715 research outputs found

    An Immunocompetent Hafnium Oxide-Based STING Nanoagonist for Cancer Radio-immunotherapy

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    cGAS-STING signaling plays a critical role in radiotherapy (RT)-mediated immunomodulation. However, RT alone is insufficient to sustain STING activation in tumors under a safe X-ray dose. Here, we propose a radiosensitization cooperated with cGAS stimulation strategy by engineering a core–shell structured nanosized radiosensitizer-based cGAS-STING agonist, which is constituted with the hafnium oxide (HfO2) core and the manganese oxide (MnO2) shell. HfO2-mediated radiosensitization enhances immunogenic cell death to afford tumor associated antigens and adequate cytosolic dsDNA, while the GSH-degradable MnO2 sustainably releases Mn2+ in tumors to improve the recognition sensitization of cGAS. The synchronization of sustained Mn2+ supply with cumulative cytosolic dsDNA damage synergistically augments the cGAS-STING activation in irradiated tumors, thereby enhancing RT-triggered local and system effects when combined with an immune checkpoint inhibitor. Therefore, the synchronous radiosensitization with sustained STING activation is demonstrated as a potent immunostimulation strategy to optimize cancer radio-immuotherapy

    Primary pulmonary hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma with fusions of both EWSR1::CREM and IRF2::NTRK3: report of a case with an aggressive behavior

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    Primary pulmonary hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma (HCCC) is a rare salivary gland-type tumor newly recognized in recent years, with approximately 21 cases reported to date in the English literature, which constitutes a challenge in pathology diagnosis, particularly in small biopsy specimens. Here, we present a case of pulmonary HCCC diagnosed by computed tomography-guided percutaneous lung biopsy in a 70-year-old man’s right lower lung. Although the morphology and immunophenotype of the tumor suggested the diagnosis of mucoepidermoid carcinoma, fluorescence in situ hybridization failed to reveal the rearrangement of MAML2 gene, which is characteristic of mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Instead, further molecular genetic testing showed that the tumor harbored a rare EWSR1::CREM fusion combined with a previously unreported IRF2::NTRK3 fusion. Pulmonary HCCC is commonly regarded as a low-grade malignant tumor with an indolent course, but this case has a different biological behavior, presenting extensive dissemination and metastases at the time of diagnosis, which expands our understanding of the prognosis of this tumor. The patient has had five cycles of combination chemotherapy and has been alive with the tumor for eight months

    PLGA–Nano-Encapsulated Disulfiram Inhibits Hypoxia-Induced NF-ÎșB, Cancer Stem Cells, and Targets Glioblastoma In Vitro and In Vivo

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    Glioblastoma stem cell (GSC) is the major cause of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) chemotherapy failure. Hypoxia is one of the determinants of GSC. NF-ÎșB plays a pivotal link between hypoxia and cancer stem cells (CSCs). Disulfiram, an antialcoholism drug, has very strong NF-ÎșB–inhibiting and anti-CSC activity. In this study, the in vitro anti-GSC activity of disulfiram and in vivo anti-GBM efficacy of poly lactic–co-glycolic acid nanoparticle-encapsulated disulfiram (DS-PLGA) were examined. We attempt to elucidate the molecular network between hypoxia and GSCs and also examined the anti-GSC activity of disulfiram in vitro and in vivo. The influence of GSCs and hypoxia on GBM chemoresistance and invasiveness was studied in hypoxic and spheroid cultures. The molecular regulatory roles of NF-ÎșB, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF1α), and HIF2α were investigated using stably transfected U373MG cell lines. The hypoxia in neurospheres determines the cancer stem cell characteristics of the sphere-cultured GBM cell lines (U87MG, U251MG, U373MG). NF-ÎșB is located at a higher hierarchical position than HIF1α/HIF2α in hypoxic regulatory network and plays a key role in hypoxia-induced GSC characters. DS inhibits NF-ÎșB activity and targets hypoxia-induced GSCs. It showed selective toxicity to GBM cells, eradicates GSCs, and blocks migration and invasion at very low concentrations. DS-PLGA efficaciously inhibits orthotopic and subcutaneous U87MG xenograft in mouse models with no toxicity to vital organs

    Clinical characteristics and electrophysiologic properties of SCN5A variants in fever-induced Brugada syndrome

