632 research outputs found

    First report and molecular characterization of cases of natural Taylorella asinigenitalis infection in three donkey breeds in Spain

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    Taylorella asinigenitalis is a non-pathogenic bacteria isolated from the genital tract of donkeys but also a cause of metritis and vaginal discharge in mares. It is closely related to Taylorella equigenitalis, the cause of Contagious Equine Metritis (CEM) in horses, and has been present in different countries in Europe since 1995. Up to date, there are no studies on the prevalence of T. asinigenitalis in the equine or asinine populations in Spain; this is the first report of the presence of T. asinigenitalis in donkeys (Equus asinus) from different breeds in three regions of Spain. A total of 106 healthy animals of three different Spanish donkey breeds: Andaluza (26), Majorera (12) and Zamorano-Leonés (68) were sampled between June and July 2017 and a real-time PCR was used to detect T. asinigenitalis in all samples. A total of 39/221 (17,65 %) samples from 22/106 (20,75 %) animals yielded a positive result and were further characterized by MLST; an allelic profile and Sequence Type (ST) could be assigned to 11 of the 39 positive samples, resulting in four novel STs and no clonal complexes within the PubMLST database. There were statistically significant differences in the percentage of positive animals by breed and sex, and also in the variability of STs between farms. Breeding management would have an influence on the percentage of positives in a farm; artificial insemination and separating jacks from jennies should be implemented. Further studies to detect and characterize T. asinigenitalis in donkeys and horses from Spain would be required to obtain a broader epidemiological picture in this country

    Клініко-фармакологічна ефективність Фіт-О-Метрин препарату в складі схеми лікування корів із післяродовим метритом

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    У статті представлено дані апробації нового препарату Фіт-ОМетрин для прискорення одужання корів від післяродового метриту. Дослід був спрямований на спостереження за виведенням ексудату; відновленням та посиленням скорочувальної функції й регенеративних процесів у матці після застосування препарату. Часто під час отелення створюються сприятливі умови для захворювання матки. Однак, здатністю до відновлення природного стану матки у післяродовий період здебільшого визначається репродуктивна функція тварин. Зокрема, у дослідному господарстві АгроЦвіт 2012 (Житомирська область) клінічним і лабораторним обстеженням корів у післяотельний період було визначено, що поширеність метритів охоплює до 42 % поголів’я. Найбільший відсоток хворих корів мали гнійну форму хвороби (53,1 %), катарально-гнійний метрит реєстрували у 30,4 %, катаральний – у 16,5 %. Власними дослідженнями було встановлено, що експериментальний препарат Фіт-О-Метрин, виготовлений на основі рослинної сировини (екстракту чебрецю, материнки та барбарису звичайного) має ефективність за внутрішньоматкового введення в складі протоколу лікування метриту великої рогатої худоби. В клінічному тесті було задіяно 13 хворих корів, яким Фіт-О-Метрин застосовували за трьома різними схемами. Ще 5 тварин з метритом увійшли до групи контролю, котрих лікували за стандартним для господарства протоколом. Незалежно від обраної схеми дозування і застосування препарату, повне припинення виділення запального ексудату з піхви корів реєстрували на 6–7-му добу (у групі контролю – на 9-ту добу). Нормалізацію тонусу і анатомічного положення матки, повне закриття цервікального каналу відзначали на 8–11-ту добу (у групі контролю – на 12-ту добу). Вважаємо, найбільш оптимальною схемою застосування фітопрепарату від післяродового гнійного метриту є 2 щодобових введення, 2 доби перерва, 2 щодобових введення, 2 доби перерва, заключне введення. Разова доза Фіт-О-Метрин препарату – 30 мл

