941 research outputs found

    Cln5 represents a new type of cysteine-basedS-depalmitoylase linked to neurodegeneration

    Get PDF
    Genetic CLN5 variants are associated with childhood neurodegeneration and Alzheimer’s disease; however, the molecular function of ceroid lipofuscinosis neuronal protein 5 (Cln5) is unknown. We solved the Cln5 crystal structure and identified a region homologous to the catalytic domain of members of the N1pC/P60 superfamily of papain-like enzymes. However, we observed no protease activity for Cln5; and instead, we discovered that Cln5 and structurally related PPPDE1 and PPPDE2 have efficient cysteine palmitoyl thioesterase (S-depalmitoylation) activity using fluorescent substrates. Mutational analysis revealed that the predicted catalytic residues histidine-166 and cysteine-280 are critical for Cln5 thioesterase activity, uncovering a new cysteine-based catalytic mechanism for S-depalmitoylation enzymes. Last, we found that Cln5-deficient neuronal progenitor cells showed reduced thioesterase activity, confirming live cell function of Cln5 in setting S-depalmitoylation levels. Our results provide new insight into the function of Cln5, emphasize the importance of S-depalmitoylation in neuronal homeostasis, and disclose a new, unexpected enzymatic function for the N1pC/P60 superfamily of proteins

    Cln5 represents a new type of cysteine-based S-depalmitoylase linked to neurodegeneration

    Full text link
    Genetic CLN5 variants are associated with childhood neurodegeneration and Alzheimer’s disease; however, the molecular function of ceroid lipofuscinosis neuronal protein 5 (Cln5) is unknown. We solved the Cln5 crystal structure and identified a region homologous to the catalytic domain of members of the N1pC/P60 superfamily of papain-like enzymes. However, we observed no protease activity for Cln5; and instead, we discovered that Cln5 and structurally related PPPDE1 and PPPDE2 have efficient cysteine palmitoyl thioesterase (S-depalmitoylation) activity using fluorescent substrates. Mutational analysis revealed that the predicted catalytic residues histidine-166 and cysteine-280 are critical for Cln5 thioesterase activity, uncovering a new cysteine-based catalytic mechanism for S-depalmitoylation enzymes. Last, we found that Cln5-deficient neuronal progenitor cells showed reduced thioesterase activity, confirming live cell function of Cln5 in setting S-depalmitoylation levels. Our results provide new insight into the function of Cln5, emphasize the importance of S-depalmitoylation in neuronal homeostasis, and disclose a new, unexpected enzymatic function for the N1pC/P60 superfamily of proteins

    Lysosomal Proteomics Links Disturbances in Lipid Homeostasis and Sphingolipid Metabolism to CLN5 Disease

    Get PDF
    CLN5 disease (MIM: 256731) represents a rare late-infantile form of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL), caused by mutations in the CLN5 gene that encodes the CLN5 protein (CLN5p), whose physiological roles stay unanswered. No cure is currently available for CLN5 patients and the opportunities for therapies are lagging. The role of lysosomes in the neuro-pathophysiology of CLN5 disease represents an important topic since lysosomal proteins are directly involved in the primary mechanisms of neuronal injury occurring in various NCL forms. We developed and implemented a lysosome-focused, label-free quantitative proteomics approach, followed by functional validations in both CLN5-knockout neuronal-like cell lines and Cln5−/− mice, to unravel affected pathways and modifying factors involved in this disease scenario. Our results revealed a key role of CLN5p in lipid homeostasis and sphingolipid metabolism and highlighted mutual NCL biomarkers scored with high lysosomal confidence. A newly generated cln5 knockdown zebrafish model recapitulated most of the pathological features seen in NCL disease. To translate the findings from in-vitro and preclinical models to patients, we evaluated whether two FDA-approved drugs promoting autophagy via TFEB activation or inhibition of the glucosylceramide synthase could modulate in-vitro ROS and lipid overproduction, as well as alter the locomotor phenotype in zebrafish. In summary, our data advance the general understanding of disease mechanisms and modifying factors in CLN5 disease, which are recurring in other NCL forms, also stimulating new pharmacological treatments

    Lysosomal Proteomics Links Disturbances in Lipid Homeostasis and Sphingolipid Metabolism to CLN5 Disease

    Get PDF
    CLN5 disease (MIM: 256731) represents a rare late-infantile form of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL), caused by mutations in the CLN5 gene that encodes the CLN5 protein (CLN5p), whose physiological roles stay unanswered. No cure is currently available for CLN5 patients and the opportunities for therapies are lagging. The role of lysosomes in the neuro-pathophysiology of CLN5 disease represents an important topic since lysosomal proteins are directly involved in the primary mechanisms of neuronal injury occurring in various NCL forms. We developed and implemented a lysosome-focused, label-free quantitative proteomics approach, followed by functional validations in both CLN5-knockout neuronal-like cell lines and Cln5−/− mice, to unravel affected pathways and modifying factors involved in this disease scenario. Our results revealed a key role of CLN5p in lipid homeostasis and sphingolipid metabolism and highlighted mutual NCL biomarkers scored with high lysosomal confidence. A newly generated cln5 knockdown zebrafish model recapitulated most of the pathological features seen in NCL disease. To translate the findings from in-vitro and preclinical models to patients, we evaluated whether two FDA-approved drugs promoting autophagy via TFEB activation or inhibition of the glucosylceramide synthase could modulate in-vitro ROS and lipid overproduction, as well as alter the locomotor phenotype in zebrafish. In summary, our data advance the general understanding of disease mechanisms and modifying factors in CLN5 disease, which are recurring in other NCL forms, also stimulating new pharmacological treatments.Peer reviewe