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    Background Brugada syndrome (BrS) is a severe inherited arrhythmia syndrome that can be unmasked by fever. Methods A multicentre clinical analysis was performed in 261 patients diagnosed with fever-induced BrS, including 198 (75.9%) and 27 (10.3%) patients who received next-generation genetic sequencing and epicardial arrhythmogenic substrate (AS) mapping, respectively. Findings In fever-induced BrS patients, pathogenic or likely pathogenic (P/LP) SCN5A variant carriers developed fever-induced BrS at a younger age, and more often in females and those of Caucasian descent. They exhibited significant electrophysical abnormalities, including a larger epicardial AS area, and more prolonged abnormal epicardial electrograms. During a median follow-up of 50.5 months (quartiles 32.5–81.5 months) after the diagnosis, major cardiac events (MCE) occurred in 27 (14.4%) patients. Patients with P/LP SCN5A variants had a higher ratio of MCE compared with the rest. Additionally, history of syncope, QRS duration, and Tpe interval could also predict an increased risk for future MCE according to univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis indicated that only P/LP SCN5A variants were independent significant predictors of MCE. Computational structural modelling showed that most variants are destabilizing, suggesting that Nav1.5 structure destabilization caused by SCN5A missense variants may contribute to fever-induced BrS. Interpretation In our cohort, P/LP SCN5A variant carriers with fever-induced BrS are more prevalent among patients of Caucasian descent, females, and younger patients. These patients exhibit aggressive electrophysiological abnormalities and worse outcome, which warrants closer monitoring and more urgent management of fever

    Clinical characteristics and electrophysiologic properties of SCN5A variants in fever-induced Brugada syndrome

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    Brugada syndrome (BrS) is a severe inherited arrhythmia syndrome that can be unmasked by fever. A multicentre clinical analysis was performed in 261 patients diagnosed with fever-induced BrS, including 198 (75.9%) and 27 (10.3%) patients who received next-generation genetic sequencing and epicardial arrhythmogenic substrate (AS) mapping, respectively. In fever-induced BrS patients, pathogenic or likely pathogenic (P/LP) SCN5A variant carriers developed fever-induced BrS at a younger age, and more often in females and those of Caucasian descent. They exhibited significant electrophysical abnormalities, including a larger epicardial AS area, and more prolonged abnormal epicardial electrograms. During a median follow-up of 50.5 months (quartiles 32.5-81.5 months) after the diagnosis, major cardiac events (MCE) occurred in 27 (14.4%) patients. Patients with P/LP SCN5A variants had a higher ratio of MCE compared with the rest. Additionally, history of syncope, QRS duration, and Tpe interval could also predict an increased risk for future MCE according to univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis indicated that only P/LP SCN5A variants were independent significant predictors of MCE. Computational structural modelling showed that most variants are destabilizing, suggesting that Nav1.5 structure destabilization caused by SCN5A missense variants may contribute to fever-induced BrS. In our cohort, P/LP SCN5A variant carriers with fever-induced BrS are more prevalent among patients of Caucasian descent, females, and younger patients. These patients exhibit aggressive electrophysiological abnormalities and worse outcome, which warrants closer monitoring and more urgent management of fever. None. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    Clinical Characteristics and Electrophysiologic Properties of SCN5A Variants in Fever-Induced Brugada Syndrome

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    Background: Brugada syndrome (BrS) is a severe inherited arrhythmia syndrome that can be unmasked by fever. Methods: A multicentre clinical analysis was performed in 261 patients diagnosed with fever-induced BrS, including 198 (75.9%) and 27 (10.3%) patients who received next-generation genetic sequencing and epicardial arrhythmogenic substrate (AS) mapping, respectively. Findings: In fever-induced BrS patients, pathogenic or likely pathogenic (P/LP) SCN5A variant carriers developed fever-induced BrS at a younger age, and more often in females and those of Caucasian descent. They exhibited significant electrophysical abnormalities, including a larger epicardial AS area, and more prolonged abnormal epicardial electrograms. During a median follow-up of 50.5 months (quartiles 32.5-81.5 months) after the diagnosis, major cardiac events (MCE) occurred in 27 (14.4%) patients. Patients with P/LP SCN5A variants had a higher ratio of MCE compared with the rest. Additionally, history of syncope, QRS duration, and Tpe interval could also predict an increased risk for future MCE according to univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis indicated that only P/LP SCN5A variants were independent significant predictors of MCE. Computational structural modelling showed that most variants are destabilizing, suggesting that Nav1.5 structure destabilization caused by SCN5A missense variants may contribute to fever-induced BrS. Interpretation: In our cohort, P/LP SCN5A variant carriers with fever-induced BrS are more prevalent among patients of Caucasian descent, females, and younger patients. These patients exhibit aggressive electrophysiological abnormalities and worse outcome, which warrants closer monitoring and more urgent management of fever. Funding: None

