41,779 research outputs found

    Un río de nombres: La invención hidrográfica y cartográfica del Amazonas, 1498- 1640

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    Este tesis examina la configuraci√≥n del conocimiento cartogr√°fico e hidrogr√°fico del r√≠o que hoy conocemos como "Amazonas" entre 1498 y 1640. Durante este per√≠odo fundacional el r√≠o encarn√≥ m√ļltiples identidades y nomenclaturas‚ÄĒMar Dulce, R√≠o Grande, Mara√Ī√≥n, Orellana y, eventualmente, Amazonas. Este estudio plantea que esta ambivalencia fundacional de la Amazon√≠a fue el resultado del uso de diferentes convenciones espaciales para la definici√≥n cartogr√°fica e hidrogr√°fica de los r√≠os en un contexto de disputa imperial entre agentes de Espa√Īa, Portugal, Francia e Inglaterra por la colonizaci√≥n de los tr√≥picos sudamericanos, lo que result√≥ en la imposibilidad de nombrar un √ļnico ‚ÄúAmazonas‚ÄĚ durante el largo siglo XVI. Por ello, esta tesis sostiene que la cartograf√≠a y la hidrograf√≠a funcionaron no solo como instrumentos de conocimiento y representaci√≥n de la naturaleza sino tambi√©n como herramientas para colonizar el interior amaz√≥nico del Nuevo Mundo.This thesis examines the configuration of the cartographic and hydrographic knowledge of the river that we now know as "Amazonas" between 1498 and 1640. During this foundational period the river embodied multiple identities and nomenclatures ‚ÄĒ Mar Dulce, R√≠o Grande, Mara√Ī√≥n, Orellana and, eventually, Amazonas. This study proposes that this foundational ambivalence of the Amazon was the result of the use of different spatial conventions for the cartographic and hydrographic definition of rivers in a context of imperial dispute between agents of Spain, Portugal, France, and England for the colonization of the South American tropics, which resulted in the impossibility of naming a single normative "Amazon" during the long 16th century. Therefore, this thesis maintains that cartography and hydrography functioned not only as instruments of knowledge and representation of nature, but also as tools to colonize the Amazonian interior of the New World

    Multivalent Cartographic Accessibility: Tactile Maps for Collaborative Decision-Making

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    Conventional visual maps present significant accessibility challenges for blind or low vision users, leaving them with few or no options for interpreting spatial data. This need not be the case: tactile maps, designed to be read through touch, have been published for more than a century. But they have most often been categorized as a navigation tool, or mere ‚Äútactile graphics‚ÄĚ (i.e., not as expressly spatial documents). Tactile maps that allow their users to explore and synthesize thematic spatial data are rare, as are studies evaluating them. As our world continues to face existential threats that are spatial in nature‚ÄĒpandemics, supply chain disruptions, floods, etc.‚ÄĒmaps will continue to provide critical information in ways that other media are unable to match. In the absence of accessible thematic maps, blind people will not only be left out of the loop, but their capacity for contributing valuable input will be severely diminished. In response, I describe here a study that evaluates the potential of thematic tactile maps for providing blind users an accessible means of analyzing spatial data when working in collaboration with sighted partners. Findings indicate that while the maps did not prove to be useful tools on their own, they did facilitate collaboration between blind or low vision participants and sighted participants. This suggests that, with some refinements, similar maps could be feasibly distributed as a means for people with visual disabilities to meaningfully participate in an otherwise inaccessible process that requires the synthesis of thematic spatial information

    Assessment Protocol to Evaluate the Degree of Conservation of Habitats of Community Interest: A Case Study for the 5220* HCI in the Westernmost Localities of Europe

