166 research outputs found

    THE STRUCTURE AND ABSOLUTE-CONFIGURATION OF TAUREMISIN

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    THE ABSOLUTE-CONFIGURATION OF AN IODO DERIVATIVE OF XERANTHOLIDE

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    Potential use of deodorised water extracts: polyphenol-rich extract of Thymus pannonicus All. as a chemopreventive agent

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    Deodorised water extracts of aromatic plants are obtained as by-products of essential oil isolation and usually discarded as waste. However, phytochemical composition of these extracts encourages their further utilization as food additives or functional food ingredients. In this study we investigated phytochemical composition, antioxidant and in vivo antiproliferative activity of deodorised water extract of Thymus pannonicus All. (DWE). HPLC analysis revealed rosmarinic acid (RA) (71.11 +/- 1.54 mg/g) as the most abundant constituent of the extract, followed by salvianolic acid H (14.83 +/- 0.79 mg/g, calculated as RA). DWE exhibited pronounced antioxidant activity in vitro, in FRAP and DPPH tests (FRAP value: 7.41 mmol Fe/g and SC50: 3.80 mu g/g, respectively). Using the model of Ehrlich carcinoma cells in mice that were treated with DWE prior, at the time, and after tumour cells implantation, the tumour growth suppression and redox status of malignant cells (i.e., activities of antioxidant enzymes, level of glutathione and intensity of lipid peroxidation) were followed. DWE applied as pretreatment caused disturbance of antioxidant equilibrium as well as apoptosis/necrosis of up to 90% EAC cells. Results obtained in the present study revealed chemopreventive potential and possibility of T. pannonicus DWE usage. High content of RA and other phenolic compounds explains, at least in part, the observed effects

    Perspectives on nanofiber dressings for the localized delivery of botanical remedies in wound healing

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    Ancestral Pueblo Archaeology: The Value of Synthesis

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    Archaeologists working in the Ancestral Pueblo region of the American Southwest have documented variability in sociopolitical and economic complexity, landscape use, community organization, mobility, and violence at a wide range of temporal and spatial scales from AD 500-1700. Recent studies have a strong synthetic orientation, employ methods that track material culture, mobility, and social networks at macroregional scales, and benefit from a renewed engagement with indigenous peoples. Much of this research relies on integrating vast amounts of data from numerous academic and cultural resource management projects and demonstrates the promise of an archaeology that relies on the cumulative acquisition and sharing of data. Given the scale and depth of this research, Ancestral Pueblo archaeology is an exceptional comparative case for archaeologists considering similar processes, especially at fine temporal and wide geographical scales, in ancient farming societies across the globe

    Functional traits shed new light on the nature of ecotones: a study across a bog-to-forest sequence

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    Ecotones have long been a focus of ecological research, and there is considerable current interest in functional traits in community ecology. Yet, surprisingly, the functional trait approach has not been applied to ecotones. A bog-forest sequence in southern New Zealand was sampled with a grid of quadrats, and eight traits related to leaf function were measured on the 54 species found. Two ecotones were identified using moving-window analysis: Ecotone I was the transition from bog to edge forest, and Ecotone II was the transition from edge forest to tall climax forest. No strict ecotonal species were present. In contrast to theoretical predictions, species richness was not higher or lower in either ecotone, rather, both ecotones represented a transition in richness from one community to the other. It has long been said that ecotones are mosaics, but species mosaicity was no higher in either ecotone than in the adjacent communities, in fact it was lower in Ecotone I. Functional trait diversity decreased along the sequence from bog to forest, with no deviation in either ecotone. However, examining mosaicity in terms of traits, there was a steady rise in Ecotone I and, in conformance with ecotone / functional trait theory, a clear peak in Ecotone II. We conclude that the features claimed for ecotones are often not present, and whether they are present is dependent on the components measured: species vs traits. Here, the clearest patterns were seen in trait mosaicity, but even this differed markedly between the two ecotones. Generalisations about ecotones should be avoided; they will vary from ecotone to ecotone, and probably depend on the type of ecotone: anthropogenic, environmental, switch, etc

    Human malarial disease: a consequence of inflammatory cytokine release

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    Malaria causes an acute systemic human disease that bears many similarities, both clinically and mechanistically, to those caused by bacteria, rickettsia, and viruses. Over the past few decades, a literature has emerged that argues for most of the pathology seen in all of these infectious diseases being explained by activation of the inflammatory system, with the balance between the pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines being tipped towards the onset of systemic inflammation. Although not often expressed in energy terms, there is, when reduced to biochemical essentials, wide agreement that infection with falciparum malaria is often fatal because mitochondria are unable to generate enough ATP to maintain normal cellular function. Most, however, would contend that this largely occurs because sequestered parasitized red cells prevent sufficient oxygen getting to where it is needed. This review considers the evidence that an equally or more important way ATP deficency arises in malaria, as well as these other infectious diseases, is an inability of mitochondria, through the effects of inflammatory cytokines on their function, to utilise available oxygen. This activity of these cytokines, plus their capacity to control the pathways through which oxygen supply to mitochondria are restricted (particularly through directing sequestration and driving anaemia), combine to make falciparum malaria primarily an inflammatory cytokine-driven disease
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