1,457,242 research outputs found

    Estimating the sample mean and standard deviation from commonly reported quantiles in meta-analysis

    Full text link
    Researchers increasingly use meta-analysis to synthesize the results of several studies in order to estimate a common effect. When the outcome variable is continuous, standard meta-analytic approaches assume that the primary studies report the sample mean and standard deviation of the outcome. However, when the outcome is skewed, authors sometimes summarize the data by reporting the sample median and one or both of (i) the minimum and maximum values and (ii) the first and third quartiles, but do not report the mean or standard deviation. To include these studies in meta-analysis, several methods have been developed to estimate the sample mean and standard deviation from the reported summary data. A major limitation of these widely used methods is that they assume that the outcome distribution is normal, which is unlikely to be tenable for studies reporting medians. We propose two novel approaches to estimate the sample mean and standard deviation when data are suspected to be non-normal. Our simulation results and empirical assessments show that the proposed methods often perform better than the existing methods when applied to non-normal data

    Offspring of parents with recurrent depression: which features of parent depression index risk for offspring psychopathology?

    Get PDF
    Background: Parental depression is associated with an increased risk of psychiatric disorder in offspring, although outcomes vary. At present relatively little is known about how differences in episode timing, severity, and course of recurrentdepression relate to risk in children. The aim of this study was to consider the offspring of parents with recurrentdepression and examine whether a recent episode of parental depressionindexesrisk for offspringpsychopathology over and above these other parental depressionfeatures. <p/>Methods: Three hundred and thirty seven recurrently depressed parents and their offspring (aged 9–17) were interviewed as part of an ongoing study, the ‘Early Prediction of Adolescent Depression Study’. The Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment was used to assess two child outcomes; presence of a DSM-IV psychiatric disorder and number of DSM-IV child-rated depression symptoms. <p/>Results: Children whose parents had experienced a recent episode of depression reported significantly more depression symptoms, and odds of child psychiatric disorder were doubled relative to children whose parents had not experienced a recent episode of depression. Past severity of parental depression was also significantly associated with child depression symptoms. <p/>Limitations: Statistical analyses preclude causal conclusions pertaining to parental depression influences on offspringpsychopathology; several features of parental depression were recalled retrospectively. <p/>Conclusions: This study suggests that particular features of parental depression, specifically past depression severity and presence of a recent episode, may be important indicators of risk for child psychiatric disorder and depressive symptoms

    Depressive illness in institutionalised older people in Malta

    Get PDF
    Depression in older persons is associated with being placed in a nursing home. Depression is linked to increased medical morbidity in nursing home residents. 150 patients living in two nursing homes in Malta were included in the study. The geriatric depression scale was used to identify depression. Data for risk factors for depression and management of residents for this pathology was also collected. 67.3% (p value <0.01) were found to be depressed. 12% of the total population had major depression while 55.3% had minor depression. Only 40% of those diagnosed with depression in this study had been so diagnosed prior to the study. Significant associations included low Barthel scores, loneliness, being currently in pain, taking several medications, being widowed and having osteoarthritis. The study also showed that those residents already diagnosed with depression were being treated inappropriately with low prescription levels of antidepressants (40.6%). : Results show that depression in nursing home residents is highly prevalent and under diagnosed. There is also a lack of proper treatment in those identified with depression. There is a need for further research to develop intervention and management strategies for depression that is specifically tailored to meet the needs of the frail nursing home population.peer-reviewe

    Postpartum depression and thyroid dysfunction– should pregnant women be screened for thyroid disorders?

    Get PDF
    The relationship between thyroid dysfunction and postpartum depression has been investigated for quite some time now, but no consensus has been reached regarding the need for screening for thyroid function during pregnancy. This paper aims to investigate whether thyroid hormone screening in pregnancy might contribute to the diagnosis of postpartum depression. Depression was assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) - one of the most widely used measures in detecting postpartum depression and anxiety. Thyroid function was measured using the commonly recommended thyroid laboratory tests. A structured questionnaire was given to 61 patients closely monitored during their pregnancy and at least one year after giving birth, including for thyroid and depression disorders. The questionnaire was completed anonymously online by the patients and had three sections: one containing the EPDS questions, one assessing thyroid function, and a demographic section. The interdependency between thyroid and depression was analyzed in SPSS using the Pearson chi-square test of independence. The results show no statistically significant relationship between thyroid dysfunction and depression. In other words, women suffering from thyroid dysfunctions have no greater rate of depression compared to women without thyroid dysfunction. As a result, it screening for thyroid disorders during pregnancy may not provide relevant information for detecting postnatal depression

