7 research outputs found

    INVESTIGATIONS INTO ORTHODONTIC TOOTH MOVEMENT RATE

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    Duration of tooth alignment with fixed appliances: A systematic review and meta-analysis

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    INTRODUCTION A key goal of orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances is alignment of the dentition, and this remains a commonly selected outcome in clinical studies investigating orthodontic tooth movement. This systematic review has evaluated treatment duration to achieve alignment of the mandibular dentition using fixed appliances. METHODS Systematic literature searches without restrictions were undertaken in 9 databases for randomized clinical trials (RCTs) assessing duration and rate of tooth alignment using fixed appliances with or without treatment adjuncts published up to January 2021. After duplicate study selection, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment according to Cochrane, random-effects meta-analyses of aggregate data, and individual patient data were conducted. RESULTS Thirty-five trials were included with 2258 participants (39% male; mean age 17.8 years), giving a pooled duration to achieve whole-arch alignment of the mandibular dentition of 263.0 days (4 trials; 95% confidence interval [CI], 186.7-339.4 days) and incisor alignment in the mandibular arch of 100.7 days (9 trials; 95% CI, 84.1-117.4 days). Surgical-assisted orthodontics was associated with reduced duration of incisor alignment: mean difference of 44.3 days less (4 trials; 95% CI, 20.0-68.9 days; P <0.001; high quality of evidence), whereas subgroup and meta-regression analyses indicated significant effects of baseline crowding and premolar extractions. Individual patient data analysis from 3 RCTs indicated that for each additional participant age year, whole-arch alignment of the mandibular dentition took 13.7 days longer (3 trials; 95% CI, 7.7-17.7 days; P <0.001) and for each additional mm of irregularity, 17.5 days more were needed (2 trials; 95% CI, 9.8-25.2 days; P <0.001). CONCLUSIONS Patient and treatment-related characteristics can significantly affect the duration of tooth alignment and should be taken into account both clinically and when designing trial outcomes. Future research studies investigating rates of orthodontic tooth alignment would benefit from adequate sample sizes and a more consistent methodology in outcome assessment. Data in this systematic review provides a basis for appropriate trial design for future RCTs investigating the rate of orthodontic tooth alignment with fixed appliances

    Duration of canine retraction with fixed appliances: A systematic review and meta-analysis

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    INTRODUCTION Space closure is a challenging and time-consuming phase of orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. This systematic review evaluated canine retraction duration using fixed appliances after maxillary first premolar extraction. METHODS Unrestricted systematic literature searches were conducted in 8 databases for randomized clinical trials, assessing the duration and rate of maxillary canine retraction using fixed appliances with or without treatment adjuncts published up to July 2021. Study selection, data extraction, and risk of bias evaluation were conducted independently and in duplicate. Random-effects meta-analyses of average rates or mean differences (MD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were conducted at α = 5%, followed by sensitivity and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation analysis. RESULTS Fifty randomized clinical trials (6 parallel and 44 split-mouth designs) covering 811 participants (mean age 19.9 years; 34% male) were included. The estimated average pooled duration to achieve complete canine retraction was 4.98 months (2 trials; 95% CI, -2.9 to 12.88 months). Pooled average canine retraction was 0.97 mm at months 0-1 (23 trials; 95% CI, 0.79-1.16), 1.83 mm at months 0-2 (20 trials; 95% CI, 1.52-2.14), 2.44 mm at months 0-3 (23 trials; 95% CI, 2.10-2.79), 3.49 mm at months 0-4 (6 trials; 95% CI, 1.81-5.17) and 4.25 mm at months 0-5 (2 trials; 95% CI, 0.36-8.14). Surgically-assisted orthodontics was associated with greater canine retraction at all time points: months 0-1 (10 trials; MD, 0.52 mm; P = 0.004), months 0-2 (8 trials; MD, 0.53 mm; P = 0.04), months 0-3 (8 trials; MD, 0.67 mm; P = 0.01), and months 0-4 (3 trials; MD, 1.13 mm; P = 0.01), whereas subgroup analyses indicated significant effects of anchorage reinforcement method and bracket slot size on canine retraction. CONCLUSIONS The average time to achieve complete retraction of the maxillary canine using fixed appliances was around 5.0 months. Most studies used split-mouth randomization to investigate canine retraction for around 1-3 months, with substantial heterogeneity across studies. At 3 months of treatment, high-quality evidence supported greater canine retraction with surgically-assisted orthodontics

