467,476 research outputs found

    An improved learning-and-optimization train fare design method for addressing commuting congestion at CBD stations

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    202208 bckwNot applicableOthersNational Natural Science Foundation of China; MOE (Ministry of Education in China) Project of Humanities and Social SciencesPublished36 month

    Maskless fluid jet polishing of optical structured surfaces

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    202203 bcchNot applicableRGCOthersGuangdong Natural Science Foundation Program 2019-20; International Partnership Scheme of the Bureau of the International Scientific Cooperation of the Chinese Academy of Sciences; The Hong Kong Polytechnic UniversityPublished24 month

    Preparation aragonite whisker-rich materials by wet carbonation of cement : towards yielding micro-fiber reinforced cement and sequestrating CO2

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    202208 bcrcRGCOthersOthers: Construction Industry CouncilStrategic Public Policy Research (SPPR) Funding SchemPublished24 month

    Short-term effects of cold spells on plasma viscosity: Results from the KORA cohort study in Augsburg, Germany.

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    As the underlying mechanisms of the adverse effects of cold spells on cardiac events are not well understood, we explored the effects of cold spells on plasma viscosity, a blood parameter linked to cardiovascular disease. This cross-sectional study involved 3622 participants from the KORA S1 Study (1984-1985), performed in Augsburg, Germany. Exposure data was obtained from the Bavarian State Office for the Environment. Cold spells were defined as two or more consecutive days with daily mean temperatures below the 3rd, 5th, or 10th percentile of the distribution. The effects of cold spells on plasma viscosity were explored by generalized additive models with distributed lag nonlinear models (DLNM). We estimated cumulative effects at lags 0-1, 0-6, 0-13, 0-20, and 0-27 days separately. Cold spells (mean temperature <3rd, <5th or <10th percentile) were significantly associated with an increase in plasma viscosity with a lag of 0-1 days [%change of geometric mean (95% confidence interval): 1.35 (0.06-2.68), 1.35 (0.06-2.68), and 2.49 (0.34-4.69), respectively], and a lag of 0-27 days [18.81 (8.97-29.54), 17.85 (8.29-28.25), and 7.41 (3.35-11.0), respectively]. For the analysis with mean temperature <3rd or 10th percentile, we also observed significant associations at lag 0-20 days [8.34 (0.43-16.88), and 4.96 (1.68, 8.35), respectively]. We found that cold spells had significant immediate and longer lagged effects on plasma viscosity. This finding supports the complex interplay of multiple mechanisms of cold on adverse cardiac events and enriches the knowledge about how cold exposure acts on the human body

    Long term exposure to air pollution and kidney parenchyma cancer – Effects of low-level air pollution: A Study in Europe (ELAPSE).

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    BACKGROUND: Particulate matter (PM) is classified as a group 1 human carcinogen. Previous experimental studies suggest that particles in diesel exhaust induce oxidative stress, inflammation and DNA damage in kidney cells, but the evidence from population studies linking air pollution to kidney cancer is limited. METHODS: We pooled six European cohorts (N = 302,493) to assess the association of residential exposure to fine particles (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), black carbon (BC), warm season ozone (O3) and eight elemental components of PM2.5 (copper, iron, potassium, nickel, sulfur, silicon, vanadium, and zinc) with cancer of the kidney parenchyma. The main exposure model was developed for year 2010. We defined kidney parenchyma cancer according to the International Classification of Diseases 9th and 10th Revision codes 189.0 and C64. We applied Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for potential confounders at the individual and area-level. RESULTS: The participants were followed from baseline (1985–2005) to 2011–2015. A total of 847 cases occurred during 5,497,514 person-years of follow-up (average 18.2 years). Median (5–95%) exposure levels of NO2, PM2.5, BC and O3 were 24.1 μg/m3 (12.8–39.2), 15.3 μg/m3 (8.6–19.2), 1.6 10−5 m−1 (0.7–2.1), and 87.0 μg/m3 (70.3–97.4), respectively. The results of the fully adjusted linear analyses showed a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.03 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.92, 1.15) per 10 μg/m³ NO2, 1.04 (95% CI: 0.88, 1.21) per 5 μg/m³ PM2.5, 0.99 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.11) per 0.5 10−5 m−1 BCE, and 0.88 (95% CI: 0.76, 1.02) per 10 μg/m³ O3. We did not find associations between any of the elemental components of PM2.5 and cancer of the kidney parenchyma. CONCLUSION: We did not observe an association between long-term ambient air pollution exposure and incidence of kidney parenchyma cancer

    Infections in Children Aged 6 Months to 5 Years Treated With Dupilumab in a Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial of Moderate-to-Severe Atopic Dermatitis

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    BackgroundPatients with atopic dermatitis (AD), particularly infants and young children, are atgreater risk of developing skin infections. In this study we assessed infection rates in AD patients aged 6 months to 5 years treated with dupilumab.MethodsIn LIBERTY AD PRESCHOOL, a double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 clinicaltrial, children aged 6 months to 5 years with moderate-to-severe AD were randomized 1:1 to subcutaneous dupilumab or placebo, with concomitant low-potency topical corticosteroids, every 4 weeks for 16 weeks. Exposure-adjusted infection rates were used to compare treatment groups.ResultsThe analysis included 162 patients, of whom 83 received dupilumab and 79 received placebo. Overall infection rates were not significantly different between the dupilumab and placebo groups (rate ratio [RR] 0.75, 95% CI [0.48-1.19], P = 0.223). Non-herpetic adjudicated skin infections and bacterial infections were significantly less frequent with dupilumab vs placebo (non-herpetic skin infections: RR 0.46, 95% CI [0.21-0.99], P = 0.047; bacterial infections: RR 0.09, 95% CI [0.01-0.67], P = 0.019), and the number of patients using systemic anti-infective medication was significantly lower in the dupilumab group (RR 0.52, 95% CI [0.30-0.89], P = 0.019). There were no significant differences in the number of herpetic infections between the dupilumab and placebo groups (RR 1.17, 95% CI [0.31-4.35], P = 0.817). The number of patients with two or more infection events was significantly higher in the placebo group (RR 0.29, 95% CI [0.12-0.68], P = 0.004), and no severe or serious infections (including eczema herpeticum) were observed among patients receiving dupilumab.ConclusionsThese data suggest that dupilumab treatment in infants and children younger than 6 years with AD does not increase overall risk of infections and is associated with a reduced risk of bacterial and non-herpetic skin infections compared to placebo, resulting in a reduced need for anti-infective medication.<br/