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    The westernmost European nucleus of the 5220* Habitat of Community Interest (HCI) is located in the province of M√°laga (Andalusia). In this area, the 5220* HCI is characterized by the presence of scrublands of Gymnosporia senegalensis subsp. europaea. This is a relict species in Europe, with inhabits only in the southeast of the Iberian Peninsula. The westernmost Iberian nuclei of the 5220* HCI are constituted by three isolated nuclei (M√°laga‚ÄďRinc√≥n de la Victoria; Torremolinos; and Pizarra). These nuclei have been only partially mapped. The objectives were: to map the 5220* HCI characterized by G. senegalensis subsp. europaea in detail; to evaluate its degree of conservation (DC); and to identify the chronosequences of the evolution of this habitat from 1957 to 2021, and its fragmentation. Our results have contributed to generating a 1:10,000 scale cartography of the habitat. In general, the DC obtained was from good to excellent. With an excellent DC value, one inland locality (Pizarra) was highlighted. However, the highest reduction in the value of DC was observed in the localities of Torremolinos and M√°laga‚ÄďRinc√≥n de la Victoria which, in addition, have reduced the area of occupancy (AOO) and are fragmented. It is important to note that some areas of M√°laga‚ÄďRinc√≥n de la Victoria reached excellent values of DC, indicating the need to carry out protection.This paper was supported by the project CEIJ-006- ‚ÄúEvaluaci√≥n del estado de conservaci√≥n del litoral mediterr√°neo terrestre en el sureste ib√©rico (M√°laga-Granada, Espa√Īa) mediante el uso de flora relevante, al√≥ctonas invasoras y h√°bitats 92/43UE. Propuesta de gesti√≥n‚ÄĚ of the Campus of International Global Excellence of the Sea. A. Picornell was supported by a postdoctoral grant financed by the Consejer√≠a de Transformaci√≥n Econ√≥mica, Industria, Conocimiento y Universidades (Junta de Andaluc√≠a, POSTDOC_21_00056). This publication has been also funded by the University of Malaga (‚ÄúI Plan Propio de Investigaci√≥n, Transferencia y Divulgaci√≥n Cient√≠fica de la Universidad de M√°laga‚ÄĚ). Partial funding for open access charge: Universidad de M√°lag

    A Visual Modeling Method for Spatiotemporal and Multidimensional Features in Epidemiological Analysis: Applied COVID-19 Aggregated Datasets

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    The visual modeling method enables flexible interactions with rich graphical depictions of data and supports the exploration of the complexities of epidemiological analysis. However, most epidemiology visualizations do not support the combined analysis of objective factors that might influence the transmission situation, resulting in a lack of quantitative and qualitative evidence. To address this issue, we have developed a portrait-based visual modeling method called +msRNAer. This method considers the spatiotemporal features of virus transmission patterns and the multidimensional features of objective risk factors in communities, enabling portrait-based exploration and comparison in epidemiological analysis. We applied +msRNAer to aggregate COVID-19-related datasets in New South Wales, Australia, which combined COVID-19 case number trends, geo-information, intervention events, and expert-supervised risk factors extracted from LGA-based censuses. We perfected the +msRNAer workflow with collaborative views and evaluated its feasibility, effectiveness, and usefulness through one user study and three subject-driven case studies. Positive feedback from experts indicates that +msRNAer provides a general understanding of analyzing comprehension that not only compares relationships between cases in time-varying and risk factors through portraits but also supports navigation in fundamental geographical, timeline, and other factor comparisons. By adopting interactions, experts discovered functional and practical implications for potential patterns of long-standing community factors against the vulnerability faced by the pandemic. Experts confirmed that +msRNAer is expected to deliver visual modeling benefits with spatiotemporal and multidimensional features in other epidemiological analysis scenarios

    Posthumanism and Home

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    Planet Earth is understood to be home for humans. Why, then, are those that consider themselves exemplary humans trying to leave it? This entry to the handbook assesses literature that examines how particular spaces have historically been determined as home for humans, how the idea of home defines what we think of as human and how this has produced the idea of who or what is less-than-human. On a journey from outer space to the kitchen table, via techniques of cartographic modelling, urban planning and house design the chapter examines the possibility of posthuman space and the techniques of thought that can destabilise the relationship between species ontologies and the idea of home