    Salivary peptidome analysis and protease prediction during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances

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    Abstract Orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) occurs through proteolytic remodelling within the periodontium following the application of external force to the tooth. This study describes the first characterization of the salivary peptidome and protease profile during the alignment stage of fixed appliance orthodontic treatment. Unstimulated whole mouth saliva from 16 orthodontic patients (10 males, 6 females, mean (SD) age 15.2 (1.6) years) was collected prior to fixed appliance placement (T1), 1-h (T2), 1-week (T3) following fixed appliance placement and on completion of mandibular arch alignment (T4). Salivary peptides were extracted using filtration followed by mass spectrometry to identify amino acid sequences. Protease prediction was carried out in silico using Proteasix and validated with gelatin zymography and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A total of 2852 naturally-occurring peptides were detected, originating from 436 different proteins. Both collagen and statherin-derived peptide levels were increased at T2. Proteasix predicted 73 proteases potentially involved in generating these peptides, including metalloproteinases, calpains and cathepsins. Changes in predicted activity of proteases over time were also observed, with most metalloproteinases showing increased predicted activity at T2ÔÇôT3. Increased gelatinolytic activity and MMP8/MMP9 levels were detected at T3. Collectively, multiple protein targets and changes in protease-predicted activity during OTM have been identified

    Duration of tooth alignment with fixed appliances:A systematic review and meta-analysis

    No full text
    INTRODUCTION A key goal of orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances is alignment of the dentition, and this remains a commonly selected outcome in clinical studies investigating orthodontic tooth movement. This systematic review has evaluated treatment duration to achieve alignment of the mandibular dentition using fixed appliances. METHODS Systematic literature searches without restrictions were undertaken in 9 databases for randomized clinical trials (RCTs) assessing duration and rate of tooth alignment using fixed appliances with or without treatment adjuncts published up to January 2021. After duplicate study selection, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment according to Cochrane, random-effects meta-analyses of aggregate data, and individual patient data were conducted. RESULTS Thirty-five trials were included with 2258 participants (39% male; mean age 17.8 years), giving a pooled duration to achieve whole-arch alignment of the mandibular dentition of 263.0 days (4 trials; 95% confidence interval [CI], 186.7-339.4 days) and incisor alignment in the mandibular arch of 100.7 days (9 trials; 95% CI, 84.1-117.4 days). Surgical-assisted orthodontics was associated with reduced duration of incisor alignment: mean difference of 44.3 days less (4 trials; 95% CI, 20.0-68.9 days; P <0.001; high quality of evidence), whereas subgroup and meta-regression analyses indicated significant effects of baseline crowding and premolar extractions. Individual patient data analysis from 3 RCTs indicated that for each additional participant age year, whole-arch alignment of the mandibular dentition took 13.7 days longer (3 trials; 95% CI, 7.7-17.7 days; P <0.001) and for each additional mm of irregularity, 17.5 days more were needed (2 trials; 95% CI, 9.8-25.2 days; P <0.001). CONCLUSIONS Patient and treatment-related characteristics can significantly affect the duration of tooth alignment and should be taken into account both clinically and when designing trial outcomes. Future research studies investigating rates of orthodontic tooth alignment would benefit from adequate sample sizes and a more consistent methodology in outcome assessment. Data in this systematic review provides a basis for appropriate trial design for future RCTs investigating the rate of orthodontic tooth alignment with fixed appliances
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