    La vitamina D en la salud y en las patologías del bovino: un enfoque no clásico

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      Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin of relevance for dairy cattle, which is not only involved in calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism but has also been associated with the modulation of the immune system and a lower incidence of certain bovine pathologies. The latest actions of the secosteroid, referred to as non-classical, are of more recent discovery and are still under study. The objective of this bibliographic review was to present and analyse the roles of vitamin D and its metabolites in bovine health and pathologies. A section on immunomodulatory and antibacterial effects in the bovine mammary gland was included, where the vitamin and its precursors are known to decrease bacterial invasion and regulate the expression of components of the innate immune response. For purposes of contextualization, the metabolism of vitamin D, the source and quantification of its metabolites in bovine milk and plasma, its role in nutrition and disease prevention, as well as toxicity are also described. In conclusion, the study of the non-classical effects of these steroids provides evidence that can be used to design therapies with natural compounds to be applied in food-producing animals.La vitamina D es una vitamina liposoluble de relevancia para el ganado lechero, que no solo interviene en la homeostasis del calcio y el metabolismo óseo, sino que además ha sido asociada a la modulación del sistema inmunológico y a la menor incidencia de ciertas patologías del bovino. Las últimas acciones del secoesteroide, referidas como no clásicas, son de más reciente descubrimiento y continúan en estudio. El objetivo de esta revisión bibliográfica fue presentar y analizar los roles de la vitamina D y sus metabolitos en la salud y en las patologías del bovino. Se incluyó una sección sobre los efectos inmunomoduladores y antibacterianos en la glándula mamaria bovina, donde se conoce que la vitamina y sus precursores disminuyen la invasión bacteriana y regulan la expre-sión de componentes de la respuesta inmunitaria innata. A los fines de contextualizar, también se describe el metabolismo de la vitamina D, la fuente y cuantificación de sus metabolitos en leche y plasma de bovinos, su papel en la nutrición y en la prevención de enfermedades, así como la toxicidad. En conclusión, el estudio de los efectos no clásicos de estos esteroides aporta evidencias que pueden ser utilizadas para diseñar terapias con compuestos naturales para ser aplicadas en animales productores de alimentos

    Uterine fluid extracellular vesicles proteome Is altered during the estrous cycle

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    Uterine environment is tightly and finely regulated via various signaling pathways mediated through endocrine, exocrine, autocrine, juxtacrine, and paracrine mechanisms. In utero signaling processes are paramount for normal and abnormal physiology which involves cell to cell, cells to gametes, cells to embryo, and even inter-kingdom communications due to presence of uterine microbiota. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) in the uterine fluid (UF) and their cargo components are known to be mediators of in utero signaling and communications. Interestingly, the changes in UF-EV proteome during the bovine estrous cycle and the effects of these differentially enriched proteins on embryo development are yet to be fully discovered. In this study, shotgun quantitative proteomics–based mass spectrometry was employed to compare UF-EV proteomes at day 0, 7, and 16 of the estrous cycle to understand the estrous cycle–dependent dynamics. Furthermore, different phase UF-EVs were supplemented in embryo cultures to evaluate their impact on embryo development. One hundred fifty-nine UF-EV proteins were differentially enriched at different time points indicating the UF-EV proteome is cycle-dependent. Overall, many identified pathways are important for normal uterine functions, early embryo development, and its nutritional needs, such as antioxidant activity, cell morphology and cycle, cellular homeostasis, cell adhesion, and carbohydrate metabolic process. Furthermore, the luteal phase UF-EVs supplementation increased in vitro blastocyst rates from 25.0 ± 5.9% to 41.0 ± 4.0% (p ≤ 0.05). Our findings highlight the importance of bovine UF-EV in uterine communications throughout the estrous cycle. Interestingly, comparison of hormone-synchronized EV proteomes to natural cycle UF-EVs indicated shift of signaling. Finally, UF-EVs can be used to improve embryo production in vitro

    Bakteriophagen in Medizin, Land- und Lebensmittelwirtschaft – Anwendungsperspektiven, Innovations- und Regulierungsfragen. Innovationsanalyse

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    Angesichts der Probleme und Herausforderungen für Gesundheit von Mensch, Tier und Umwelt (One Health), insbesondere durch Antibiotikaresistenzen und politischer Initiativen auf EU-Ebene für mehr Nachhaltigkeit in der Landwirtschaft wurde das TAB auf Initiative der Ausschüsse für Ernährung und Landwirtschaft, für Gesundheit und für Bildung, Forschung und Technikfolgenabschätzung mit einer Untersuchung des Innovationspotenzials sowie von möglichen Sicherheits- und Regulierungsfragen des Einsatzes von Bakteriophagen beauftragt. Der TAB-Arbeitsbericht Nr. 206 gibt einen umfassenden Überblick über den Stand der Entwicklung sowie die Einsatzmöglichkeiten von Bakteriophagen in Medizin, Landwirtschaft und Lebensmittelwirtschaft und analysiert die unterschiedlichen regulatorischen Rahmenbedingungen. Daraus werden wissenschaftlich-technische, wirtschaftliche, innovationspolitische und rechtliche Herausforderungen und Handlungsoptionen zur Förderung und Weiterentwicklung der Phagennutzung abgeleitet und detailliert beschrieben. Damit bietet der TAB Bericht eine aktuelle und fundierte Informationsgrundlage zu diesem forschungs-, gesundheits-, agrar- und umweltpolitisch wichtigen Themenfeld

