5,232 research outputs found

    The persistent shadow of the supermassive black hole of M 87

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    In April 2019, the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) Collaboration reported the first-ever event-horizon-scale images of a black hole, resolving the central compact radio source in the giant elliptical galaxy M 87. These images reveal a ring with a southerly brightness distribution and a diameter of ‚ąľ42 őľas, consistent with the predicted size and shape of a shadow produced by the gravitationally lensed emission around a supermassive black hole. These results were obtained as part of the April 2017 EHT observation campaign, using a global very long baseline interferometric radio array operating at a wavelength of 1.3 mm. Here, we present results based on the second EHT observing campaign, taking place in April 2018 with an improved array, wider frequency coverage, and increased bandwidth. In particular, the additional baselines provided by the Greenland telescope improved the coverage of the array. Multiyear EHT observations provide independent snapshots of the horizon-scale emission, allowing us to confirm the persistence, size, and shape of the black hole shadow, and constrain the intrinsic structural variability of the accretion flow. We have confirmed the presence of an asymmetric ring structure, brighter in the southwest, with a median diameter of 43.3‚ąí3.1+1.5‚ÄÖőľas. The diameter of the 2018 ring is remarkably consistent with the diameter obtained from the previous 2017 observations. On the other hand, the position angle of the brightness asymmetry in 2018 is shifted by about 30¬į relative to 2017. The perennial persistence of the ring and its diameter robustly support the interpretation that the ring is formed by lensed emission surrounding a Kerr black hole with a mass ‚ąľ6.5‚ÄÖ√ó‚ÄÖ109‚ÄÜM‚äô. The significant change in the ring brightness asymmetry implies a spin axis that is more consistent with the position angle of the large-scale jet

    sj-docx-1-hss-10.1177_15563316231208977 ‚Äď Supplemental material for Older Age, Male Sex, and Early Start Time Lengthen the Recovery Room Stay Following Total Joint Arthroplasty in an Ambulatory Surgical Center

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    Supplemental material, sj-docx-1-hss-10.1177_15563316231208977 for Older Age, Male Sex, and Early Start Time Lengthen the Recovery Room Stay Following Total Joint Arthroplasty in an Ambulatory Surgical Center by Matthew J. Schultz, Hope S. Thalody, Rex W. Lutz, Quincy T. Cheesman, Alvin C. Ong, Zachary D. Post and Danielle Y. Ponzio in HSS Journal¬ģ</p

    Polarimetric Geometric Modeling for mm-VLBI Observations of Black Holes

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    The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) is a millimeter very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) array that has imaged the apparent shadows of the supermassive black holes M87* and Sagittarius A*. Polarimetric data from these observations contain a wealth of information on the black hole and accretion flow properties. In this work, we develop polarimetric geometric modeling methods for mm-VLBI data, focusing on approaches that fit data products with differing degrees of invariance to broad classes of calibration errors. We establish a fitting procedure using a polarimetric ‚Äúm-ring‚ÄĚ model to approximate the image structure near a black hole. By fitting this model to synthetic EHT data from general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic models, we show that the linear and circular polarization structure can be successfully approximated with relatively few model parameters. We then fit this model to EHT observations of M87* taken in 2017. In total intensity and linear polarization, the m-ring fits are consistent with previous results from imaging methods. In circular polarization, the m-ring fits indicate the presence of event-horizon-scale circular polarization structure, with a persistent dipolar asymmetry and orientation across several days. The same structure was recovered independently of observing band, used data products, and model assumptions. Despite this broad agreement, imaging methods do not produce similarly consistent results. Our circular polarization results, which imposed additional assumptions on the source structure, should thus be interpreted with some caution. Polarimetric geometric modeling provides a useful and powerful method to constrain the properties of horizon-scale polarized emission, particularly for sparse arrays like the EHT

    sj-docx-8-hss-10.1177_15563316231208977 ‚Äď Supplemental material for Older Age, Male Sex, and Early Start Time Lengthen the Recovery Room Stay Following Total Joint Arthroplasty in an Ambulatory Surgical Center

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    Supplemental material, sj-docx-8-hss-10.1177_15563316231208977 for Older Age, Male Sex, and Early Start Time Lengthen the Recovery Room Stay Following Total Joint Arthroplasty in an Ambulatory Surgical Center by Matthew J. Schultz, Hope S. Thalody, Rex W. Lutz, Quincy T. Cheesman, Alvin C. Ong, Zachary D. Post and Danielle Y. Ponzio in HSS Journal¬ģ</p

    Heterogeneous treatment effects of therapeutic-dose heparin in patients hospitalized for COVID-19

