130,465 research outputs found

    Does international patent collaboration have an effect on entrepreneurship?

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    .Entrepreneurship is one of the main pillars of growth in any economy. Achieving a high rate of entrepreneurship in a region has become the priority objective of governments and firms. However, in many cases, new firm creation is conditioned by relations or collaboration in innovation with agents from other countries. Previous literature has analyzed the mechanisms that foster entrepreneurship. This paper attempts to shed light on the influence of international patent collaboration (IPC) on entrepreneurial activity at country level taking into account the timing of this relationship. An empirical study is proposed to verify whether IPC leads to greater entrepreneurship and to analyze the gestation period between international patenting actions and firm creation. Using the Generalized Method of Moments, the two hypotheses proposed were tested in a data panel of 30 countries for the period 2005–2017. Results show the influence of IPC in promoting entrepreneurship in the same year, but especially in the following year. The study offers implications for entrepreneurs and public agents. IPC affects the integration and interaction of international agents in a country, favors the production of new knowledge, and increases positive externalities in a territory. All this facilitates the creation of new companies with a high innovative component.S

    El uso de los resultados españoles de PISA en publicaciones científicas

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    p. 183-202En la última década, el interés por los resultados de PISA ha crecido, tanto en el debate público como en el uso de los datos para la investigación. El objetivo de este estudio consiste en analizar la utilización de los resultados españoles de PISA por parte de la comunidad científica. Se realizó un análisis bibliométrico de 119 artículos científicos incluidos en las bases de datos Scopus, Eric EBSCOHost y Web of Science entre 2002 y 2019 mediante análisis de frecuencias, análisis MDS y regresiones logísticas binarias. Los resultados reflejan el creciente interés por los resultados españoles de PISA desde 2005 hasta la actualidad, perteneciendo los autores principalmente al ámbito universitario de la Educación. Respecto al uso de la información de PISA, la mayoría de los estudios emplean los datos como vía para generar conocimiento, siendo los temas socioeconómicos como la familia y la equidad los que han tenido una mayor presencia junto al rendimiento de los estudiantes. Se concluye que, a pesar de que PISA ha tardado en tener impacto entre la comunidad académica española, sus resultados son cada vez más utilizados como fuente de información primaria para la realización de estudios detallados sobre temas muy diversos. No obstante, a su vez, PISA se utiliza de forma genérica como indicador de calidad del sistema educativo, sin entrar en detalle en el análisis contextualizado del rendimiento en las competencias objeto de estudio.S

    Identification of Hindbrain Neural Substrates for Motor Initiation in the hatchling Xenopus laevis Tadpole

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    Animal survival profoundly depends on the ability to detect stimuli in the environment, process them and respond accordingly. In this respect, motor responses to a sensory stimulation evolved into a variety of coordinated movements, which involve the control of brain centres over spinal locomotor circuits. The hatchling Xenopus tadpole, even in its embryonic stage, is able to detect external sensory information and to swim away if the stimulus is considered noxious. To do so, the tadpole relies on well-known ascending sensory pathway, which carries the sensory information to the brain. When the stimulus is strong enough, descending interneurons are activated, leading to the excitation of spinal CPG neurons, which causes the undulatory movement of swimming. However, the activation of descending interneurons that marks the initiation of motor response appears after a long delay from the sensory stimulation. Furthermore, the long-latency response is variable in time, as observed in the slow-summating excitation measured in descending interneurons. These two features, i.e. long-latency and variability, cannot be explained by the firing time and pattern of the ascending sensory pathway of the Xenopus tadpole. Therefore, a novel neuronal population has been proposed to lie in the hindbrain of the tadpole, and being able to 'hold' the sensory information, thus accounting for the long and variable delay of swim initiation. In this work, the role of the hindbrain in the maintenance of the long and variable response to trunk skin stimulation is investigated in the Xenopustadpole at developmental stage 37/38. A multifaceted approach has been used to unravel the neuronal mechanisms underlying the delayed motor response, including behavioural experiments, electrophysiology analysis of fictive swimming, hindbrain extracellular recordings and imaging experiments. Two novel neuronal populations have been identified in the tadpole's hindbrain, which exhibit activation patterns compatible with the role of delaying the excitation of the spinal locomotor circuit. Future work on cellular properties and synaptic connections of these newly discovered populations might shed light on the mechanism of descending control active at embryonic stage. Identifying supraspinal neuronal populations in an embryonic organism could aid in understanding mechanisms of descending motor control in more complex vertebrates

    Interactive Sonic Environments: Sonic artwork via gameplay experience

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    The purpose of this study is to investigate the use of video-game technology in the design and implementation of interactive sonic centric artworks, the purpose of which is to create and contribute to the discourse and understanding of its effectiveness in electro-acoustic composition highlighting the creative process. Key research questions include: How can the language of electro-acoustic music be placed in a new framework derived from videogame aesthetics and technology? What new creative processes need to be considered when using this medium? Moreover, what aspects of 'play' should be considered when designing the systems? The findings of this study assert that composers and sonic art practitioners need little or no coding knowledge to create exciting applications and the myriad of options available to the composer when using video-game technology is limited only by imagination. Through a cyclic process of planning, building, testing and playing these applications the project revealed advantages and unique sonic opportunities in comparison to other sonic art installations. A portfolio of selected original compositions, both fixed and open are presented by the author to complement this study. The commentary serves to place the work in context with other practitioners in the field and to provide compositional approaches that have been taken

