37,281 research outputs found

    Dynamics and neutrino signal of black hole formation in non-rotating failed supernovae. II. progenitor dependence

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    We study the progenitor dependence of the black hole formation and its associated neutrino signals from the gravitational collapse of non-rotating massive stars, following the preceding study on the single progenitor model in Sumiyoshi et al. (2007). We aim to clarify whether the dynamical evolution toward the black hole formation occurs in the same manner for different progenitors and to examine whether the characteristic of neutrino bursts is general having the short duration and the rapidly increasing average energies. We perform the numerical simulations by general relativistic neutrino-radiation hydrodynamics to follow the dynamical evolution from the collapse of pre-supernova models of 40Msun and 50Msun toward the black hole formation via contracting proto-neutron stars. For the three progenitor models studied in this paper, we found that the black hole formation occurs in ~0.4-1.5 s after core bounce through the increase of proto-neutron star mass together with the short and energetic neutrino burst. We found that density profile of progenitor is important to determine the accretion rate onto the proto-neutron star and, therefore, the duration of neutrino burst. We compare the neutrino bursts of black hole forming events from different progenitors and discuss whether we can probe clearly the progenitor and/or the dense matter.Comment: 30 pages, 11 figures, accepted for publication in Ap

    Dynamics and neutrino signal of black hole formation in non-rotating failed supernovae. I. EOS dependence

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    We study the black hole formation and the neutrino signal from the gravitational collapse of a non-rotating massive star of 40 Msun. Adopting two different sets of realistic equation of state (EOS) of dense matter, we perform the numerical simulations of general relativistic neutrino-radiation hydrodynamics under the spherical symmetry. We make comparisons of the core bounce, the shock propagation, the evolution of nascent proto-neutron star and the resulting re-collapse to black hole to reveal the influence of EOS. We also explore the influence of EOS on the neutrino emission during the evolution toward the black hole formation. We find that the speed of contraction of the nascent proto-neutron star, whose mass increases fast due to the intense accretion, is different depending on the EOS and the resulting profiles of density and temperature differ significantly. The black hole formation occurs at 0.6-1.3 sec after bounce when the proto-neutron star exceeds its maximum mass, which is crucially determined by the EOS. We find that the average energies of neutrinos increase after bounce because of rapid temperature increase, but at different speeds depending on the EOS. The duration of neutrino emission up to the black hole formation is found different according to the different timing of re-collapse. These characteristics of neutrino signatures are distinguishable from those for ordinary proto-neutron stars in successful core-collapse supernovae. We discuss that a future detection of neutrinos from black-hole-forming collapse will contribute to reveal the black hole formation and to constrain the EOS at high density and temperature.Comment: 32 pages, 33 figures, accepted for publication in Ap

    R-Process Nucleosynthesis In Neutrino-Driven Winds From A Typical Neutron Star With M = 1.4 Msun

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    We study the effects of the outer boundary conditions in neutrino-driven winds on the r-process nucleosynthesis. We perform numerical simulations of hydrodynamics of neutrino-driven winds and nuclear reaction network calculations of the r-process. As an outer boundary condition of hydrodynamic calculations, we set a pressure upon the outermost layer of the wind, which is approaching toward the shock wall. Varying the boundary pressure, we obtain various asymptotic thermal temperature of expanding material in the neutrino-driven winds for resulting nucleosynthesis. We find that the asymptotic temperature slightly lower than those used in the previous studies of the neutrino-driven winds can lead to a successful r-process abundance pattern, which is in a reasonable agreement with the solar system r-process abundance pattern even for the typical proto-neutron star mass Mns ~ 1.4 Msun. A slightly lower asymptotic temperature reduces the charged particle reaction rates and the resulting amount of seed elements and lead to a high neutron-to-seed ratio for successful r-process. This is a new idea which is different from the previous models of neutrino-driven winds from very massive (Mns ~ 2.0 Msun) and compact (Rns ~ 10 km) neutron star to get a short expansion time and a high entropy for a successful r-process abundance pattern. Although such a large mass is sometimes criticized from observational facts on a neutron star mass, we dissolve this criticism by reconsidering the boundary condition of the wind. We also explore the relation between the boundary condition and neutron star mass, which is related to the progenitor mass, for successful r-process.Comment: 14 pages, 2 figure