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    Importance Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of therapeutic-dose heparin in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 produced conflicting results, possibly due to heterogeneity of treatment effect (HTE) across individuals. Better understanding of HTE could facilitate individualized clinical decision-making. Objective To evaluate HTE of therapeutic-dose heparin for patients hospitalized for COVID-19 and to compare approaches to assessing HTE. Design, Setting, and Participants Exploratory analysis of a multiplatform adaptive RCT of therapeutic-dose heparin vs usual care pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis in 3320 patients hospitalized for COVID-19 enrolled in North America, South America, Europe, Asia, and Australia between April 2020 and January 2021. Heterogeneity of treatment effect was assessed 3 ways: using (1) conventional subgroup analyses of baseline characteristics, (2) a multivariable outcome prediction model (risk-based approach), and (3) a multivariable causal forest model (effect-based approach). Analyses primarily used bayesian statistics, consistent with the original trial. Exposures Participants were randomized to therapeutic-dose heparin or usual care pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis. Main Outcomes and Measures Organ support‚Äďfree days, assigning a value of ‚ąí1 to those who died in the hospital and the number of days free of cardiovascular or respiratory organ support up to day 21 for those who survived to hospital discharge; and hospital survival. Results Baseline demographic characteristics were similar between patients randomized to therapeutic-dose heparin or usual care (median age, 60 years; 38% female; 32% known non-White race; 45% Hispanic). In the overall multiplatform RCT population, therapeutic-dose heparin was not associated with an increase in organ support‚Äďfree days (median value for the posterior distribution of the OR, 1.05; 95% credible interval, 0.91-1.22). In conventional subgroup analyses, the effect of therapeutic-dose heparin on organ support‚Äďfree days differed between patients requiring organ support at baseline or not (median OR, 0.85 vs 1.30; posterior probability of difference in OR, 99.8%), between females and males (median OR, 0.87 vs 1.16; posterior probability of difference in OR, 96.4%), and between patients with lower body mass index (BMI 90% for all comparisons). In risk-based analysis, patients at lowest risk of poor outcome had the highest propensity for benefit from heparin (lowest risk decile: posterior probability of OR >1, 92%) while those at highest risk were most likely to be harmed (highest risk decile: posterior probability of OR <1, 87%). In effect-based analysis, a subset of patients identified at high risk of harm (P‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ.05 for difference in treatment effect) tended to have high BMI and were more likely to require organ support at baseline. Conclusions and Relevance Among patients hospitalized for COVID-19, the effect of therapeutic-dose heparin was heterogeneous. In all 3 approaches to assessing HTE, heparin was more likely to be beneficial in those who were less severely ill at presentation or had lower BMI and more likely to be harmful in sicker patients and those with higher BMI. The findings illustrate the importance of considering HTE in the design and analysis of RCTs. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifiers: NCT02735707, NCT04505774, NCT04359277, NCT0437258

    A Search for Pulsars around Sgr A* in the First Event Horizon Telescope Data Set

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    In 2017 the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) observed the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way, Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), at a frequency of 228.1 GHz (őĽ = 1.3 mm). The fundamental physics tests that even a single pulsar orbiting Sgr A* would enable motivate searching for pulsars in EHT data sets. The high observing frequency means that pulsars‚ÄĒwhich typically exhibit steep emission spectra‚ÄĒare expected to be very faint. However, it also negates pulse scattering, an effect that could hinder pulsar detections in the Galactic center. Additionally, magnetars or a secondary inverse Compton emission could be stronger at millimeter wavelengths than at lower frequencies. We present a search for pulsars close to Sgr A* using the data from the three most sensitive stations in the EHT 2017 campaign: the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, the Large Millimeter Telescope, and the IRAM 30 m Telescope. We apply three detection methods based on Fourier-domain analysis, the fast folding algorithm, and single-pulse searches targeting both pulsars and burst-like transient emission. We use the simultaneity of the observations to confirm potential candidates. No new pulsars or significant bursts were found. Being the first pulsar search ever carried out at such high radio frequencies, we detail our analysis methods and give a detailed estimation of the sensitivity of the search. We conclude that the EHT 2017 observations are only sensitive to a small fraction (‚Č≤2.2%) of the pulsars that may exist close to Sgr A*, motivating further searches for fainter pulsars in the region

    Different clinical features in Malawian outpatients presenting with COVID-19 prior to and during Omicron variant dominance: A prospective observational study

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    The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant has resulted in a high number of cases, but a relatively low incidence of severe disease and deaths, compared to the pre-Omicron variants. Therefore, we assessed the differences in symptom prevalence between Omicron and pre-Omicron infections in a sub-Saharan African population. We collected data from outpatients presenting at two primary healthcare facilities in Blantyre, Malawi, from November 2020 to March 2022. Eligible participants were aged >1month old, with signs suggestive of COVID-19, and those not suspected of COVID-19, from whom we collected nasopharyngeal swabs for SARS-CoV-2 PCR testing, and sequenced positive samples to identify infecting-variants. In addition, we calculated the risk of presenting with a given symptom in individuals testing SARS-CoV-2 PCR positive before and during the Omicron variant-dominated period. Among 5176 participants, 6.4% were under 5, and 77% were aged 18 to 50 years. SARS-CoV-2 infection prevalence peaked in January 2021 (Beta), July 2021 (Delta), and December 2021 (Omicron). We found that cough (risk ratio (RR), 1.50; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.00 to 2.30), fatigue (RR 2.27; 95% CI, 1.29 to 3.86) and headache (RR 1.64; 95% CI, 1.15 to 2.34) were associated with a high risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection during the pre-Omicron period. In comparison, only headache (RR 1.41; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.86) did associate with a high risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection during the Omicron-dominated period. In conclusion, clinical symptoms associated with Omicron infection differed from prior variants and were harder to identify clinically with current symptom guidelines. Our findings encourage regular review of case definitions and testing policies to ensure case ascertainment

    A global core outcome measurement set for snakebite clinical trials

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    Snakebite clinical trials have often used heterogeneous outcome measures and there is an urgent need for standardisation. A globally representative group of key stakeholders came together to reach consensus on a globally relevant set of core outcome measurements. Outcome domains and outcome measurement instruments were identified through searching the literature and a systematic review of snakebite clinical trials. Outcome domains were shortlisted by use of a questionnaire and consensus was reached among stakeholders and the patient group through facilitated discussions and voting. Five universal core outcome measures should be included in all future snakebite clinical trials‚ÄĒmortality, WHO disability assessment scale, patient-specific functional scale, acute allergic reaction by Brown criteria, and serum sickness by formal criteria. Additional syndrome-specific core outcome measures should be used depending on the biting species. This core outcome measurement set provides global standardisation, supports the priorities of patients and clinicians, enables meta-analysis, and is appropriate for use in low-income and middle-income settings
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