    Balancing the urban stomach: public health, food selling and consumption in London, c. 1558-1640

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    Until recently, public health histories have been predominantly shaped by medical and scientific perspectives, to the neglect of their wider social, economic and political contexts. These medically-minded studies have tended to present broad, sweeping narratives of health policy's explicit successes or failures, often focusing on extraordinary periods of epidemic disease viewed from a national context. This approach is problematic, particularly in studies of public health practice prior to 1800. Before the rise of modern scientific medicine, public health policies were more often influenced by shared social, cultural, economic and religious values which favoured maintaining hierarchy, stability and concern for 'the common good'. These values have frequently been overlooked by modern researchers. This has yielded pessimistic assessments of contemporary sanitation, implying that local authorities did not care about or prioritise the health of populations. Overly medicalised perspectives have further restricted historians' investigation and use of source material, their interpretation of multifaceted and sometimes contested cultural practices such as fasting, and their examination of habitual - and not just extraordinary - health actions. These perspectives have encouraged a focus on reactive - rather than preventative - measures. This thesis contributes to a growing body of research that expands our restrictive understandings of pre-modern public health. It focuses on how public health practices were regulated, monitored and expanded in later Tudor and early Stuart London, with a particular focus on consumption and food-selling. Acknowledging the fundamental public health value of maintaining urban foodways, it investigates how contemporaries sought to manage consumption, food production waste, and vending practices in the early modern City's wards and parishes. It delineates the practical and political distinctions between food and medicine, broadly investigates the activities, reputations of and correlations between London's guild and itinerant food vendors and licensed and irregular medical practitioners, traces the directions in which different kinds of public health policy filtered up or down, and explores how policies were enacted at a national and local level. Finally, it compares and contrasts habitual and extraordinary public health regulations, with a particular focus on how perceptions of and actual food shortages, paired with the omnipresent threat of disease, impacted broader aspects of civic life

    P469 Infliximab for induction of medically-induced remission in Crohn’s disease: a Cochrane systematic review

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    Background Infliximab is a monoclonal antibody that binds and neutralizes tumour necrosis factor-alpha, which is present in high levels in the blood serum, mucosa and stool of patients with Crohn’s disease (CD). We sought to determine the effectiveness and safety of infliximab in inducing remission in patients with CD. Methods On 31 August 2021, we searched CENTRAL, CINAHL, ClinicalTrials.gov, Embase, MEDLINE, and WHO ICTRP with no language, date, publication status, or document type limitations. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which infliximab was compared to placebo or another active comparator in adult (18 and over) patients with active CD. The review authors independently conducted data extraction and ‘Risk of bias’ assessment of the included studies. We expressed dichotomous and continuous outcomes as risk ratios and mean differences with 95% confidence intervals. We assessed the certainty of the evidence using GRADE methodology. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients who achieved clinical remission. Results We included 9 RCTs (1130 participants). Three studies compared multiple arms with different infliximab doses (between 5mg and 20mg/kg) to placebo. Two studies each with three arms compared azathioprine and placebo, infliximab and placebo, or infliximab and azathioprine combined. One study compared infliximab with biosimilar CT-P13. One study compared infliximab and azathioprine with steroids and azathioprine and only infliximab if no response. The final study compared a single dose (5mg/kg) of infliximab to placebo. In all trials that didn’t require a purine analogue to be given to both study groups, they allowed such concomitant use in both groups. There is evidence that infliximab combined with azathioprine is superior to azathioprine combined with placebo in inducing clinical remission for CD (RR 1.97, 95% CI 1.60–2.42, moderate certainty evidence downgraded due to risk of bias, NNT = 3). Sensitivity analysis considering a fixed effects model and then removing a study where most received azathioprine in both groups instead of all, had no impact on the result, which remained significant. There is evidence that there may be no difference in withdrawals from adverse events between infliximab combined with azathioprine and azathioprine combined with placebo when inducing clinical remission for CD (RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.29–1.86, low certainty evidence downgraded due to serious imprecision). The evidence is uncertain for all other comparisons and outcomes due to imprecision from small sample sizes. Conclusion There is evidence that infliximab with azathioprine is probably better than azathioprine, however the remaining data is based on limited total patient numbers and offers limited scope for meta-analysis

    Paradoxes in the Management of Timebanks in the UK’s Voluntary Sector: Discursive Bricolage and its Limits

