1,217 research outputs found

    LeadinCare: A Qualitative Informed Digital Training Platform Development to Increase Physicians? Soft Communication Skills After COVID-19

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    The post-COVID-19 pandemic era has placed new demands on physicians. One of these demands is the need to use targeted knowledge and soft communication skills, to address the psychosocial problems (e.g. vaccine hesitancy, fears) of individuals with Chronic Physical Illnesses (CPIs). Focusing on training physicians in targeted soft communication skills can help health care systems to address psychosocial-type problems. Yet, such training programs are rarely implemented, effectively. This study aimed to (a) understand physicians’ implementation challenges when using soft communication skills during the COVID-19 pandemic; (b) identify beliefs, barriers, and facilitators that can influence physicians’ behaviours to use soft communication skills; and (c) inform the content of the LeadinCare; a new digital training platform, designed to improve physicians’ soft communication skills, by leveraging the TDF Theoretical Domain Framework (TDF). We conducted 14 in-depth semi-structured interviews with physicians in Greece, supporting non-COVID-19 cases with CPIs. We analyzed their data using inductive and deductive approaches. Physicians highlighted time, inability to see patients in person, absence of space for non-COVID-19 cases, and poor organizational procedures as barriers to using soft communication skills. Five TDF domains (beliefs) were identified as the most salient to inform the LeadinCare platform: (1) practical and well-organized knowledge; (2) skills that support patients and their relatives; (3) physicians’ beliefs about capabilities to use the skills; (4) beliefs about consequences of using the skills (job satisfaction); and (5) the use of digital, interactive, and on-demand platforms (environmental context & resources). We mapped the domains in six narrative-based practices that informed the content of the LeadinCare. Physicians need skills that go beyond talking and towards cultivating resilience and flexibility

    Predictors of changing patterns of adherence to containment measures during the early stage of COVID-19 pandemic: an international longitudinal study

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    Abstract Background Identifying common factors that affect public adherence to COVID-19 containment measures can directly inform the development of official public health communication strategies. The present international longitudinal study aimed to examine whether prosociality, together with other theoretically derived motivating factors (self-efficacy, perceived susceptibility and severity of COVID-19, perceived social support) predict the change in adherence to COVID-19 containment strategies. Method In wave 1 of data collection, adults from eight geographical regions completed online surveys beginning in April 2020, and wave 2 began in June and ended in September 2020. Hypothesized predictors included prosociality, self-efficacy in following COVID-19 containment measures, perceived susceptibility to COVID-19, perceived severity of COVID-19 and perceived social support. Baseline covariates included age, sex, history of COVID-19 infection and geographical regions. Participants who reported adhering to specific containment measures, including physical distancing, avoidance of non-essential travel and hand hygiene, were classified as adherence. The dependent variable was the category of adherence, which was constructed based on changes in adherence across the survey period and included four categories: non-adherence, less adherence, greater adherence and sustained adherence (which was designated as the reference category). Results In total, 2189 adult participants (82% female, 57.2% aged 31–59 years) from East Asia (217 [9.7%]), West Asia (246 [11.2%]), North and South America (131 [6.0%]), Northern Europe (600 [27.4%]), Western Europe (322 [14.7%]), Southern Europe (433 [19.8%]), Eastern Europe (148 [6.8%]) and other regions (96 [4.4%]) were analyzed. Adjusted multinomial logistic regression analyses showed that prosociality, self-efficacy, perceived susceptibility and severity of COVID-19 were significant factors affecting adherence. Participants with greater self-efficacy at wave 1 were less likely to become non-adherence at wave 2 by 26% (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.74; 95% CI, 0.71 to 0.77; P < .001), while those with greater prosociality at wave 1 were less likely to become less adherence at wave 2 by 23% (aOR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.75 to 0.79; P = .04). Conclusions This study provides evidence that in addition to emphasizing the potential severity of COVID-19 and the potential susceptibility to contact with the virus, fostering self-efficacy in following containment strategies and prosociality appears to be a viable public health education or communication strategy to combat COVID-19

