188 research outputs found

    The role of O-GlcNAcylation in development

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    Exploiting O-GlcNAc transferase promiscuity to dissect site-specific O-GlcNAcylation

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    Protein O-GlcNAcylation is an evolutionary conserved post-translational modification catalysed by the nucleocytoplasmic O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and reversed by OGlcNAcase (OGA). How site-specific O-GlcNAcylation modulates a diverse range of cellular processes is largely unknown. A limiting factor in studying this is the lack of accessible techniques capable of producing homogeneously O-GlcNAcylated proteins, in high yield, for in vitro studies. Here, we exploit the tolerance of OGT for cysteine instead of serine, combined with a co-expressed OGA to achieve site-specific, highly homogeneous mono-glycosylation. Applying this to DDX3X, TAB1, and CK2α, we demonstrate that near-homogeneous mono-S-GlcNAcylation of these proteins promotes DDX3X and CK2α solubility and enables production of mono-S-GlcNAcylated TAB1 crystals, albeit with limited diffraction. Taken together, this work provides a new approach for functional dissection of protein O-GlcNAcylation

    Bioinformatic prediction of putative conveyers of O-GlcNAc Transferase intellectual disability

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    Protein O-GlcNAcylation is a dynamic posttranslational modification that is catalyzed by the enzyme O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and is essential for neurodevelopment and postnatal neuronal function. Missense mutations in OGT segregate with a novel X-linked intellectual disability syndrome, the OGT congenital disorder of glycosylation (OGT-CDG). One hypothesis for the etiology of OGT-CDG is that loss of OGT activity leads to hypo-O-GlcNAcylation of as yet unidentified, specific neuronal proteins, affecting essential embryonic, and postnatal neurodevelopmental processes; however, the identity of these O-GlcNAcylated proteins is not known. Here, we used bioinformatic techniques to integrate sequence conservation, structural data, clinical data, and the available literature to identify 22 candidate proteins that convey OGT-CDG. We found using gene ontology and PANTHER database data that these candidate proteins are involved in diverse processes including Ras/MAPK signaling, translational repression, cytoskeletal dynamics, and chromatin remodeling. We also identify pathogenic missense variants at O-GlcNAcylation sites that segregate with intellectual disability. This work establishes a preliminary platform for the mechanistic dissection of the links between protein O-GlcNAcylation and neurodevelopment in OGT-CDG

    O-GlcNAcylation enhances CPS1 catalytic efficiency for ammonia and promotes ureagenesis

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    Life-threatening hyperammonemia occurs in both inherited and acquired liver diseases affecting ureagenesis, the main pathway for detoxification of neurotoxic ammonia in mammals. Protein O-GlcNAcylation is a reversible and nutrient-sensitive post-translational modification using as substrate UDP-GlcNAc, the end-product of hexosamine biosynthesis pathway. Here we show that increased liver UDP-GlcNAc during hyperammonemia increases protein O-GlcNAcylation and enhances ureagenesis. Mechanistically, O-GlcNAcylation on specific threonine residues increased the catalytic efficiency for ammonia of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 (CPS1), the rate-limiting enzyme in ureagenesis. Pharmacological inhibition of O-GlcNAcase, the enzyme removing O-GlcNAc from proteins, resulted in clinically relevant reductions of systemic ammonia in both genetic (hypomorphic mouse model of propionic acidemia) and acquired (thioacetamide-induced acute liver failure) mouse models of liver diseases. In conclusion, by fine-tuned control of ammonia entry into ureagenesis, hepatic O-GlcNAcylation of CPS1 increases ammonia detoxification and is a novel target for therapy of hyperammonemia in both genetic and acquired diseases

    O-GlcNAcylation enhances CPS1 catalytic efficiency for ammonia and promotes ureagenesis

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    Life-threatening hyperammonemia occurs in both inherited and acquired liver diseases affecting ureagenesis, the main pathway for detoxification of neurotoxic ammonia in mammals. Protein O-GlcNAcylation is a reversible and nutrient-sensitive post-translational modification using as substrate UDP-GlcNAc, the end-product of hexosamine biosynthesis pathway. Here we show that increased liver UDP-GlcNAc during hyperammonemia increases protein O-GlcNAcylation and enhances ureagenesis. Mechanistically, O-GlcNAcylation on specific threonine residues increased the catalytic efficiency for ammonia of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 (CPS1), the rate-limiting enzyme in ureagenesis. Pharmacological inhibition of O-GlcNAcase, the enzyme removing O-GlcNAc from proteins, resulted in clinically relevant reductions of systemic ammonia in both genetic (hypomorphic mouse model of propionic acidemia) and acquired (thioacetamide-induced acute liver failure) mouse models of liver diseases. In conclusion, by fine-tuned control of ammonia entry into ureagenesis, hepatic O-GlcNAcylation of CPS1 increases ammonia detoxification and is a novel target for therapy of hyperammonemia in both genetic and acquired diseases

    Native detection of protein O-GlcNAcylation by gel electrophoresis

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    O-GlcNAcylation is an abundant and dynamic protein posttranslational modification (PTM), with crucial roles in metazoans. Studies of this modification are hampered by the lack of convenient methods for detecting native O-GlcNAcylation. Here, we describe a novel gel-based approach, Separation of O-GlcNAcylated Proteins by Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SOPAGE), which enables detection of O-GlcNAc levels and dynamics

    New inhibitors of human O-GlcNAc Transferase: Spectroscopic, computational and biological studies

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    Resumen del trabajo presentado al 12th Spanish-Italian Symposium on Organic Chemistry (SISOC), celebrado en Ferrara (Italia) del 2 la 4 de julio de 2018.Human O-GlcNAc transferase (hOGT) is a metal independent Leloir GT that transfers GlcNAc to Ser or Thr residues of intracellular proteins and peptides. hOGT is an essential enzyme for the proliferation of mammalian cells, and is an active actor in several serious illnesses, including Parkinson, Alzheimer and different types of cancer. Two series of glycomimetics of UDP-GlcNAc have been prepared. In the first one (A) the ß-phosphate has been replaced by an alkyl chain, through a S-mediated click-chemistry procedure. In the second family (B) the -phospahte has been replaced by a phosphonate, so the pyrophosphate moiety is conserved. In both cases, the sugar moiety has been replaced by a pyrrolidine ring have been synthesized by using different procedures. Their affinity for hOGT has been evaluated and computationally studied. The binding epitopes of the best ligands have been determined in solution using saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR spectroscopy. Experimental, spectroscopic and computational results are in agreement, pointing out the essential role for binding of the ß-phosphate, and, on the other hand, a great enhancement of the affinity by the hydrophobic groups attached to the pyrrolidine.Peer Reviewe
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