    CEPC Conceptual Design Report: Volume 2 - Physics & Detector

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    The Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC) is a large international scientific facility proposed by the Chinese particle physics community to explore the Higgs boson and provide critical tests of the underlying fundamental physics principles of the Standard Model that might reveal new physics. The CEPC, to be hosted in China in a circular underground tunnel of approximately 100 km in circumference, is designed to operate as a Higgs factory producing electron-positron collisions with a center-of-mass energy of 240 GeV. The collider will also operate at around 91.2 GeV, as a Z factory, and at the WW production threshold (around 160 GeV). The CEPC will produce close to one trillion Z bosons, 100 million W bosons and over one million Higgs bosons. The vast amount of bottom quarks, charm quarks and tau-leptons produced in the decays of the Z bosons also makes the CEPC an effective B-factory and tau-charm factory. The CEPC will have two interaction points where two large detectors will be located. This document is the second volume of the CEPC Conceptual Design Report (CDR). It presents the physics case for the CEPC, describes conceptual designs of possible detectors and their technological options, highlights the expected detector and physics performance, and discusses future plans for detector R&D and physics investigations. The final CEPC detectors will be proposed and built by international collaborations but they are likely to be composed of the detector technologies included in the conceptual designs described in this document. A separate volume, Volume I, recently released, describes the design of the CEPC accelerator complex, its associated civil engineering, and strategic alternative scenarios

    CEPC Conceptual Design Report: Volume 2 - Physics & Detector

    No full text
    The Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC) is a large international scientific facility proposed by the Chinese particle physics community to explore the Higgs boson and provide critical tests of the underlying fundamental physics principles of the Standard Model that might reveal new physics. The CEPC, to be hosted in China in a circular underground tunnel of approximately 100 km in circumference, is designed to operate as a Higgs factory producing electron-positron collisions with a center-of-mass energy of 240 GeV. The collider will also operate at around 91.2 GeV, as a Z factory, and at the WW production threshold (around 160 GeV). The CEPC will produce close to one trillion Z bosons, 100 million W bosons and over one million Higgs bosons. The vast amount of bottom quarks, charm quarks and tau-leptons produced in the decays of the Z bosons also makes the CEPC an effective B-factory and tau-charm factory. The CEPC will have two interaction points where two large detectors will be located. This document is the second volume of the CEPC Conceptual Design Report (CDR). It presents the physics case for the CEPC, describes conceptual designs of possible detectors and their technological options, highlights the expected detector and physics performance, and discusses future plans for detector R&D and physics investigations. The final CEPC detectors will be proposed and built by international collaborations but they are likely to be composed of the detector technologies included in the conceptual designs described in this document. A separate volume, Volume I, recently released, describes the design of the CEPC accelerator complex, its associated civil engineering, and strategic alternative scenarios

    Resources and computational strategies to advance small molecule SARS-CoV-2 discovery: Lessons from the pandemic and preparing for future health crises

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    Integrating longitudinal clinical laboratory tests with targeted proteomic and transcriptomic analyses reveal the landscape of host responses in COVID-19

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    Abstract The pathophysiology of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) involves a multitude of host responses, yet how they unfold during the course of disease progression remains unclear. Here, through integrative analysis of clinical laboratory tests, targeted proteomes, and transcriptomes of 963 patients in Shanghai, we delineate the dynamics of multiple circulatory factors within the first 30 days post-illness onset and during convalescence. We show that hypercortisolemia represents one of the probable causes of acute lymphocytopenia at the onset of severe/critical conditions. Comparison of the transcriptomes of the bronchoalveolar microenvironment and peripheral blood indicates alveolar macrophages, alveolar epithelial cells, and monocytes in lungs as the potential main sources of elevated cytokines mediating systemic immune responses and organ damages. In addition, the transcriptomes of patient blood cells are characterized by distinct gene regulatory networks and alternative splicing events. Our study provides a panorama of the host responses in COVID-19, which may serve as the basis for developing further diagnostics and therapy
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