    Monopole Excitation to Cluster States

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    We discuss strength of monopole excitation of the ground state to cluster states in light nuclei. We clarify that the monopole excitation to cluster states is in general strong as to be comparable with the single particle strength and shares an appreciable portion of the sum rule value in spite of large difference of the structure between the cluster state and the shell-model-like ground state. We argue that the essential reasons of the large strength are twofold. One is the fact that the clustering degree of freedom is possessed even by simple shell model wave functions. The detailed feature of this fact is described by the so-called Bayman-Bohr theorem which tells us that SU(3) shell model wave function is equivalent to cluster model wave function. The other is the ground state correlation induced by the activation of the cluster degrees of freedom described by the Bayman-Bohr theorem. We demonstrate, by deriving analytical expressions of monopole matrix elements, that the order of magnitude of the monopole strength is governed by the first reason, while the second reason plays a sufficient role in reproducing the data up to the factor of magnitude of the monopole strength. Our explanation is made by analysing three examples which are the monopole excitations to the 02+0^+_2 and 03+0^+_3 states in 16^{16}O and the one to the 02+0^+_2 state in 12^{12}C. The present results imply that the measurement of strong monopole transitions or excitations is in general very useful for the study of cluster states.Comment: 11 pages, 1 figure: revised versio

    Anisotropic e+e‚ąíe^+ e^- pressure due to the QED effect in strong magnetic fields and the application to the entropy production in neutrino-driven wind

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    We study the equation of state of electron in strong magnetic fields which are greater than the critical value Bc‚ČÉ4.4√ó1013B_c \simeq 4.4 \times 10^{13} Gauss. We find that such a strong magnetic field induces the anisotropic pressure of electron. We apply the result to the neutrino-driven wind in core-collapse supernovae and find that it can produce large entropy per baryon, S‚ąľ400kBS \sim 400 k_B. This mechanism might successfully account for the production of the heavy nuclei with mass numbers A = 80 -- 250 through the r-process nucleosynthesis.Comment: 4 pages, using REVTeX and 3 postscript figure

    The risk of rabies spread in Japan: a mathematical modeling assessment

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    Rabies was eliminated from Japan in 1957. In the 60 years since elimination, vaccination coverage has declined and dog ownership habits have changed. The purpose of this study was to assess the current risk of rabies spread in Japan. A spatially explicit transmission model was developed at the 1 km2 grid scale for Hokkaido and Ibaraki Prefectures. Parameters associated with dog movement and bite injuries were estimated using historical records from Japan, and were used with previously published epidemiological parameters. The final epidemic size, efficacy of rabies contingency plans and the influence of dog owner responses to incursions were assessed by the model. Average outbreak sizes for dog rabies were 3.1 and 4.7 dogs in Hokkaido and Ibaraki Prefectures, respectively. Average number of bite injury cases were 4.4 and 6.7 persons in Hokkaido and Ibaraki Prefectures, respectively. Discontinuation of mandatory vaccination increased outbreak sizes in these prefectures. Sensitivity analyses showed that higher chance of unintentional release of rabid dogs by their owners (from 0.5 to 0.9 probability) increased outbreak size twofolds. Our model outputs suggested that at present, incursions of rabies into Japan are very unlikely to cause large outbreaks. Critically, the reaction of dog owners to their dogs developing rabies considerably impacts the course of outbreaks. Contingency measures should therefore include sensitisation of dog owners

    The Grounds For Time Dependent Market Potentials From Dealers' Dynamics

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    We apply the potential force estimation method to artificial time series of market price produced by a deterministic dealer model. We find that dealers' feedback of linear prediction of market price based on the latest mean price changes plays the central role in the market's potential force. When markets are dominated by dealers with positive feedback the resulting potential force is repulsive, while the effect of negative feedback enhances the attractive potential force.Comment: 9 pages, 3 figures, proceedings of APFA
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