    Lysosomal Proteomics Links Disturbances in Lipid Homeostasis and Sphingolipid Metabolism to CLN5 Disease

    Get PDF
    CLN5 disease (MIM: 256731) represents a rare late-infantile form of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL), caused by mutations in the CLN5 gene that encodes the CLN5 protein (CLN5p), whose physiological roles stay unanswered. No cure is currently available for CLN5 patients and the opportunities for therapies are lagging. The role of lysosomes in the neuro-pathophysiology of CLN5 disease represents an important topic since lysosomal proteins are directly involved in the primary mechanisms of neuronal injury occurring in various NCL forms. We developed and implemented a lysosome-focused, label-free quantitative proteomics approach, followed by functional validations in both CLN5-knockout neuronal-like cell lines and Cln5−/− mice, to unravel affected pathways and modifying factors involved in this disease scenario. Our results revealed a key role of CLN5p in lipid homeostasis and sphingolipid metabolism and highlighted mutual NCL biomarkers scored with high lysosomal confidence. A newly generated cln5 knockdown zebrafish model recapitulated most of the pathological features seen in NCL disease. To translate the findings from in-vitro and preclinical models to patients, we evaluated whether two FDA-approved drugs promoting autophagy via TFEB activation or inhibition of the glucosylceramide synthase could modulate in-vitro ROS and lipid overproduction, as well as alter the locomotor phenotype in zebrafish. In summary, our data advance the general understanding of disease mechanisms and modifying factors in CLN5 disease, which are recurring in other NCL forms, also stimulating new pharmacological treatments

    Precision medicine for suicidality: from universality to subtypes and personalization

    Get PDF
    Suicide remains a clear, present and increasing public health problem, despite being a potentially preventable tragedy. Its incidence is particularly high in people with overt or un(der)diagnosed psychiatric disorders. Objective and precise identification of individuals at risk, ways of monitoring response to treatments and novel preventive therapeutics need to be discovered, employed and widely deployed. We sought to investigate whether blood gene expression biomarkers for suicide (that is, a ‘liquid biopsy’ approach) can be identified that are more universal in nature, working across psychiatric diagnoses and genders, using larger cohorts than in previous studies. Such markers may reflect and/or be a proxy for the core biology of suicide. We were successful in this endeavor, using a comprehensive stepwise approach, leading to a wealth of findings. Steps 1, 2 and 3 were discovery, prioritization and validation for tracking suicidality, resulting in a Top Dozen list of candidate biomarkers comprising the top biomarkers from each step, as well as a larger list of 148 candidate biomarkers that survived Bonferroni correction in the validation step. Step 4 was testing the Top Dozen list and Bonferroni biomarker list for predictive ability for suicidal ideation (SI) and for future hospitalizations for suicidality in independent cohorts, leading to the identification of completely novel predictive biomarkers (such as CLN5 and AK2), as well as reinforcement of ours and others previous findings in the field (such as SLC4A4 and SKA2). Additionally, we examined whether subtypes of suicidality can be identified based on mental state at the time of high SI and identified four potential subtypes: high anxiety, low mood, combined and non-affective (psychotic). Such subtypes may delineate groups of individuals that are more homogenous in terms of suicidality biology and behavior. We also studied a more personalized approach, by psychiatric diagnosis and gender, with a focus on bipolar males, the highest risk group. Such a personalized approach may be more sensitive to gender differences and to the impact of psychiatric co-morbidities and medications. We compared testing the universal biomarkers in everybody versus testing by subtypes versus personalized by gender and diagnosis, and show that the subtype and personalized approaches permit enhanced precision of predictions for different universal biomarkers. In particular, LHFP appears to be a strong predictor for suicidality in males with depression. We also directly examined whether biomarkers discovered using male bipolars only are better predictors in a male bipolar independent cohort than universal biomarkers and show evidence for a possible advantage of personalization. We identified completely novel biomarkers (such as SPTBN1 and C7orf73), and reinforced previously known biomarkers (such as PTEN and SAT1). For diagnostic ability testing purposes, we also examined as predictors phenotypic measures as apps (for suicide risk (CFI-S, Convergent Functional Information for Suicidality) and for anxiety and mood (SASS, Simplified Affective State Scale)) by themselves, as well as in combination with the top biomarkers (the combination being our a priori primary endpoint), to provide context and enhance precision of predictions. We obtained area under the curves of 90% for SI and 77% for future hospitalizations in independent cohorts. Step 5 was to look for mechanistic understanding, starting with examining evidence for the Top Dozen and Bonferroni biomarkers for involvement in other psychiatric and non-psychiatric disorders, as a mechanism for biological predisposition and vulnerability. The biomarkers we identified also provide a window towards understanding the biology of suicide, implicating biological pathways related to neurogenesis, programmed cell death and insulin signaling from the universal biomarkers, as well as mTOR signaling from the male bipolar biomarkers. In particular, HTR2A increase coupled with ARRB1 and GSK3B decreases in expression in suicidality may provide a synergistic mechanistical corrective target, as do SLC4A4 increase coupled with AHCYL1 and AHCYL2 decrease. Step 6 was to move beyond diagnostics and mechanistical risk assessment, towards providing a foundation for personalized therapeutics. Items scored positive in the CFI-S and subtypes identified by SASS in different individuals provide targets for personalized (psycho)therapy. Some individual biomarkers are targets of existing drugs used to treat mood disorders and suicidality (lithium, clozapine and omega-3 fatty acids), providing a means toward pharmacogenomics stratification of patients and monitoring of response to treatment. Such biomarkers merit evaluation in clinical trials. Bioinformatics drug repurposing analyses with the gene expression biosignatures of the Top Dozen and Bonferroni-validated universal biomarkers identified novel potential therapeutics for suicidality, such as ebselen (a lithium mimetic), piracetam (a nootropic), chlorogenic acid (a polyphenol) and metformin (an antidiabetic and possible longevity promoting drug). Finally, based on the totality of our data and of the evidence in the field to date, a convergent functional evidence score prioritizing biomarkers that have all around evidence (track suicidality, predict it, are reflective of biological predisposition and are potential drug targets) brought to the fore APOE and IL6 from among the universal biomarkers, suggesting an inflammatory/accelerated aging component that may be a targetable common denominator

