responses. 64% had a formal diagnosis of autism. The mean age of receiving a formal diagnosis was 36 (range 3–61). Most were currently working as doctors (82%). The most common specialties were general practice / family medicine (31%), psychiatry (18%), and anesthesia (11%). Almost half of those working had completed specialty training (46%) and 40% were current trainees. 29% had not disclosed being autistic to anyone at work. 46% had requested adjustments in the workplace but of these, only half had them implemented.Three quarters had considered suicide (77%), one quarter had attempted suicide (24%) and half had engaged in self-harm (49%). 80% reported having worked with another doctor they suspected was autistic, but only 22% reported having worked with another doctor they knew was autistic. Having never worked with a potentially autistic colleague was associated with having considered suicide.Most preferred to be called “autistic doctors” (64%). Most considered autism to be a difference (83%). Considering autism to be a disorder was associated with preference for the term “doctors with autism,” and with having attempted suicide.ConclusionAutistic doctors reported many challenges in the workplace. This may have contributed to a culture of nondisclosure. Mental health was poor with high rates of suicidal ideation, self-harm, and prior suicide attempts. Despite inhospitable environments, most were persevering and working successfully. Viewing autism as a disorder was associated with prior suicide attempts and a preference for person-first language. A neurodiversity-affirmative approach to autism may lead to a more positive self-identity and improved mental health. Furthermore, providing adequate supports and improving awareness of autistic medical professionals may promote inclusion in the medical workforce

    In search of finalizing and validating digital learning tools supporting all in acquiring full literacy

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    Unlike many believe, accurate and fluent basic reading skill (ie. to decode text) is not enough for learning knowledge via reading. More than 10 years ago a digital learning game supporting the first step towards full literacy, i.e., GraphoGame (GG) was developed by the first author with his colleagues in the University of JyvĂ€skylĂ€, Finland. It trains the acquisition of basic reading skills, i.e., learning to sound out written language. Nowadays, when almost everyone in the world has an opportunity to use this GG, it is time to start supporting the acquisition of full literacy (FL). FL is necessary for efficient learning in school, where reading the schoolbooks successfully is essential. The present plan aims to help globally almost all who read whatever orthography to start from the earliest possible grade during which children have learned the mastery of the basic reading skill to immediately continue taking the next step to reach FL. Unlike common beliefs, support of FL is mostly needed among those who read transparent orthographies (reading by the majority of readers of alphabetic writings) which are easier to sound out due to consistency between spoken and written units at grapheme-phoneme level. This makes readers able to sound any written item which is pronounceable with only a little help of knowing what it means. Therefore, children tend to become inclined to not pay enough attention to the meaning but concentrate on decoding the text letter-by-letter. They had to learn from the beginning to approach the goal of reading, mediation of the meaning of the text. Readers of nontransparent English need to attend morphology for correct sounding. The continuing fall of OECD’s Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) results, e.g., in Finland reveals that especially boys are not any more interested in reading outside school which would be natural way to reach the main goal of reading, FL. What could be a better way to help boys towards FL than motivating them to play computer games which requires reading comprehension. The new digital ComprehensionGame designed by the first author motivates pupils to read in effective way by concurrently elevating their school achievements by connecting the training to daily reading lessons. This article describes our efforts to elaborate and validate this new digital tool by starting from populations of learners who need it most in Africa and in Finland

    Empire Fighting Chance: boxing based mentoring: feasibility and pilot trial report