    Utilização de um medidor de cálcio ionizado numa vacaria de produção de leite para maneio da hipocalcemia subclínica

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    Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária, área científica de ClínicaO aumento das exigências de cálcio no periparto podem levar a uma diminuição da concentração de cálcio abaixo de um valor crítico, se não houver uma adaptação metabólica eficaz, podendo ocorrer hipocalcemia clínica ou subclínica. Este estudo avaliou a calcemia no momento do parto com recurso a um medidor de cálcio ionizado (iCa) portátil (Blood iCa Laqua Twin®, Horiba), com o intuito de identificar a prevalência de hipocalcemia subclínica (HSC), bem como os fatores de risco e consequências que lhe estão associados. O estudo incluiu 550 vacas da raça Holstein, às quais foi colhido sangue entre 0 e 16 horas após o parto. Vacas com iCa ≤ 0,9 mmol/L e sem sinais clínicos de hipocalcemia foram diagnosticadas com HSC. Das 550 vacas, 33,64% (185/550) apresentaram HSC. Os fatores de risco investigados foram: índice médio de temperatura e humidade, densidade animal e ingestão de matéria seca no parque pré-parto, produção de leite na lactação anterior, duração do período seco, volume de colostro, parto gemelar e paridade (1ª vs. ≥2ª). Os dados relativos à ocorrência de doenças nos primeiros 30 dias em leite (retenção de membranas fetais, metrite, deslocamento de abomaso, hipercetonémia), assim como os dados reprodutivos (intervalo parto-conceção, taxa de conceção à primeira inseminação artificial (IA)), taxa de refugo e produção aos 305 dias em leite (DEL) foram obtidos a partir do software de gestão da exploração. Comparadas com as primíparas, as vacas multíparas apresentaram uma probabilidade 5,048 vezes superior de ocorrência de HSC (p<0,0001). Para cada aumento de 1 litro (L) no volume de colostro produzido, a probabilidade de ocorrência de HSC foi 1,09 vezes superior (p=0,0008), e para cada aumento de uma unidade no número de vacas no parque pré-parto, houve uma diminuição na probabilidade de ocorrência de HSC de 0,927 vezes (p<0,0001). Os restantes fatores de risco investigados não foram associados à ocorrência de HSC. A hipocalcemia subclínica foi associada à hipercetonémia, apresentando vacas com HSC, um risco acrescido para hipercetonémia de 1,609 (p=0,0242). Além disso, a HSC foi associada à produção aos 305 DEL em vacas multíparas (p<0,0001), com 13.868L ou 12.825L produzidos por vacas com HSC ou saudáveis, respetivamente, sugerindo, que uma diminuição na concentração de iCa no sangue no dia do parto, está associada a uma maior produção de leite. Não foi encontrada uma associação entre HSC e desempenho reprodutivo. Este trabalho reforça a necessidade de tomar precauções ao classificar a HSC nas 16 horas após o parto, mesmo quando se avalia a concentração de iCa. Sugere-se realizar uma medição posterior de iCa, entre o 2º e 4º DEL, para melhorar o diagnóstico de hipocalcemia subclínica nas exploraçõesABSTRACT - Use of an ionised calcium meter in a dairy farm for the management of subclinical hypocalcemia - Calcium requirements increase considerably around calving. Blood calcium concentrations may drop below a critical value and clinical or subclinical hypocalcemia (SCH) may occur if metabolic adaptations do not take place soon enough. This study investigated the use of a cow-side ionised calcium (iCa) meter to identify cows with SCH at calving, as well as risk factors and performance outcomes associated with SCH. This study took place on a dairy farm and included 550 Holstein dairy cows. Blood was sampled within 16h of calving and analysed for iCa with a cow-side meter (Blood iCa Laqua Twin®, Horiba). Cows with iCa ≤ 0.9 mmol/L and without clinical signs of clinical hypocalcemia were classified as having SCH. From the 550 cows, 33.64% (185/550) had SCH. Risk factors investigated were average temperature humidity index, stocking density in the precalving area and dry matter intake (DMI) in the close-up pen (last 21 d prepartum), average daily milk yield in the previous lactation, dry period length, colostrum volume, twin pregnancy, and parity (1st vs. ≥2nd). Data regarding disease events in the first 30 days in milk (DIM) (retained placenta, metritis, displaced abomasum, hyperketonemia), as well as data regarding reproductive performance (calvingconception interval, conception to first AI) culling, and milk yield at 305 DIM were retrieved from the farm’s management software. Compared to primiparous, multiparous cows had an odds ratio (OR) of 5,048 for the occurrence of SCH (p<0,0001). For each litre (L) increase in colostrum volume there was an OR of 1.09 (p=0,0008), and surprisingly, for each unit increase in the number of cows in the prepartum pen there was an OR of 0.927 (p<0.0001). All other risk factors investigated were not associated with SCH. Overall, SCH was associated with hyperketonemia, with SCH cows having an OR for hyperketonemia of 1,609 compared to normocalcemic cows. Furthermore, a diagnosis of SCH was also associated with higher milk yield at 305 DIM for multiparous cows (p<0.0001), with 13.868 and 12.825 L produced by SCH and healthy cows, respectively, suggesting that a transient decrease in blood iCa concentration in the immediate postpartum period is associated with higher milk production. An association between SCH and reproductive outcomes was not detected. This work reinforces that caution must be taken when classifying SCH evaluated within 16 h of calving, even when using iCa. A later measurement of iCa, between 2 and 4 DIM, is suggested to improve SCH diagnosis on farmsN/