    Partisan Gerrymandering and The Right to Privacy

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    This paper argues that partisan gerrymanderers violate citizens’ right to privacy by using data containing sensitive information on citizens without a compelling state interest. It first details how partisan gerrymandering claims have been argued in Court in the past. Next, it discusses theories of the right to privacy, mainly exploring the tensions between James Madison’s writings on privacy and Warren and Brandeis’ famed The Right to Privacy. Then, I present originalist arguments for upholding the original meaning and principles of the right to privacy and the Fourth and Fourteenth Amendments before walking through case law related to privacy and technological advances. In conclusion, this paper holds that state legislatures violate the original meaning of the right to privacy, protected by the Fourth and Fourteenth Amendments, when they use anonymized data sets to partisan gerrymander. Resultingly, these data sets should only be accessed when a compelling state interest is identified and partisan bias is curbed

    edra 53: Bibliography

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    edra 53: Health in All Designhttps://digitalcommons.andrews.edu/edra-bibliographies/1042/thumbnail.jp

    Northern Powerhouses: the homes of the industrial elite, c.1780-1875

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    This thesis explores the world of the industrial elites of Manchester and Liverpool in the period c.1780-1875, through their houses. The homes of the industrial elites, namely merchants and manufacturers, were extremely important tangible communicators of wealth, taste, and comfort. Whilst status-building was closely connected to the house, this thesis argues that the industrial elites carved their own identities into their domestic spheres and that emulation was not solely linked with aspiration. The findings of this thesis are based around its three research aims regarding the changing location of houses in Manchester and Liverpool in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the appearance and use of houses, and the daily routines and involvement of the industrial elite in their domestic routines. An analysis of elite residential patterns in Manchester and Liverpool across the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries has created a more nuanced look at urban geographies of the region in this period. Though some residential patterns differed because of economic and political structure, a key finding has been that the process of suburbanisation in and around Manchester and Liverpool commenced earlier than previous scholarship has suggested. Suburbanisation among the elites began in the latter decades of the eighteenth century and into the early decades of the nineteenth century, with elite suburban communities being firmly established by the 1820s. This thesis discovered that despite socio-economic and political differences, the industrial elites of Manchester and Liverpool used their houses, gardens, and landed estates in very similar ways. This was a result of conformity which arose from emulation at both a community-based level and the emulation and aspiration of elite, gentrified lifestyle. Also, the merchants and manufacturers analysed within this work were involved in their home at every level of domesticity, from the construction of the house to the financial management of the household, although this latter theme was often a cooperative effort between spouses and family members, adding more to our understanding of gender, domesticity, and familial relations. Through detailed case studies and a combination of sources, the private lives of the industrial elites have been revaluated and redefined, including showing how their houses functions metaphorically and in reality

    La cartografía como estrategia para rescatar las pérdidas de identidad en el paisaje