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    This paper contributes to our understanding of volunteer management by charting some important challenges associated with the governance of one of the UK’s largest timebanking networks. While timebanking is often treated as a form of volunteering, many timebank advocates are keen to distinguish it sharply from traditional volunteering. We suggest that this tension generates a fundamental ‘performance paradox’ in the management of timebanks in the voluntary sector. We draw on political discourse theory to characterise and evaluate associated challenges, suggesting that, when viewed against a host of context-specific organisational and policy pressures, the progressive potential of timebanking cannot be realised as a distinct community economy without adequate support. Instead of taking up a position alongside more traditional forms of volunteering, timebanking is more likely to be subsumed by them

    The JCMT BISTRO Survey: Multi-wavelength polarimetry of bright regions in NGC 2071 in the far-infrared/submillimetre range, with POL-2 and HAWC+

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    Polarized dust emission is a key tracer in the study of interstellar medium and of star formation. The observed polarization, however, is a product of magnetic field structure, dust grain properties and grain alignment efficiency, as well as their variations in the line of sight, making it difficult to interpret polarization unambiguously. The comparison of polarimetry at multiple wavelengths is a possible way of mitigating this problem. We use data from HAWC+/SOFIA and from SCUBA-2/POL-2 (from the BISTRO survey) to analyse the NGC 2071 molecular cloud at 154, 214 and 850 μm. The polarization angle changes significantly with wavelength over part of NGC 2071, suggesting a change in magnetic field morphology on the line of sight as each wavelength best traces different dust populations. Other possible explanations are the existence of more than one polarization mechanism in the cloud or scattering from very large grains. The observed change of polarization fraction with wavelength, and the 214-to-154 μm polarization ratio in particular, are difficult to reproduce with current dust models under the assumption of uniform alignment efficiency. We also show that the standard procedure of using monochromatic intensity as a proxy for column density may produce spurious results at HAWC+ wavelengths. Using both long-wavelength (POL-2, 850 μm) and short-wavelength (HAWC+, ≲200μm) polarimetry is key in obtaining these results. This study clearly shows the importance of multi-wavelength polarimetry at submillimeter bands to understand the dust properties of molecular clouds and the relationship between magnetic field and star formation

    Barriers and Facilitators to the recruitment of Black African women for research in the UK: Hard to engage and not hard to reach

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    Background: Black African women living in the United Kingdom suffer from inequalities in health, care and maternity outcomes compared with their counterparts. Their presence has however been found to be lacking in life-saving healthcare research. As a result of a lack of engagement in healthcare research, some authors have classified them as “hard to reach”. However, in order to reduce the health inequalities experienced by this group, methods for engagement that would suit this population group would need to be explored. Therefore, this study set out to present an ethnic specific perspective of the barriers and facilitators to the recruitment of black African women to research from the researcher’s perspective. Method: Two studies were conducted aimed at the recruitment of Black African women in healthcare research. Proposed recruitment strategies included snowballing, social media (twitter, Facebook), flyers and collaboration with gatekeepers in two NHS trusts in London. The strategies were developed based on a review of literature, best practice ethics guidelines and consultations with experts in the field. Results: Successful recruitment strategies included snowball sampling, word of mouth, peer to peer recruitment and the use of influential members in the community. Existing recruitment strategies were found to be unsuitable to properly engage members of this community. In addition to this, ethical guidelines around informed consent and gatekeeping seem to impede the successful engagement of the members of this community. Conclusion: Proper methods of engagement are required to bridge the inequality gap. Therefore, it is important that ethical procedures, processes, and recruitment methods be reviewed such that it will take into consideration the cultural peculiarities of individuals within this community

    The Idiosyncrasy of Involuntary Musical Imagery Repetition (IMIR) Experiences: The Role of Tempo and Lyrics

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    Involuntary musical imagery repetition (IMIR), colloquially known as “earworms,” is a form of musical imagery that arises involuntarily and repeatedly in the mind. A growing number of studies, based on retrospective reports, suggest that IMIR experiences are associated with certain musical features, such as fast tempo and the presence of lyrics, and with individual differences in music training and engagement. However, research to date has not directly assessed the effect of such musical features on IMIR and findings about individual differences in music training and engagement are mixed. Using a cross-sectional design (Study 1, n = 263), we examined IMIR content in terms of tempo (fast, slow) and presence of lyrics (instrumental, vocal), and IMIR characteristics (frequency, duration of episode and section) in relation to 1) the musical content (tempo and lyrics) individuals most commonly expose themselves to (music-listening habits), and 2) music training and engagement. We also used an experimental design (Study 2, n = 80) to test the effects of tempo (fast or slow) and the presence of lyrics (instrumental or vocal) on IMIR retrieval and duration. Results from Study 1 showed that the content of music that individuals are typically exposed to with regard to tempo and lyrics predicted and resembled their IMIR content, and that music engagement, but not music training, predicted IMIR frequency. Music training was, however, shown to predict the duration of IMIR episodes. In the experiment (Study 2), tempo did not predict IMIR retrieval, but the presence of lyrics influenced IMIR duration. Taken together, our findings suggest that IMIR is an idiosyncratic experience primed by the music-listening habits and music engagement of the individual
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