    The impact of government actions and risk perception on the promotion of self-protective behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic

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    Introduction We aim to understand the factors that drive citizens of different countries to adhere to recommended self-protective behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods Survey data was obtained through the COVID-19 Impact project. We selected countries that presented a sufficiently complete time series and a statistically relevant sample for running the analysis: Cyprus, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Latvia, Spain, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America. To identify country-specific differences in self-protective behaviors, we used previous evidence and change-point detection analysis to establish variations across participating countries whose effect was then assessed by means of interrupted series analysis. Results A high level of compliance with health and governmental authorities’ recommendations were generally observed in all included countries. The level of stress decreased near the period when countries such as Cyprus, Greece or the United Kingdom relaxed their prevention behavior recommendations. However, this relaxation of behaviors did not occur in countries such as Germany, Ireland, or the United States. As observed in the change-point detection analysis, when the daily number of recorded COVID-19 cases decreased, people relaxed their protective behaviors (Cyprus, Greece, Ireland), although the opposite trend was observed in Switzerland. Discussion COVID-19 self-protective behaviors were heterogeneous across countries examined. Our findings show that there is probably no single winning strategy for exiting future health crises, as similar interventions, aimed to promote self-protective behaviors, may be received differently depending on the specific population groups and on the particular geographical context in which they are implemented.Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades: DCODES (PID2020-118589RB-I00)MCIN/ AEI/10.13039/5011000110333.752 Q2 JCR 20210.885 Q1 SJR 2022No data IDR 2021UE

    COVID-19 annual update: a narrative review

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    Three and a half years after the pandemic outbreak, now that WHO has formally declared that the emergency is over, COVID-19 is still a significant global issue. Here, we focus on recent developments in genetic and genomic research on COVID-19, and we give an outlook on state-of-the-art therapeutical approaches, as the pandemic is gradually transitioning to an endemic situation. The sequencing and characterization of rare alleles in different populations has made it possible to identify numerous genes that affect either susceptibility to COVID-19 or the severity of the disease. These findings provide a beginning to new avenues and pan-ethnic therapeutic approaches, as well as to potential genetic screening protocols. The causative virus, SARS-CoV-2, is still in the spotlight, but novel threatening virus could appear anywhere at any time. Therefore, continued vigilance and further research is warranted. We also note emphatically that to prevent future pandemics and other world-wide health crises, it is imperative to capitalize on what we have learnt from COVID-19: specifically, regarding its origins, the world's response, and insufficient preparedness. This requires unprecedented international collaboration and timely data sharing for the coordination of effective response and the rapid implementation of containment measures

    A Th17 cell-intrinsic glutathione/mitochondrial-IL-22 axis protects against intestinal inflammation.

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    Although the intestinal tract is a major site of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, the mechanisms by which antioxidant defense in gut T cells contribute to intestinal homeostasis are currently unknown. Here we show, using T cell-specific ablation of the catalytic subunit of glutamate cysteine ligase (Gclc), that the ensuing loss of glutathione (GSH) impairs the production of gut-protective IL-22 by Th17 cells within the lamina propria. Although Gclc ablation does not affect T cell cytokine secretion in the gut of mice at steady-state, infection with C. rodentium increases ROS, inhibits mitochondrial gene expression and mitochondrial function in Gclc-deficient Th17 cells. These mitochondrial deficits affect the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, leading to reduced phosphorylation of the translation repressor 4E-BP1. As a consequence, the initiation of translation is restricted, resulting in decreased protein synthesis of IL-22. Loss of IL-22 results in poor bacterial clearance, enhanced intestinal damage, and high mortality. ROS-scavenging, reconstitution of IL-22 expression or IL-22 supplementation in vivo prevent the appearance of these pathologies. Our results demonstrate the existence of a previously unappreciated role for Th17 cell-intrinsic GSH coupling to promote mitochondrial function, IL-22 translation and signaling. These data reveal an axis that is essential for maintaining the integrity of the intestinal barrier and protecting it from damage caused by gastrointestinal infection

    Glutathione supports lipid abundance in vivo.