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    [ES] Esta tesis doctoral se ha centrado en la cartograf√≠a como dispositivo discursivo para interpretar el espacio habitado. Por tanto, en esta direcci√≥n se ha profundizado en el estado de la identidad del paisaje local de la zona perif√©rica norte de la ciudad de Valencia, a trav√©s del trayecto de una de las ocho acequias hist√≥ricas de la ciudad, en concreto, la denominada Rascanya. De tal forma, este estudio del paisaje ha contemplado una parte pr√°ctica constituida por ocho cartograf√≠as formalizadas en aplicaciones interactivas, donde la reflexi√≥n se ha incentivado a trav√©s de la contraposici√≥n de datos y material del pasado con elementos contempor√°neos. En base a estas premisas, la exploraci√≥n se ha quedado estructurado con un bloque de cartograf√≠a hist√≥rica, ya que se destac√≥ la riqueza y diversidad de los componentes gr√°ficos, pues representaban todo un verdadero relato interpretativo de la zona seleccionada para el trabajo, estos elementos gr√°ficos desvelaban claramente la vinculaci√≥n con el espacio en cada momento hist√≥rico. Por otro lado, se ha realizado una catalogaci√≥n de cartograf√≠a art√≠stica, donde adem√°s, ha tomado especial protagonismo aquellas cartograf√≠as subjetivas, donde prevalec√≠an las experiencias vividas por los individuos en un entorno determinado, por encima de la representaci√≥n oficial del territorio. De igual modo, las cartograf√≠as colaborativas y compuestas con m√ļltiples voces han cobrado inter√©s en este bloque de la cartograf√≠a personal, con la finalidad de combatir las directrices dominantes, y adem√°s ofrecer otras alternativas de visi√≥n y creaci√≥n de espacio. En otro bloque de contenidos se ha realizado un balance de las tendencias contempor√°neas de representaci√≥n, concretamente, en base a las visualizaciones de datos, la tendente datificaci√≥n de la informaci√≥n representada en el espacio. Esta actual vertiente de comunicaci√≥n ha dado como resultado el desarrollo de nuevas cartograf√≠as de significados. Asimismo, en esta parte tambi√©n se ha analizado los cambios tecnol√≥gicos en los √ļltimos tiempos, la incidencia del lenguaje gr√°fico y digital de los medios de comunicaci√≥n en la sociedad vigente. En consecuencia, se elaboraron unos ensayos pr√°cticos con estas influencias en los modos de lectura vigente y con material multimedia. Por otro lado, un bloque de investigaci√≥n sobre la evoluci√≥n del espacio urbano en las ciudades durante las √ļltimas d√©cadas, donde la expansi√≥n acelerada de la urbanizaci√≥n y los efectos de la globalizaci√≥n como modelo econ√≥mico en una escala planetaria han influido paulatinamente, en la p√©rdida de los elementos locales en las urbes. En esta parte tem√°tica, se elabor√≥ un ensayo pr√°ctico que cartografi√≥ la calidad de los elementos patrimoniales distribuidos por el trayecto de la acequia hist√≥rica. En √ļltima instancia, se cierra con un bloque tem√°tico sobre el binomio hist√≥rico entre la huerta y la ciudad, la evoluci√≥n de su relaci√≥n y su estado en la actualidad. De este modo, esta parte adem√°s contiene otros ensayos pr√°cticos donde se intent√≥ profundizar en la actividad productiva de la huerta, acompa√Īado con una especulaci√≥n de la cantidad de beneficios y oportunidades que podr√≠a proveer, sobre las necesidades y problem√°ticas de sostenibilidad existentes en el entramado urbano actual. En definitiva, con todas estas vertientes cartogr√°ficas se ha intentado ampliar y reivindicar la noci√≥n de nuestro paisaje local, de tan incuestionable valor cultural para la historia de la ciudad de Valencia, como es l'Horta Nord.[CA] Esta tesi doctoral s'ha centrat en la cartografia com a dispositiu discursiu per a interpretar l'espai habitat. Per tant, en esta direcci√≥ s'ha aprofundit en l'estat de la identitat del paisatge local de la zona perif√®rica nord de la ciutat de Val√®ncia, a trav√©s del trajecte d'una de les huit s√©quies hist√≤riques de la ciutat, en concret, la denominada Rascanya. De tal forma, este estudi del paisatge ha contemplat una part pr√†ctica constitu√Įda per huit cartografies formalitzades en aplicacions interactives, on la reflexi√≥ s'ha incentivat a trav√©s de la contraposici√≥ de dades i material del passat amb elements contemporanis. Basant-se en estes premisses, l'exploraci√≥ s'ha quedat estructurat amb un bloc de cartografia hist√≤rica, ja que es va destacar la riquesa i diversitat dels components gr√†fics, perqu√® representaven tot un verdader relat interpretatiu de la zona seleccionada per al treball, estos elements gr√†fics desvelaven clarament la vinculaci√≥ amb l'espai en cada moment hist√≤ric. D'altra banda, s'ha realitzat una catalogaci√≥ de cartografia art√≠stica, on a m√©s, ha pres especial protagonisme aquelles cartografies subjectives, on prevalien les experi√®ncies viscudes pels individus en un entorn determinat, per damunt de la representaci√≥ oficial del territori. De la mateixa manera, les cartografies col¬∑laboratives i compostes amb m√ļltiples veus han cobrat inter√©s en este bloc de la cartografia personal, amb la finalitat de combatre les directrius dominants, i a m√©s oferir altres alternatives de visi√≥ i creaci√≥ d'espai. En un altre bloc de continguts s'ha realitzat un balan√ß de les tend√®ncies contempor√†nies de