    Preliminary efficacy, feasibility and safety of intra-umbilical oxytocin to reduce the time to placental delivery at caesarean section: An exploratory randomized trial

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    Background: Delayed placental separation either after vaginal birth or caesarean birth is an important cause of postpartum haemorrhage, among other causes such as uterine atony. Intra-umbilical oxytocin has been shown to reduce the time to placental delivery after vaginal birth. However, the efficacy of intra-umbilical oxytocin to reduce the time to placental delivery following caesarean section birth is not known. Objectives: To explore the preliminary efficacy, feasibility and safety of intra-umbilical oxytocin to reduce the time to placental delivery at caesarean section. Methods: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, exploratory randomized clinical trial was conducted at a tertiary hospital in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. A total of 66 women undergoing elective caesarean section were enrolled in the study and randomized into oxytocin group (n = 33) receiving an intra-umbilical infusion of 20 units of oxytocin in 30ml saline, and placebo group (n = 33) receiving an intra-umbilical infusion of 30ml saline. Data were analysed using Epi Info and RevMan software. Preliminary efficacy was assessed by examining the time elapsed from birth of the baby to complete delivery of the placenta; blood loss more than 500 ml; the need for manual removal of the placenta; and the completeness of the placenta. Feasibility was determined by observing the successful insertion of the catheter and injection of the solution. Safety was evaluated by investi-gating adverse effects of the procedure. Results: Four women (12%) in the placebo group had a delayed placental delivery compared to one (3%) in the oxytocin group. The mean time from birth to placental delivery was 159 (SD 61) seconds in the placebo group and 143 (SD 45) seconds in the oxytocin group. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups. Feasibility of the procedure was con-firmed by successful insertion of the catheter and injection of the majority of the solution in all 66 cases. No adverse effects of the procedure were identified. Conclusion: Administration of intra-umbilical oxytocin is feasible, safe and has potential to reduce the time of placental delivery at caesarean section. Further studies involving larger sample sizes are justified

    Effect of chronic stress on the incidence of metabolic and infectious diseases in dairy cattle