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    Cells rely on antioxidants to survive. The most abundant antioxidant is glutathione (GSH). The synthesis of GSH is non-redundantly controlled by the glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC). GSH imbalance is implicated in many diseases, but the requirement for GSH in adult tissues is unclear. To interrogate this, we developed a series of in vivo models to induce Gclc deletion in adult animals. We find that GSH is essential to lipid abundance in vivo. GSH levels are reported to be highest in liver tissue, which is also a hub for lipid production. While the loss of GSH did not cause liver failure, it decreased lipogenic enzyme expression, circulating triglyceride levels, and fat stores. Mechanistically, we found that GSH promotes lipid abundance by repressing NRF2, a transcription factor induced by oxidative stress. These studies identify GSH as a fulcrum in the liver's balance of redox buffering and triglyceride production

    Randomized controlled trial of a group peer mentoring model for U.S. academic medicine research faculty

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    Abstract Introduction:Midcareer is a critical transition point for biomedical research faculty and a common dropout point from an NIH-funded career. We report a study to assess the efficacy of a group peer mentoring program for diverse biomedical researchers in academic medicine, seeking to improve vitality, career advancement, and cross-cultural competence. Methods:We conducted a stratified randomized controlled trial with a waitlist control group involving 40 purposefully diverse early midcareer research faculty from 16 states who had a first-time NIH R01 (or equivalent) award, a K training grant, or a similar major grant. The yearlong intervention (2 to 3 days quarterly) consisted of facilitated, structured, group peer mentoring. Main study aims were to enhance faculty vitality, self-efficacy in achieving research success, career advancement, mentoring others, and cultural awareness and appreciation of diversity in the workplace. Results:Compared to the control group, the intervention group’s increased vitality did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.20), but perceived change in vitality was 1.47 standard deviations higher (D = 1.47, P = 0.03). Self-efficacy for career advancement was higher in the intervention group (D = 0.41, P = 0.05) as was self-efficacy for research (D = 0.57, P = 0.02). The intervention group also valued diversity higher (D = 0.46, P = 0.02), had higher cognitive empathy (D = 0.85, P = 0.03), higher anti-sexism/racism skills (D = 0.71, P = 0.01), and higher self-efficacy in mentoring others (D = 1.14, P = 0.007). Conclusions:The mentoring intervention resulted in meaningful change in important dimensions and skills among a national sample of diverse early midcareer biomedical faculty. This mentoring program holds promise for addressing the urgencies of sustaining faculty vitality and cross-cultural competence

    COVID-19 annual update: a narrative review

    Get PDF
    Abstract Three and a half years after the pandemic outbreak, now that WHO has formally declared that the emergency is over, COVID-19 is still a significant global issue. Here, we focus on recent developments in genetic and genomic research on COVID-19, and we give an outlook on state-of-the-art therapeutical approaches, as the pandemic is gradually transitioning to an endemic situation. The sequencing and characterization of rare alleles in different populations has made it possible to identify numerous genes that affect either susceptibility to COVID-19 or the severity of the disease. These findings provide a beginning to new avenues and pan-ethnic therapeutic approaches, as well as to potential genetic screening protocols. The causative virus, SARS-CoV-2, is still in the spotlight, but novel threatening virus could appear anywhere at any time. Therefore, continued vigilance and further research is warranted. We also note emphatically that to prevent future pandemics and other world-wide health crises, it is imperative to capitalize on what we have learnt from COVID-19: specifically, regarding its origins, the world’s response, and insufficient preparedness. This requires unprecedented international collaboration and timely data sharing for the coordination of effective response and the rapid implementation of containment measures
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