7,585 research outputs found

    Ethiopia’s Third Class Citizens

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    Ethiopia is a country that is shaped by societal and cultural norms which perpetuate the subordination of Ethiopian women as a way of life. Present issues that continue to plague Ethiopian women include Female Genital Mutilation, Early Marriage, Lack of Adequate Maternal Healthcare, Gender Violence, Lack of Access to Education, Economic and Land Ownership Issues and Lack of Political Participation of Women in the Ethiopian Government. All of these women’s rights issues are both irreprehensible human rights violations and a threat to human security. While most of these practices are against the law, many continue to benefit from these cultural practices, therefore the law is not enforced


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    Existing Hypotheses about the Emergence of Nonsense Syllables in the Chant Tradition of Teretismata and Kratēmata in Byzantine Music

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    In the present essay, I review and evaluate the three main hypotheses about the historical background and emergence of the nonsense syllables in the chant tradition of teretismata and kratēmata in Byzantine music. The different historical hypotheses as to the historical roots and development of this singing practice are examined and analyzed thoroughly, namely those of Gregorios Stathis (1979, 2014), Diane Touliatos (1989), and Grigorios Anastasiou (2005). The aim of the analysis is to summarise and discuss the contribution of the up-to-date historical hypotheses to the theoretical approaches of the topic, including the identification of potential flaws, lacunae and inadequacies of their explanatory power. Touliatos takes antiquity as a starting point for her hypothesis and posits the roots of nonsense syllables in the music of Ancient Greece. After a historical gap of several centuries, those syllables reappear in the Byzantine music during the 14th c. Stathis and Anastasiou examine the phenomenon exclusively within the boundaries of Byzantine music. Before reviewing the three hypotheses concerning the historical development of nonsense syllables in Byzantine music, we must consider the sources on which the theories are postulated

    Unit Root Investigation With Two Breaks Of Greek Velocity (1858-1938)

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    In the present article the time series of Greek velocity are investigated for the presence of a unit root, allowing for maximum two breaks which take place at an unknown point in time. This methodology is preferred to conventional Dickey & Fuller tests because the covered time horizon, namely from 1858 to 1938, is characterized by a number of very important events, the nature of which is either economic or historical

    Trends and unit roots in Greek real money supply, real GDP and nominal interest rate

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    This paper presents the results of a unit root investigation of Greek real money supply, real G.D.P. and nominal interest rate, after following a sequen - tial procedure which takes into consideration the effect of the possibly erroneus presence or absence of the trend and/or intercept on the augmented Dickey – Fuller unit root test procedure.peer-reviewe

    Inflation Targeting And The Multiplier Accelerator Principle

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    In this paper we consider a closed economy and using the multiplier – accelerator principle we develop a simple dynamic New Keynesian type model in our effort to determine the time paths of income, actual and expected inflation towards their long – run equilibrium values. The equilibrium values of actual and expected inflation are proved to be affected by government expenditures and the growth rate nominal money supply. Assuming that the Central Bank is interested in stability of real stock of money supply, we specify the rule of determination of the growth rate in nominal money supply. The use of this rule guarantees the equality between inflation and the growth rate of nominal money supply and permits Central Bank to offset the effects of an expansionary fiscal policy on the real stock of money. The theoretic conclusions of our analysis are affirmed by the simulation results presented in the fourth section of our paper.&nbsp

    Normas monetarias y normas de retroalimentación fiscal

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    Based on a Cobb-Douglas social welfare function in terms of the utilities of two concurrent generations, this paper derives a Pareto-efficient, envy-free, and equitable interest rate rule supported by a nonlinear-tax feedback rule in case of steady-state disturbance. The young are taxed to subsidize the elderly, expecting the same treatment when the young become old; hence, fiscal policy matters as much as the monetary policy does with regard to the ‘‘same’’. The emphasis on monetary policy lies rather in the fact that once the equilibrium status quo of a policy accommodative of a given tax subsidy-cum-interest rate scheme is disturbed, the ‘‘interest-rate part’’ will continue being a sensible policy choice only by manipulating the ‘‘tax-subsidy part’’. From the political economy view of tax nonlinearity, the tax policy under instability is expected to be both a self-confirming and a perfect insight majority rule equilibriumBasándose en una función de bienestar social de Cobb-Douglas en términos de las utilidades de 2 generaciones concurrentes, este documento extrae una norma sobre tipos de interés, que es eficiente conforme a Pareto, libre de conflictos, y equitativa, sustentada por una norma de retroalimentación de los impuestos no lineales en caso de alteración del equilibrio. La fiscalidad de los jóvenes se utiliza como subsidio para los mayores, esperándose este mismo tratamiento cuando dichos jóvenes envejezcan; por tanto, la política fiscal tiene tanta importancia como la política monetaria para «los mismos». El énfasis sobre la política monetaria radica más bien en el hecho de que una vez que se altera el statu quo de equilibrio de una política que se acomoda a un programa de tipos de interés unidos a subsidios fiscales, la «parte de tipos de interés» seguirá siendo una elección de política prudente solo si se manipula la «parte de subsidios fiscales». Desde la óptica de la economía política de la no linealidad fiscal,es probable que la política fiscal en condiciones de inestabilidad constituya tanto un equilibrio de la norma mayoritaria autoverificativo como de percepción perfect

    The Influence Of Operational Cost On The Bank’s Profitability And The Welfare Of Its Clients: A Theoretical Approach

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    This paper deals with the way the rate of operational cost, as a proportion of time deposits, affects the optimal level of a monopolistic bank’s profits as well as the utility of its clients. In particular we prove that the optimal level of banking profits is negatively related to the rate of operational cost, while changes of the latter affect negatively the time deposit rate and positively the lending rate. As a result of these changes in interest rates, the utility of both borrowers and depositors is proved diminished