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    Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária, na área científica de ClínicaHair cortisol has been used as a tool to assess chronic stress in dairy cows as it offers the advantage of being non-invasive, easy, and fast to collect and gives a retrospective view of the animal’s stress over months. The aim of this study was to evaluate if hair cortisol concentrations of dairy cows in the dry period could be used as a predictor of metabolic or infectious diseases during the first month post calving. Furthermore, we aimed to investigate the relation between hair cortisol concentration in the dairy cows and their calf’s morbidity during the first month of life. Other objectives were to study if body condition score (BCS), parity, flight distance and previous lactations’ milk production affects the hair cortisol levels and/or have an impact in the development of disease in dairy cows. Hair from the tail switch was clipped once from cows in the dry period on five different farms, and on the same day the flight distance was measured and BCS was assessed for each cow. After pair matching diseased and healthy cows considering number of lactations, previous 305-day milk yield and BCS, 18 healthy and 19 diseased cows were included in the analysis. We found no significant differences in any of the parameters analysed between healthy and diseased cows. We found that higher hair cortisol levels in cows from our study were associated with healthier calves (p=0.039). Based on this data, hair cortisol concentration was not considered a useful indicator to differentiate between healthy cows and cows that developed a metabolic or infectious disease, however, higher hair cortisol levels in dairy cows were associated with better health outcomes for their calvesRESUMO - Efeito do stress crónico na incidência de doenças metabólicas e infecciosas em vacas leiteiras - O cortisol no pelo tem sido usado como uma ferramenta de diagnóstico para avaliar o stress crónico em vacas leiteiras, uma vez que oferece como vantagens ser não invasivo, fácil e rápido de colher e oferece uma visão retrospetiva de stress do animal ao longo de um período de meses. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar se a concentração de cortisol no pelo de vacas leiteiras no período seco é um preditor de doenças metabólicas ou infeciosas no primeiro mês pós-parto. Para além disso, temos como objetivos investigar a relação entre a concentração de cortisol no pelo de vacas leiteiras e a morbilidade dos seus vitelos durante o primeiro mês de vida. Outros objetivos foram estudar se a condição corporal, número de lactações, distância de fuga e produção leiteira aos 305 dias afetam os níveis de cortisol no pelo e/ou têm impacto no desenvolvimento de doença em vacas leiteiras. O pelo da cauda foi cortado a vacas do período seco em cinco explorações diferentes, no mesmo dia a distância de fuga foi medida e a condição corporal de cada animal foi avaliada. Após emparelhamento de vacas doentes e saudáveis tendo em consideração o número de lactações, produção leiteiras aos 305 dias e condição corporal, 18 vacas saudáveis e dezanove doentes foram incluídas na análise. Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre vacas saudáveis e doentes. Níveis elevados de cortisol no pelo das vacas do nosso estudo foram associados a vitelos mais saudáveis (p=0,039). Com base nestes dados, podemos concluir que a concentração de cortisol no pelo não foi um indicador útil para diferenciar o desenvolvimento de uma doença metabólica ou infeciosa em vacas leiteiras, no entanto, níveis de cortisol elevados no pelo em vacas leiteiras estão associados a melhores índices de saúde nos seus vitelosN/

    Evidence based decisions to improve dairy herd fertility

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    Metataxonomic Analysis of the Uterine Microbiota Associated with Low Fertility in Dairy Cows Using Endometrial Tissues Prior to First Artificial Insemination

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    The deterioration in reproductive performance in association with low fertility leads to significant economic losses on dairy farms. The uterine microbiota has begun to attract attention as a possible cause of unexplained low fertility. We analyzed the uterine microbiota associated with fertility by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing in dairy cows. First, the alpha (Chao1 and Shannon) and beta (unweighted and weighted UniFrac) diversities of 69 cows at four dairy farms that had passed the voluntary waiting period before the first artificial insemination (AI) were analyzed with respect to factors including farm, housing style, feeding management, parity, and AI frequency to conception. Significant differences were observed in the farm, housing style, and feeding management, except parity and AI frequency to conception. The other diversity metrics did not show significant differences in the tested factors. Similar results were obtained for the predicted functional profile. Next, the microbial diversity analysis of 31 cows at a single farm using weighted UniFrac distance matrices revealed a correlation with AI frequency to conception but not with parity. In correlation with AI frequency to conception, the predicted function profile appeared to be slightly modified and a single bacterial taxon, Arcobacter, was detected. The bacterial associations related to fertility were estimated. Considering these, the uterine microbiota in dairy cows can be varied depending on the farm management practices and may become one of the measures for low fertility
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