1,201,806 research outputs found

    a case‚Äďcase study based on electronic health records

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    Funding Information: The acquisition of sequencing equipment and reagents used in this study by the Instituto Nacional de Sa√ļde Doutor Ricardo Jorge was partially funded by the HERA project (grant no. 2021/PHF/23776), supported by the European Commission through the European Centre for Disease Control, and also partially funded by the Genome PT project (grant no. POCI‚Äź01‚Äź0145‚ÄźFEDER‚Äź022184), supported by COMPETE 2020‚ÄďOperational Programme for Competitiveness and Internationalisation, Lisboa Portugal Regional Operational Programme, Algarve Portugal Regional Operational, under the Portugal 2020 Partnership Agreement, through the European Regional Development Fund, and by the Portuguese Science and Technology Foundation. The Algarve Biomedical Center Laboratory received public funding through the Project ALG‚ÄźD2‚Äź2021‚Äź06 Variants Screen in Southern Portugal‚ÄďMonitoring Variants of Concern in Southern Portugal and the Portuguese Science and Technology Foundation national support through the Comprehensive Health Research Center (grant no. UIDP/04923/2020). Funding information Funding Information: The acquisition of sequencing equipment and reagents used in this study by the Instituto Nacional de Sa√ļde Doutor Ricardo Jorge was partially funded by the HERA project (grant no. 2021/PHF/23776), supported by the European Commission through the European Centre for Disease Control, and also partially funded by the Genome PT project (grant no. POCI-01-0145-FEDER-022184), supported by COMPETE 2020‚ÄďOperational Programme for Competitiveness and Internationalisation, Lisboa Portugal Regional Operational Programme, Algarve Portugal Regional Operational, under the Portugal 2020 Partnership Agreement, through the European Regional Development Fund, and by the Portuguese Science and Technology Foundation. The Algarve Biomedical Center Laboratory received public funding through the Project ALG-D2-2021-06 Variants Screen in Southern Portugal‚ÄďMonitoring Variants of Concern in Southern Portugal and the Portuguese Science and Technology Foundation national support through the Comprehensive Health Research Center (grant no. UIDP/04923/2020). Publisher Copyright: ¬© 2023 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.Background: Information on vaccine effectiveness in a context of novel variants of concern (VOC) emergence is of key importance to inform public health policies. This study aimed to estimate a measure of comparative vaccine effectiveness between Omicron (BA.1) and Delta (B.1.617.2 and sub-lineages) VOC according to vaccination exposure (primary or booster). Methods: We developed a case‚Äďcase study using data on RT-PCR SARS-CoV-2-positive cases notified in Portugal during Weeks 49‚Äď51, 2021. To obtain measure of comparative vaccine effectiveness, we compared the odds of vaccination in Omicron cases versus Delta using logistic regression adjusted for age group, sex, region, week of diagnosis, and laboratory of origin. Results: Higher odds of vaccination were observed in cases infected by Omicron VOC compared with Delta VOC cases for both complete primary vaccination (odds ratio [OR] = 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.8 to 2.4) and booster dose (OR = 5.2; 95% CI: 3.1 to 8.8), equivalent to reduction of vaccine effectiveness from 44.7% and 92.8%, observed against infection with Delta, to ‚ąí6.0% (95% CI: 29.2% to 12.7%) and 62.7% (95% CI: 35.7% to 77.9%), observed against infection with Omicron, for complete primary vaccination and booster dose, respectively. Conclusion: Consistent reduction in vaccine-induced protection against infection with Omicron was observed. Complete primary vaccination may not be protective against SARS-CoV-2 infection in regions where Omicron variant is dominant.publishersversionpublishe

    A first update on mapping the human genetic architecture of COVID-19

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    results from an international survey of people with rheumatic diseases

