1,280 research outputs found

    Modelling of the effect of ELMs on fuel retention at the bulk W divertor of JET

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    Effect of ELMs on fuel retention at the bulk W target of JET ITER-Like Wall was studied with multi-scale calculations. Plasma input parameters were taken from ELMy H-mode plasma experiment. The energetic intra-ELM fuel particles get implanted and create near-surface defects up to depths of few tens of nm, which act as the main fuel trapping sites during ELMs. Clustering of implantation-induced vacancies were found to take place. The incoming flux of inter-ELM plasma particles increases the different filling levels of trapped fuel in defects. The temperature increase of the W target during the pulse increases the fuel detrapping rate. The inter-ELM fuel particle flux refills the partially emptied trapping sites and fills new sites. This leads to a competing effect on the retention and release rates of the implanted particles. At high temperatures the main retention appeared in larger vacancy clusters due to increased clustering rate

    Comparison of the structure of the plasma-facing surface and tritium accumulation in beryllium tiles from JET ILW campaigns 2011-2012 and 2013-2014

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    In this study, beryllium tiles from Joint European Torus (JET) vacuum vessel wall were analysed and compared regarding their position in the vacuum vessel and differences in the exploitation conditions during two campaigns of ITER-Like-Wall (ILW) in 2011–2012 (ILW1) and 2013–2014 (ILW2) Tritium content in beryllium samples were assessed. Two methods were used to measure tritium content in the samples – dissolution under controlled conditions and tritium thermal desorption. Prior to desorption and dissolution experiments, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy were used to study structure and chemical composition of plasma-facing-surfaces of the beryllium samples. Experimental results revealed that tritium content in the samples is in range of 2·1011^{11}–2·1013^{13} tritium atoms per square centimetre of the surface area with its highest content in the samples from the outer wall of the vacuum vessel (up to 1.9·1013^{13} atoms/cm2^{2} in ILW1 campaign and 2.4·1013^{13} atoms/cm2^{2} in ILW2). The lowest content of tritium was found in the upper part of the vacuum vessel (2.0·1012^{12} atoms/cm2^{2} and 2.0·1011^{11} atoms/cm2^{2} in ILW1 and ILW2, respectively). Results obtained from scanning electron microscopy has shown that surface morphology is different within single tile, however if to compare two campaigns main tendencies remains similar

    A molecular mechanism explaining albuminuria in kidney disease

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    Mammalian kidneys constantly filter large amounts of liquid, with almost complete retention of albumin and other macromolecules in the plasma. Breakdown of the three-layered renal filtration barrier results in loss of albumin into urine (albuminuria) across the wall of small renal capillaries, and is a leading cause of chronic kidney disease. However, exactly how the renal filter works and why its permeability is altered in kidney diseases is poorly understood. Here we show that the permeability of the renal filter is modulated through compression of the capillary wall. We collect morphometric data prior to and after onset of albuminuria in a mouse model equivalent to a human genetic disease affecting the renal filtration barrier. Combining quantitative analyses with mathematical modelling, we demonstrate that morphological alterations of the glomerular filtration barrier lead to reduced compressive forces that counteract filtration pressure, thereby resulting in capillary dilatation, and ultimately albuminuria. Our results reveal distinct functions of the different layers of the filtration barrier and expand the molecular understanding of defective renal filtration in chronic kidney disease

    Impact of ICRF on the scrape-off layer and on plasma wall interactions: From present experiments to fusion reactor

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    Recent achievements in studies of the effects of ICRF (Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies) power on the SOL (Scrape-Off Layer) and PWI (Plasma Wall Interactions) in ASDEX Upgrade (AUG), Alcator C-Mod, and JET-ILW are reviewed. Capabilities to diagnose and model the effect of DC biasing and associated impurity production at active antennas and on magnetic field connections to antennas are described. The experiments show that ICRF near-fields can lead not only to EĂ—B convection, but also to modifications of the SOL density, which for Alcator C-Mod are limited to a narrow region near antenna. On the other hand, the SOL density distribution along with impurity sources can be tailored using local gas injection in AUG and JET-ILW with a positive effect on reduction of impurity sources. The technique of RF image current cancellation at antenna limiters was successfully applied in AUG using the 3-strap AUG antenna and extended to the 4-strap Alcator C-Mod field-aligned antenna. Multiple observations confirmed the reduction of the impact of ICRF on the SOL and on total impurity production when the ratio of the power of the central straps to the total antenna power is in the range 0.6<Pcen_{cen}/Ptotal_{total}<0.8. Near-field calculations indicate that this fairly robust technique can be applied to the ITER ICRF antenna, enabling the mode of operation with reduced PWI. On the contrary, for the A2 antenna in JET-ILW the technique is hindered by RF sheaths excited at the antenna septum. Thus, in order to reduce the effect of ICRF power on PWI in a future fusion reactor, the antenna design has to be optimized along with design of plasmafacing components

    Global scaling of the heat transport in fusion plasmas