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    What does this project involve? Empire Fighting Chance (EFC) aim to use non-contact boxing programmes accompanied with personal development support to reduce anti-social and criminal behaviour amongst at risk young people. Their programmes combine physical activity sessions with one-to-one or group mentoring support, where coaches encourage children to work on personal development points designed to improve behaviour. Why did YEF fund this project? As the YEF’s toolkit explains, sports programmes are associated with a high average impact on reducing serious youth violence and crime. However, there are considerable gaps in the evidence, particularly relating to robust evaluations conducted in an English or Welsh context. YEF, therefore, funded a feasibility and pilot evaluation of EFC’s programmes. The feasibility study examined several EFC’s interventions. It aimed to ascertain whether these programmes achieved their intended outputs for their intended target groups, explore the barriers and facilitators to delivery, detail how much of the interventions young people received, and assess quality, responsiveness, and reach. To explore these questions, programme monitoring data on 831 participants and an online satisfaction survey undertaken by 204 young people were analysed. Interviews were also conducted with 10 project staff, and 6 participants and their parents. 10-14 year olds who were at risk of involvement in crime and anti-social behaviour were targeted by the programmes, and the feasibility study ran from November 2019 to June 2021. The pilot study then evaluated a new, school-based, boxing mentoring programme, which combined elements of EFC programmes examined by the feasibility study. This new programme aimed to deliver a 12-week mentoring intervention in schools, where weekly physical activities (including skipping, circuit training, punch pads and boxing techniques) were delivered by an EFC coach. While leading these sessions, the coach would discuss ‘Personal Development Points’ with children (such as the importance of regulating mood, eating well, and taking responsibility for your actions). The programme targeted pupils in Year 8 and 9, who had demonstrated behavioural difficulties, poor attendance, and an interest in sport. The pilot evaluation aimed to assess how feasible an efficacy randomised controlled trial of the programme may be, inform the design of a future evaluation, and assess whether there is any preliminary evidence of promise. To explore these questions the evaluator analysed quantitative project delivery data, administered questionnaires featuring validated measures (such as the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and the Problem Behaviour Frequency Scale (PBFS)), and interviewed 17 pupils, five project staff and six teachers. Of the 91 children in the pilot study, 64% identified as White, 13% as Black, 11% as Mixed Ethnicity and 9% as Asian. The pilot commenced in September 2021 and concluded in June 2022. Both the feasibility and pilot studies took place during the coronavirus pandemic, requiring both the delivery and evaluation teams to adapt to challenging circumstances

    Desenvolvimento emocional na educação de alunos disléxicos

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    Este artigo objetivou analisar como a dislexia pode impactar o desenvolvimento emocional de crianças em idade escolar e os desafios enfrentados pelas polĂ­ticas pĂșblicas educacionais brasileiras para lidar com essa questĂŁo. Foi utilizado o mĂ©todo dedutivo com abordagem qualitativa, juntamente com pesquisa bibliogrĂĄfica e documental. O texto foi dividido em duas partes: (i) conscientização sobre o desenvolvimento emocional de crianças com dislexia e (ii) a importĂąncia da inteligĂȘncia emocional para crianças dislĂ©xicas em idade escolar e um breve debate sobre polĂ­ticas educacionais no Brasil. Conclui-se que profissionais da Educação, Direito e Psicologia podem contribuir na criação de novas polĂ­ticas que incluam a inteligĂȘncia emocional como um aspecto fundamental para o desenvolvimento integral das crianças dislĂ©xicas

    The effect of social devaluation, labelling and familiarity on children's attitudes and behavioural intentions towards a peer with symptoms of ADHD

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    The present study examined the attitudes and behavioural intentions of 336 children aged 7-11 towards a hypothetical peer with symptoms of ADHD to determine whether they were influenced by labelling, social devaluation or familiarity. Children read one of five vignettes describing the behaviour of a gender-neutral peer before completing self-report measures of attitudes and behavioural intentions. Results showed children held predominantly negative attitudes towards the hypothetical peer, which were more pronounced for inattentive than hyperactive/impulsive symptoms. These findings suggest that children were more likely to devalue internalising rather than externalising behaviours. Children also reported being more likely to engage in active/recreational and social activities rather than academic activities. In addition, the diagnostic label ‘ADHD’ led to more negative attitudes and behavioural intentions, while knowing someone with ADHD mediated the negative effect of hyperactive/impulsive symptoms on attitudes and behavioural intentions. Finally, significant positive relationships were found between attitudes and children’s willingness to engage in social, academic and physical activities. Policy and practice implications of these findings are discussed

    Ungifted: Teacher Candidates’ Understanding of Giftedness through Literature Circles

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    The purpose of this qualitative study was to analyze the reflective comments made by teacher candidates (TCs) after they participated in weekly discussions about the tween novel Ungifted by Korman (2012). The TCs attended at a regional Pacific Northwest university, majoring or minoring in various educational fields. After reading and discussing the topic of giftedness as it related to their engagement with the novel, the TCs wrote a reflective essay about their new understandings of teaching the gifted. Using the constant-comparative method, the essays from three sections of the course over a three-year period were read and reread for identifiable themes. The TCs shared their new understandings of relevant issues of related to giftedness; implications for teaching the gifted; and ideas for teaching the gifted. The development of awareness about teaching the gifted is discussed