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    Funding Information: We would like to thank all the clinicians, health-care providers, and patient organisations who helped to develop and disseminate this survey. A full list of all the contributors can be found in the appendix (pp 44?45). Preliminary results were presented at the American College of Rheumatology 2020 conference. The views expressed here are those of the authors and participating members of the COVID-19 Global Rheumatology Alliance and do not necessarily represent the views of the American College of Rheumatology, the European League Against Rheumatism, the UK National Health Service, the National Institute for Health Research, the UK Department of Health, or any other organisation. Funding Information: JSH reports grants from Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance and Rheumatology Research Alliance; and personal fees from Novartis, Pfizer, and Biogen, outside of the submitted work. JWL reports grants from Pfizer, outside of the submitted work. JAS reports grants and personal fees from Bristol-Myers Squibb; and personal fees from Gilead, Inova Diagnostics, Optum, and Pfizer, outside of the submitted work. CH reports personal fees from AstraZeneca and Aurinia Pharmaceuticals, outside of the submitted work. MJL reports grants from American College of Rheumatology during the conduct of the study and consulting fees from AbbVie, Amgen, Actelion, Boehringer Ingelheim, BMS, Celgene, Gilead, Johnson & Johnson, Mallinckrodt, Novartis, Pfizer, Roche, Sandoz, Sanofi, Sobi, and UCB, outside of the submitted work. SES is supported by the Vasculitis Clinical Research Consortium and Vasculitis Foundation outside of the submitted work. KLD reports grants from Novartis, Sobi, National Institutes of Health, and Horizon Bio, outside of the submitted work. EFM reports that the Liga Portuguesa Contra as Doen√ßas Reumaticas received support for specific activities: grants from Abbvie, Novartis, Janssen-Cilag, Lilly Portugal, Sanofi, Gr√ľnenthal SA, MSD, Celgene, Medac, Pharmakern, GAfPA, AMGEN, A Menarini Portugal; grants and non-financial support from Pfizer; and non-financial support from Gr√ľnenthal GmbH and Tilray, outside of the submitted work. DPR is the volunteer Vice President of the Canadian Arthritis Patient Alliance, which is primarily supported by independent grants from pharmaceutical companies. DPR reports consulting fees from NovoNordisk Canada and speaking fees and an honoraria from Eli Lilly Canada, outside of the submitted work. DPR also lives with rheumatoid arthritis. SB reports personal fees from Novartis, AbbVie, Pfizer, and Horizon Pharma, outside of the submitted work. RG reports personal fees from AbbVie New Zealand, Cornerstones, Janssen New Zealand; and personal fees and non-financial support from Pfizer New Zealand, (all <$10‚ÄČ000) outside of the submitted work. PMM reports personal fees from Abbvie, Eli Lilly, Janssen, Novartis, Pfizer, and UCB; and grants and personal fees from Orphazyme, outside of the submitted work. PCR reports personal fees from Abbvie, Gilead, Lilly, and Roche; grants and personal fees from Novartis, UCB Pharma, Janssen, and Pfizer; and non-financial support from BMS, outside of the submitted work. PS reports honoraria from being a social media editor for @ACR_Journals, outside of the submitted work. ZSW reports grants from National Institutes of Health, BMS, and Sanofi; and personal fees from Viela Bio and MedPace, outside of the submitted work. JY reports personal fees from Pfizer and Eli Lilly, and grants and personal fees from Astra Zeneca, outside of the submitted work. ES is a Board Member of the Canadian Arthritis Patient Alliance, which is a patient-run, volunteer-based organisation whose activities are primarily supported by independent grants from pharmaceutical companies. All other authors declare no competing interests. Publisher Copyright: ¬© 2021 Elsevier LtdBackground: The impact and consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on people with rheumatic disease are unclear. We developed the COVID-19 Global Rheumatology Alliance Patient Experience Survey to assess the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on people with rheumatic disease worldwide. Methods: Survey questions were developed by key stakeholder groups and disseminated worldwide through social media, websites, and patient support organisations. Questions included demographics, rheumatic disease diagnosis, COVID-19 diagnosis, adoption of protective behaviours to mitigate COVID-19 exposure, medication access and changes, health-care access and communication with rheumatologists, and changes in employment or schooling. Adults age 18 years and older with inflammatory or autoimmune rheumatic diseases were eligible for inclusion. We included participants with and without a COVID-19 diagnosis. We excluded participants reporting only non-inflammatory rheumatic diseases such as fibromyalgia or osteoarthritis. Findings: 12 117 responses to the survey were received between April 3 and May 8, 2020, and of these, 10 407 respondents had included appropriate age data. We included complete responses from 9300 adults with rheumatic disease (mean age 46¬∑1 years; 8375 [90¬∑1%] women, 893 [9¬∑6%] men, and 32 [0¬∑3%] participants who identified as non-binary). 6273 (67¬∑5%) of respondents identified as White, 1565 (16¬∑8%) as Latin American, 198 (2¬∑1%) as Black, 190 (2¬∑0%) as Asian, and 42 (0¬∑5%) as Native American or Aboriginal or First Nation. The most common rheumatic disease diagnoses included rheumatoid arthritis (3636 [39¬∑1%] of 9300), systemic lupus erythematosus (2882 [31¬∑0%]), and Sj√∂gren's syndrome (1290 [13¬∑9%]). Most respondents (6921 [82¬∑0%] of 8441) continued their antirheumatic medications as prescribed. Almost all (9266 [99¬∑7%] of 9297) respondents adopted protective behaviours to limit SARS-CoV-2 exposure. A change in employment status occurred in 2524 (27¬∑1%) of 9300) of respondents, with a 13¬∑6% decrease in the number in full-time employment (from 4066 to 3514). Interpretation: People with rheumatic disease maintained therapy and followed public health advice to mitigate the risks of COVID-19. Substantial employment status changes occurred, with potential implications for health-care access, medication affordability, mental health, and rheumatic disease activity. Funding: American College of Rheumatology.publishersversionpublishe

    Is it really time to ditch the mask?