representaci√≥, concretament, basant-se en les visualitzacions de dades, la tendent datificaci√≥n de la informaci√≥ representada en l'espai. Este actual vessant de comunicaci√≥ ha donat com resultat el desenrotllament de noves cartografies de significats. Aix√≠ mateix, en esta part tamb√© s'ha analitzat els canvis tecnol√≤gics en els √ļltims temps, la incid√®ncia del llenguatge gr√†fic i digital dels mitjans de comunicaci√≥ en la societat vigent. En conseq√ľ√®ncia, es van elaborar uns assajos pr√†ctics amb estes influ√®ncies en els modes de lectura vigent i amb material multim√®dia. D'altra banda, un bloc d'investigaci√≥ sobre l'evoluci√≥ de l'espai urb√† en les ciutats durant les √ļltimes d√®cades, on l'expansi√≥ accelerada de la urbanitzaci√≥ i els efectes de la globalitzaci√≥ com a model econ√≤mic en una escala planet√†ria han influ√Įt gradualment, en la p√®rdua dels elements locals en les urbs. En esta part tem√†tica, es va elaborar un assaig pr√†ctic que va cartografiar la qualitat dels elements patrimonials distribu√Įts pel trajecte de la s√©quia hist√≥rica. En √ļltima inst√†ncia, es tanca amb un bloc tem√†tic sobre el binomi hist√≤ric entre l'horta i la ciutat, l'evoluci√≥ de la seua relaci√≥ i el seu estat en l'actualitat. D'esta manera, esta part a m√©s cont√© altres assajos pr√†ctics on es va intentar aprofundir en l'activitat productiva de l'horta, acompanyat amb una especulaci√≥ de la quantitat de beneficis i oportunitats que podria proveir, sobre les necessitats i problem√†tiques de sostenibilitat existents en l'entramat urb√† actual. En definitiva, amb tots estos vessants cartogr√†fics s'ha intentat ampliar i reivindicar la noci√≥ del nostre paisatge local, de tan inq√ľestionable valor cultural per a la hist√≤ria de la ciutat de Val√®ncia, com √©s l'Horta Nord.[EN] This doctoral thesis has focused on cartography as a discursive device to interpret inhabited space. Therefore, in this direction, the state of the identity of the local landscape of the northern peripheral area of the city of Valencia has been deepened, through the route of one of the eight historical ditches of the city, specifically, the so-called Rascanya. In this way, this study of the landscape has contemplated a practical part made up of eight formalized cartographies in interactive applications, where reflection has been encouraged through the contrast of data and material from the past with contemporary elements. Based on these premises, the exploration has been structured with a block of historical cartography, since the richness and diversity of the graphic components were highlighted, since they represented a true interpretive account of the area selected for the work, these graphic elements they clearly revealed the link with space in each historical moment. On the other hand, a cataloging of artistic cartography has been carried out, where in addition, subjective cartographies have taken a special role, where the experiences lived by individuals in a given environment prevailed, over the official representation of the territory. Similarly, collaborative and composite cartographies with multiple voices have gained interest in this block of personal cartography, in order to combat the dominant guidelines, and also offer other alternatives for vision and space creation. In another block of contents, a balance has been made of contemporary trends in representation, specifically, based on data visualizations, the tending dataification of the information represented in space. This current aspect of communication has resulted in the development of new cartographies of meanings. Likewise, this part has also analyzed technological changes in recent times, the incidence of graphic and digital language of the media in current society. Consequently, practical tests were developed with these influences in current reading modes and with multimedia material. On the other hand, a research block on the evolution of urban space in cities during the last decades, where the accelerated expansion of urbanization and the effects of globalization as an economic model on a planetary scale have gradually influenced the loss of local elements in cities. In this thematic part, a practical test was prepared that mapped the quality of the heritage elements distributed along the route of the historic canal. Ultimately, it closes with a thematic block on the historical binomial between the garden and the city, the evolution of their relationship and their current state. In this way, this part also contains other practical tests where an attempt was made to deepen the productive activity of the orchard, accompanied by a speculation of the amount of benefits and opportunities that it could provide, on the existing sustainability needs and problems in the urban fabric. current. In short, with all these cartographic aspects, an attempt has been made to expand and defend the notion of our local landscape, of such unquestionable cultural value for the history of the city of Valencia, as is l'Horta Nord.Guti√©rrez Gonz√°lez, MJ. (2022). La cartograf√≠a como estrategia para rescatar las p√©rdidas de identidad en el paisaje [Tesis doctoral]. Universitat Polit√®cnica de Val√®ncia. https://doi.org/10.4995/Thesis/10251/182250TESI
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