    Relationship between blood pressure values, depressive symptoms and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with cardiometabolic disease

    Get PDF
    We studied joint effect of blood pressure-BP and depression on risk of major adverse cardiovascular outcome in patients with existing cardiometabolic disease. A cohort of 35537 patients with coronary heart disease, diabetes or stroke underwent depression screening and BP was recorded concurrently. We used Cox’s proportional hazards to calculate risk of major adverse cardiovascular event-MACE (myocardial infarction/heart failure/stroke or cardiovascular death) over 4 years associated with baseline BP and depression. 11% (3939) had experienced MACE within 4 years. Patients with very high systolic BP-SBP (160-240) hazard ratio-HR 1.28 and with depression (HR 1.22) at baseline had significantly higher adjusted risk. Depression had significant interaction with SBP in risk prediction (p=0.03). Patients with combination of SBP and depression at baseline had 83% higher adjusted risk of MACE, as compared to patients with reference SBP and without depression. Patients with cardiometabolic disease and comorbid depression may benefit from closer monitoring of SBP

    Depression and mortality: Artifact of measurement and analysis?

    Get PDF
    Background Previous research demonstrates various associations between depression, cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and mortality, possibly as a result of the different methodologies used to measure depression and analyse relationships. This analysis investigated the association between depression, CVD incidence (CVDI) and mortality from CVD (MCVD), smoking related conditions (MSRC), and all causes (MALL), in a sample data set, where depression was measured using items from a validated questionnaire and using items derived from the factor analysis of a larger questionnaire, and analyses were conducted based on continuous data and grouped data. Methods Data from the PRIME Study (N=9798 men) on depression and 10-year CVD incidence and mortality were analysed using Cox proportional hazards models. Results Using continuous data, both measures of depression resulted in the emergence of positive associations between depression and mortality (MCVD, MSRC, MALL). Using grouped data, however, associations between a validated measure of depression and MCVD, and between a measure of depression derived from factor analysis and all measures of mortality were lost. Limitations Low levels of depression, low numbers of individuals with high depression and low numbers of outcome events may limit these analyses, but levels are usual for the population studied. Conclusions These data demonstrate a possible association between depression and mortality but detecting this association is dependent on the measurement used and method of analysis. Different findings based on methodology present clear problems for the elucidation and determination of relationships. The differences here argue for the use of validated scales where possible and suggest against over-reduction via factor analysis and grouping. CrownCopyright © 2013PublishedbyElsevierB.V.Allrightsreserved

    Big boys don't cry: Depression and men

    Get PDF
    Men are a numerical minority group receiving a diagnosis of, and treatment for, depression. However, community surveys of men and of their mental health issues (e.g. suicide and alcoholism) have led some to suggest that many more men have depression than are currently seen in healthcare services. This article explores current approaches to men and depression, which draw on theories of sex differences, gender roles and hegemonic masculinity. The sex differences approach has the potential to provide diagnostic tools for (male) depression; gender role theory could be used to redesign health services so that they target individuals who have a masculine, problem-focused coping style; and hegemonic masculinity highlights how gender is enacted through depression and that men’s depression may be visible in abusive, aggressive and violent practices. Depression in men is receiving growing recognition, and recent policy changes in the UK may mean that health services are obliged to incorporate services that meet the needs of men with depression

    Religiosity, identity, and depression in late adolescence: A longitudinal study

    Get PDF
    In this study, longitudinal associations among religiosity, identity style, identity commitment, and depression were examined in a sample of late adolescents. Online survey data were collected in two waves with an approximate six-week interval. Correlations demonstrated that high levels of negative aspects of religiosity, such as negative religious coping, predicted high levels of depression. Other aspects of religiosity, such as positive religious coping, did not predict depression. In addition, high levels of diffuse-avoidant identity style predicted high levels of depression, and high levels of identity commitment predicted low levels of depression. However, when a regression was performed with all the predictors of wave 2 depression and controlling for depression at wave 1, the predictors were no longer significant. Associations between identity and religiosity were also examined