382 research outputs found

    Trends in chronic hepatitis B virus infection in Italy over a 10-year period: Clues from the nationwide PITER and MASTER cohorts toward elimination

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    Objectives: The study measures trends in the profile of patients with chronic hepatitis B virus linked to care in Italy. Methods: A cross-sectional, multicenter, observational cohort (PITER cohort) of consecutive patients with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) over the period 2019-2021 from 46 centers was evaluated. The reference was the MASTER cohort collected over the years 2012-2015. Standard statistical methods were used. Results: The PITER cohort enrolled 4583 patients, of whom 21.8% were non-Italian natives. Compared with those in MASTER, the patients were older and more often female. The prevalence of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) declined (7.2% vs 12.3; P <0.0001) and that of anti-hepatitis D virus (HDV) remained stable (9.3% vs 8.3%). In both cohorts, about 25% of the patients had cirrhosis, and those in the PITER cohort were older. HBeAg-positive was 5.0% vs 12.6% (P <0.0001) and anti-HDV positive 24.8% vs 17.5% (P <0.0017). In the logistic model, the variables associated with cirrhosis were anti-HDV-positive (odds ratio = 10.08; confidence interval 7.63-13.43), age, sex, and body mass index; the likelihood of cirrhosis was reduced by 40% in the PITER cohort. Among non-Italians, 12.3% were HBeAg-positive (vs 23.4% in the MASTER cohort; P <0.0001), and 12.3% were anti-HDV-positive (vs 11.1%). Overall, the adherence to the European Association for the Study of the Liver recommendations for antiviral treatment increased over time. Conclusion: Chronic hepatitis B virus infection appears to be in the process of becoming under control in Italy; however, HDV infection is still a health concern in patients with cirrhosis and in migrants

    Comparison of heat production and bone architecture changes in the implant site preparation with compressive osteotomes, osseodensification technique, piezoelectric devices, and standard drills: an ex vivo study on porcine ribs

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    This study aimed at investigating differences in heat generation and bone architecture following four different implant site preparation techniques: compressive osteotomes, conventional drills, osseodensification (OD mode with osseodensification drills), and piezoelectric systems. Porcine rib bones were used as a model for implant surgery. Thermocouples were employed to measure temperature changes, and micro-CT to assess the bone architecture. The primary stability and insertion torque values of the implants placed in the differently prepared sites were assessed. The temperature changes were higher with Piezo. The average primary stability using the ISQ scale was the greatest for drills (76.17 +/- 0.90) and the lowest for osteotomes (71.50 +/- 11.09). Insertion torque was significantly higher with the osseodensification method (71.67 +/- 7.99 Ncm) in comparison to drills, osteotomes, and piezo. Osteotomes showed the highest bone to implant contact percentage (39.83 +/- 3.14%) and average trabecular number (2.02 +/- 0.21 per mm), while drills exhibited the lowest (30.73 +/- 1.65%; 1.37 +/- 0.34 per mm). Total implant site bone volume was the highest with osseodensification (37.26 +/- 4.13mm(3)) and the lowest for osteotomes (33.84 +/- 3.84mm(3)). Statistical analysis showed a high primary stability and decrease in temperature during implant site preparation with osseodensification technique. The results support the use of osseodensification technique for implant site preparation

    Intralabyrinthine schwannomas: a two-case series and literature review with a focus on hearing rehabilitation

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    PurposeIntralabyrinthine schwannomas (ILSs) are an uncommon finding. Diagnosis is challenging and no gold standard treatment exists yet. In this article, we present a two-cases series and review the latest available literature to assess the best diagnostic and therapeutic scheme.MethodsWe reviewed the latest available literature assessing most frequent and relevant sets of symptoms, clinical features of the disease, diagnostic tests and imaging, possible treatments and after-surgery hearing rehabilitation techniques. We then compared literature data to our own series ones.ResultsILSs clinical presentation and development may overlap with other, more common otological conditions. Full audiometric battery test, electrophysiological study of VEMPS and MRI with contrast enhancement all appear to be critical to correctly diagnose these tumors. Several treatments exist: radiological follow-up, radiation therapy, full or partial surgical excision. Hearing rehabilitation is mostly accomplished through simultaneous cochlear implantation.ConclusionsOur case-series data matches the available literature. ILSs are a rare type of vestibular schwannomas. Diagnosis in challenging and delayed in time as all the diagnostic tests, yet sensitive, are not specific for ILSs. The most suitable treatment seems to be surgical excision of these tumors followed by simultaneous cochlear implantation to restore hearing