    The Chihuahua dog: A new animal model for neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis CLN7 disease?

    Get PDF
    Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are a group of incurable lysosomal storage disorders characterized by neurodegeneration and accumulation of lipopigments mainly within the neurons. We studied two littermate Chihuahua dogs presenting with progressive signs of blindness, ataxia, pacing, and cognitive impairment from 1 year of age. Because of worsening of clinical signs, both dogs were euthanized at about 2 years of age. Postmortem examination revealed marked accumulation of autofluorescent intracellular inclusions within the brain, characteristic of NCL. Whole-genome sequencing was performed on one of the affected dogs. After sequence alignment and variant calling against the canine reference genome, variants were identified in the coding region or splicing regions of four previously known NCL genes (CLN6, ARSG, CLN2 [=TPP1], and CLN7 [=MFSD8]). Subsequent segregation analysis within the family (two affected dogs, both parents, and three relatives) identified MFSD8:p.Phe282Leufs13*, which had previously been identified in one Chinese crested dog with no available ancestries, as the causal mutation. Because of the similarities of the clinical signs and histopathological changes with the human form of the disease, we propose that the Chihuahua dog could be a good animal model of CLN7 disease

    Brain imaging in Kufs disease type B. case reports

    Get PDF
    The clinical traits of Kufs disease (KD) type B (CLN13), an adult-onset neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL), are well established according to the neurological features of the cases reported with mutations in CTSF. The neuroradiological characteristics of this uncommon disease have not yet been outlined

    Loss of CLN7 results in depletion of soluble lysosomal proteins and impaired mTOR reactivation

    Get PDF
    Defects in the MFSD8 gene encoding the lysosomal membrane protein CLN7 lead to CLN7 disease, a neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder belonging to the group of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs). Here we have performed a SILAC-based quantitative analysis of the lysosomal proteome using Cln7-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from a Cln7 knockout (ko) mouse model. From 3335 different proteins identified, we detected 56 soluble lysosomal proteins and 29 highly abundant lysosomal membrane proteins. Quantification revealed that the amounts of 12 different soluble lysosomal proteins were significantly reduced in Cln7 ko MEFs compared with wild type controls. One of the most significantly depleted lysosomal proteins was Cln5 protein that underlies another distinct NCL disorder. Expression analyses showed that the mRNA expression, biosynthesis, intracellular sorting and proteolytic processing of Cln5 were not affected, whereas the depletion of mature Cln5 protein was due to increased proteolytic degradation by cysteine proteases in Cln7 ko lysosomes. Considering the similar phenotypes of CLN5 and CLN7 patients, our data suggest that depletion of CLN5 may play an important part in the pathogenesis of CLN7 disease. In addition, we found a defect in the ability of Cln7 ko MEFs to adapt to starvation conditions as shown by impaired mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 reactivation, reduced autolysosome tubulation and increased perinuclear accumulation of autolysosomes compared to controls. In summary, depletion of multiple soluble lysosomal proteins suggest a critical role of CLN7 for lysosomal function, which may contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of CLN7 disease

    Molecular and Cell Biology of Infantile (CLN1) and variant Late Infantile (CLN5) Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses

    Get PDF
    Myös verkossa; väitöskirja, ohj. Leena Peltonen-Paloti
    • …
    corecore