1,257 research outputs found

    Assessment of the Prognostic Factors for a Local Recurrence of Rectal Cancer: the Utility of Preoperative MR Imaging

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    OBJECTIVE: To determine the utility of MR imaging in evaluating the prognostic factors for a local recurrence of rectal cancer following a curative resection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The preoperative MR images obtained from 17 patients with a local recurrence and 54 patients without a local recurrence, who had undergone a curative resection, were independently evaluated by three radiologists. The following findings were analyzed: the direct invasion of the perirectal fat by the primary rectal carcinoma, involvement of the perirectal lymph nodes, perirectal spiculate nodules, perivascular encasement, and an enlargement of the pelvic wall lymph nodes. The clinical and surgical profiles were obtained from the patients' medical records. The association of a local recurrence with the MR findings and the clinicosurgical variables was statistically evaluated. RESULTS: Of the MR findings, the presence of perivascular encasement (p = 0.001) and perirectal spiculate nodules (p = 0.001) were found to be significant prognostic factors for a local recurrence. Of the clinicosurgical profiles, the presence of a microscopic vascular invasion (p = 0.005) and the involvement of the regional lymph nodes (p = 0.006) were associated with a local recurrence. Logistic regression analysis showed that the presence of perirectal spiculate nodules was an independent predictor of a local recurrence (odds ratio, 7.382; 95% confidence interval, 1.438, 37.889; p = 0.017). CONCLUSION: The presence of perirectal spiculate nodules and perivascular encasement on the preoperative MR images are significant predictors of a local recurrence after curative surgery for a rectal carcinoma. This suggests that preoperative MR imaging can provide useful information to help in the planning of preoperative adjuvant therapy.ope

    Higgs Structures of Dyonic Instantons

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    We study Higgs field configurations of dyonic instantons in spontaneously broken (4+1)-dimensional Yang-Mills theory. The adjoint scalar field solutions to the covariant Laplace equation in the ADHM instanton background are constructed in general noncanonical basis, and they are used to study explicitly the Higgs field configurations of dyonic instantons when the gauge fields are taken by Jackiw-Nohl-Rebbi instanton solutions. For these solutions corresponding to small instanton number we then consider in some detail the zero locus of the Higgs field, which describes the cross section of supertubes connecting parallel D4-branes in string theory. Also the information on the Higgs zeroes is used to discuss the residual gauge freedom concerning the Jackiw-Nohl-Rebbi solutions.Comment: 1+27 pages, 6 figure

    Neuroprotection with metformin and thymoquinone against ethanol-induced apoptotic neurodegeneration in prenatal rat cortical neurons

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Exposure to ethanol during early development triggers severe neuronal death by activating multiple stress pathways and causes neurological disorders, such as fetal alcohol effects or fetal alcohol syndrome. This study investigated the effect of ethanol on intracellular events that predispose developing neurons for apoptosis via calcium-mediated signaling. Although the underlying molecular mechanisms of ethanol neurotoxicity are not completely determined, mitochondrial dysfunction, altered calcium homeostasis and apoptosis-related proteins have been implicated in ethanol neurotoxicity. The present study was designed to evaluate the neuroprotective mechanisms of metformin (Met) and thymoquinone (TQ) during ethanol toxicity in rat prenatal cortical neurons at gestational day (GD) 17.5.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>We found that Met and TQ, separately and synergistically, increased cell viability after ethanol (100 mM) exposure for 12 hours and attenuated the elevation of cytosolic free calcium [Ca<sup>2+</sup>]<sub>c</sub>. Furthermore, Met and TQ maintained normal physiological mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψ<sub>M</sub>), which is typically lowered by ethanol exposure. Increased cytosolic free [Ca<sup>2+</sup>]<sub>c </sub>and lowered mitochondrial transmembrane potential after ethanol exposure significantly decreased the expression of a key anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-2), increased expression of Bax, and stimulated the release of cytochrome-c from mitochondria. Met and TQ treatment inhibited the apoptotic cascade by increasing Bcl-2 expression. These compounds also repressed the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 and reduced the cleavage of PARP-1. Morphological conformation of cell death was assessed by TUNEL, Fluoro-Jade-B, and PI staining. These staining methods demonstrated more cell death after ethanol treatment, while Met, TQ or Met plus TQ prevented ethanol-induced apoptotic cell death.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>These findings suggested that Met and TQ are strong protective agents against ethanol-induced neuronal apoptosis in primary rat cortical neurons. The collective data demonstrated that Met and TQ have the potential to ameliorate ethanol neurotoxicity and revealed a possible protective target mechanism for the damaging effects of ethanol during early brain development.</p