    Trends in chronic hepatitis B virus infection in Italy over a 10-year period: Clues from the nationwide PITER and MASTER cohorts toward elimination

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    Objectives: The study measures trends in the profile of patients with chronic hepatitis B virus linked to care in Italy. Methods: A cross-sectional, multicenter, observational cohort (PITER cohort) of consecutive patients with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) over the period 2019-2021 from 46 centers was evaluated. The reference was the MASTER cohort collected over the years 2012-2015. Standard statistical methods were used. Results: The PITER cohort enrolled 4583 patients, of whom 21.8% were non-Italian natives. Compared with those in MASTER, the patients were older and more often female. The prevalence of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) declined (7.2% vs 12.3; P &lt;0.0001) and that of anti-hepatitis D virus (HDV) remained stable (9.3% vs 8.3%). In both cohorts, about 25% of the patients had cirrhosis, and those in the PITER cohort were older. HBeAg-positive was 5.0% vs 12.6% (P &lt;0.0001) and anti-HDV positive 24.8% vs 17.5% (P &lt;0.0017). In the logistic model, the variables associated with cirrhosis were anti-HDV-positive (odds ratio&nbsp;=&nbsp;10.08; confidence interval 7.63-13.43), age, sex, and body mass index; the likelihood of cirrhosis was reduced by 40% in the PITER cohort. Among non-Italians, 12.3% were HBeAg-positive (vs 23.4% in the MASTER cohort; P &lt;0.0001), and 12.3% were anti-HDV-positive (vs 11.1%). Overall, the adherence to the European Association for the Study of the Liver recommendations for antiviral treatment increased over time. Conclusion: Chronic hepatitis B virus infection appears to be in the process of becoming under control in Italy; however, HDV infection is still a health concern in patients with cirrhosis and in migrants

    Nuclear modification of ΄\Upsilon states in pPb collisions at sNN\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}} = 5.02 TeV

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    Production cross sections of ΄\Upsilon(1S), ΄\Upsilon(2S), and ΄\Upsilon(3S) states decaying into \muplusmuminus in proton-lead (pPb) collisions are reported using data collected by the CMS experiment atsNN\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}} = 5.02 TeV. A comparison is made with corresponding cross sections obtained with pp data measured at the same collision energy and scaled by the Pb nucleus mass number. The nuclear modification factor for ΄\Upsilon(1S) is found to be RpPb(΄(1S))R_\mathrm{pPb}(\Upsilon(1S)) = 0.806 ±\pm 0.024 (stat) ±\pm 0.059 (syst). Similar results for the excited states indicate a sequential suppression pattern, such that RpPb(΄(1S))>RpPb(΄(2S))>RpPb(΄(3S))R_\mathrm{pPb}(\Upsilon(1S)) \gt R_\mathrm{pPb}(\Upsilon(2S)) \gt R_\mathrm{pPb}(\Upsilon(3S)). The suppression is much less pronounced in pPb than in PbPb collisions, and independent of transverse momentum pT΄p_\mathrm{T}^\Upsilon and center-of-mass rapidity yCM΄y_\mathrm{CM}^\Upsilon of the individual ΄\Upsilon state in the studied range pT΄<p_\mathrm{T}^\Upsilon \lt 30 GeV/c/c and ∣yCM΄∣<\vert y_\mathrm{CM}^\Upsilon\vert \lt 1.93. Models that incorporate sequential suppression of bottomonia in pPb collisions are in better agreement with the data than those which only assume initial-state modifications

    Search for CP violating top quark couplings in pp collisions at s \sqrt{s} = 13 TeV