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    A first update on mapping the human genetic architecture of COVID-19

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    Matters arising from: Mapping the human genetic architecture of COVID-19 Original Article published on 08 July 2021 https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-021-03767-xThe COVID-19 pandemic continues to pose a major public health threat, especially in countries with low vaccination rates. To better understand the biological underpinnings of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 severity, we formed the COVID-19 Host Genetics Initiative1. Here we present a genome-wide association study meta-analysis of up to 125,584 cases and over 2.5‚ÄČmillion control individuals across 60 studies from 25 countries, adding 11 genome-wide significant loci compared with those previously identified2. Genes at new loci, including SFTPD, MUC5B and ACE2, reveal compelling insights regarding disease susceptibility and severity. Here we present meta-analyses bringing together 60 studies from 25 countries (Fig. 1 and Supplementary Table 1) for three COVID-19-related phenotypes: (1) individuals critically ill with COVID-19 on the basis of requiring respiratory support in hospital or who died as a consequence of the disease (9,376 cases, of which 3,197 are new in this data release, and 1,776,645 control individuals); (2) individuals with moderate or severe COVID-19 defined as those hospitalized due to symptoms associated with the infection (25,027 cases, 11,386 new and 2,836,272 control individuals); and (3) all cases with reported SARS-CoV-2 infection regardless of symptoms (125,584 cases, 76,022 new and 2,575,347 control individuals). Most studies have reported results before the roll out of the COVID-19 vaccination campaign. An overview of the study design is provided in Supplementary Fig. 1. We found a total of 23 genome-wide significant loci (P‚ÄČ<‚ÄČ5‚ÄČ√ó‚ÄČ10‚ąí8) of which 20 loci remain significant after correction for multiple testing (P‚ÄČ<‚ÄČ1.67‚ÄČ√ó‚ÄČ10‚ąí8) to account for the number of phenotypes examined (Fig. 2, Supplementary Fig. 2 and Supplementary Table 2). We compared the effects of these loci between the previous2 and current analysis and found that only one locus did not replicate (rs72711165). All of the other loci showed the expected increase in statistical significance (Supplementary Fig. 3).Peer ReviewedBarcelona Supercomputing Center (BSC) authors: Marta Guindo-Martinez, David Torrents, Josep Maria MercaderPostprint (author's final draft

    Pandemics move faster than funders

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    A proteomic survival predictor for COVID-19 patients in intensive care

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    © 2022 Demichev et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/Global healthcare systems are challenged by the COVID-19 pandemic. There is a need to optimize allocation of treatment and resources in intensive care, as clinically established risk assessments such as SOFA and APACHE II scores show only limited performance for predicting the survival of severely ill COVID-19 patients. Additional tools are also needed to monitor treatment, including experimental therapies in clinical trials. Comprehensively capturing human physiology, we speculated that proteomics in combination with new data-driven analysis strategies could produce a new generation of prognostic discriminators. We studied two independent cohorts of patients with severe COVID-19 who required intensive care and invasive mechanical ventilation. SOFA score, Charlson comorbidity index, and APACHE II score showed limited performance in predicting the COVID-19 outcome. Instead, the quantification of 321 plasma protein groups at 349 timepoints in 50 critically ill patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation revealed 14 proteins that showed trajectories different between survivors and non-survivors. A predictor trained on proteomic measurements obtained at the first time point at maximum treatment level (i.e. WHO grade 7), which was weeks before the outcome, achieved accurate classification of survivors (AUROC 0.81). We tested the established predictor on an independent validation cohort (AUROC 1.0). The majority of proteins with high relevance in the prediction model belong to the coagulation system and complement cascade. Our study demonstrates that plasma proteomics can give rise to prognostic predictors substantially outperforming current prognostic markers in intensive care.Peer reviewedFinal Published versio

    The Your COVID-19 risk assessment tool and the accompanying open access data and materials repositories

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    In March 2020, the Your COVID-19 Risk tool was developed in response to the global spread of SARS-CoV-2. The tool is an online resource based on key behavioural evidence-based risk factors related to contracting and spreading SARS-CoV-2. This article describes the development of the tool, the produced resources, the associated open repository, and initial results. This tool was developed by a multidisciplinary research team consisting of more than 150 international experts. This project leverages knowledge obtained in behavioural science, aiming to promote behaviour change by assessing risk and supporting individuals completing the assessment tool to protect themselves and others from infection. To enable iterative improvements of the tool, tool users can optionally answer questions about behavioural determinants. The data and results are openly shared to support governments and health agencies developing behaviour change interventions. Over 60 000 users in more than 150 countries have assessed their risk and provided data.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    A blood atlas of COVID-19 defines hallmarks of disease severity and specificity.

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    Treatment of severe COVID-19 is currently limited by clinical heterogeneity and incomplete description of specific immune biomarkers. We present here a comprehensive multi-omic blood atlas for patients with varying COVID-19 severity in an integrated comparison with influenza and sepsis patients versus healthy volunteers. We identify immune signatures and correlates of host response. Hallmarks of disease severity involved cells, their inflammatory mediators and networks, including progenitor cells and specific myeloid and lymphocyte subsets, features of the immune repertoire, acute phase response, metabolism, and coagulation. Persisting immune activation involving AP-1/p38MAPK was a specific feature of COVID-19. The plasma proteome enabled sub-phenotyping into patient clusters, predictive of severity and outcome. Systems-based integrative analyses including tensor and matrix decomposition of all modalities revealed feature groupings linked with severity and specificity compared to influenza and sepsis. Our approach and blood atlas will support future drug development, clinical trial design, and personalized medicine approaches for COVID-19
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