3,188 research outputs found

    Hydrogen Isotopic Composition of Hydrous Minerals in Asteroid Ryugu

    No full text
    Rock fragments of the Cb-type asteroid Ryugu returned to Earth by the JAXA Hayabusa2 mission share mineralogical, chemical, and isotopic properties with the Ivuna-type (CI) carbonaceous chondrites. Similar to CI chondrites, these fragments underwent extensive aqueous alteration and consist predominantly of hydrous minerals likely formed in the presence of liquid water on the Ryugu parent asteroid. Here we present an in situ analytical survey performed by secondary ion mass spectrometry from which we have estimated the D/H ratio of Ryugu’s hydrous minerals, D/H _Ryugu , to be [165 ± 19] × 10 ^−6 , which corresponds to δ D _Ryugu = +59 ± 121‰ (2 σ ). The hydrous mineral D/H _Ryugu ’s values for the two sampling sites on Ryugu are similar; they are also similar to the estimated D/H ratio of hydrous minerals in the CI chondrites Orgueil and Alais. This result reinforces a link between Ryugu and CI chondrites and an inference that Ryugu’s samples, which avoided terrestrial contamination, are our best proxy to estimate the composition of water at the origin of hydrous minerals in CI-like material. Based on this data and recent literature studies, the contribution of CI chondrites to the hydrogen of Earth’s surficial reservoirs is evaluated to be ∼3%. We conclude that the water responsible for the alteration of Ryugu’s rocks was derived from water ice precursors inherited from the interstellar medium; the ice partially re-equilibrated its hydrogen with the nebular H _2 before being accreted on the Ryugu’s parent asteroid

    Epigenetic regulation limits competence of pluripotent stem cell-derived oocytes

    No full text
    Recent studies have reported the differentiation of pluripotent cells into oocytes in vitro. However, the developmental competence of in vitro-generated oocytes remains low. Here, we perform a comprehensive comparison of mouse germ cell development in vitro over all culture steps versus in vivo with the goal to understand mechanisms underlying poor oocyte quality. We show that the in vitro differentiation of primordial germ cells to growing oocytes and subsequent follicle growth is critical for competence for preimplantation development. Systematic transcriptome analysis of single oocytes that were subjected to different culture steps identifies genes that are normally upregulated during oocyte growth to be susceptible for misregulation during in vitro oogenesis. Many misregulated genes are Polycomb targets. Deregulation of Polycomb repression is therefore a key cause and the earliest defect known in in vitro oocyte differentiation. Conversely, structurally normal in vitro-derived oocytes fail at zygotic genome activation and show abnormal acquisition of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine on maternal chromosomes. Our data identify epigenetic regulation at an early stage of oogenesis limiting developmental competence and suggest opportunities for future improvements.ISSN:0261-4189ISSN:1460-207

    A Capsid Protein Fragment of a Fusagra-like Virus Found in <i>Carica papaya</i> Latex Interacts with the 50S Ribosomal Protein L17

    No full text
    Papaya sticky disease is caused by the association of a fusagra-like and an umbra-like virus, named papaya meleira virus (PMeV) and papaya meleira virus 2 (PMeV2), respectively. Both viral genomes are encapsidated in particles formed by the PMeV ORF1 product, which has the potential to encode a protein with 1563 amino acids (aa). However, the structural components of the viral capsid are unknown. To characterize the structural proteins of PMeV and PMeV2, virions were purified from Carica papaya latex. SDS-PAGE analysis of purified virus revealed two major proteins of ~40 kDa and ~55 kDa. Amino-terminal sequencing of the ~55 kDa protein and LC-MS/MS of purified virions indicated that this protein starts at aa 263 of the deduced ORF1 product as a result of either degradation or proteolytic processing. A yeast two-hybrid assay was used to identify Arabidopsis proteins interacting with two PMeV ORF1 product fragments (aa 321–670 and 961–1200). The 50S ribosomal protein L17 (AtRPL17) was identified as potentially associated with modulated translation-related proteins. In plant cells, AtRPL17 co-localized and interacted with the PMeV ORF1 fragments. These findings support the hypothesis that the interaction between PMeV/PMeV2 structural proteins and RPL17 is important for virus–host interactions

    Abundant presolar grains and primordial organics preserved in carbon-rich exogenous clasts in asteroid Ryugu

    No full text
    International audiencePreliminary analyses of asteroid Ryugu samples show kinship to aqueously altered CI (Ivuna-type) chondrites, suggesting similar origins. We report identification of C-rich, particularly primitive clasts in Ryugu samples that contain preserved presolar silicate grains and exceptional abundances of presolar SiC and isotopically anomalous organic matter. The high presolar silicate abundance (104 ppm) indicates that the clast escaped extensive alteration. The 5 to 10 times higher abundances of presolar SiC (~235 ppm), N-rich organic matter, organics with N isotopic anomalies (1.2%), and organics with C isotopic anomalies (0.2%) in the primitive clasts compared to bulk Ryugu suggest that the clasts formed in a unique part of the protoplanetary disk enriched in presolar materials. These clasts likely represent previously unsampled outer solar system material that accreted onto Ryugu after aqueous alteration ceased, consistent with Ryugu’s rubble pile origin

    Lymphopenia at the time of transplant is associated with short-term mortality after deceased donor liver transplantation

    No full text
    Absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) is considered a surrogate marker for nutritional status and immunocompetence. We investigated the association between ALC and post-liver transplant outcomes in patients who received a deceased donor liver transplant (DDLT). Patients were categorized by ALC at liver transplant: low (\u3c500/μL), mid (500-1000/μL), and high ALC (\u3e1000/μL). Our main analysis used retrospective data (2013-2018) for DDLT recipients from Henry Ford Hospital (United States); the results were further validated using data from the Toronto General Hospital (Canada). Among 449 DDLT recipients, the low ALC group demonstrated higher 180-day mortality than mid and high ALC groups (83.1% vs 95.8% and 97.4%, respectively; low vs mid: P = .001; low vs high: P \u3c .001). A larger proportion of patients with low ALC died of sepsis compared with the combined mid/high groups (9.1% vs 0.8%; P \u3c .001). In multivariable analysis, pretransplant ALC was associated with 180-day mortality (hazard ratio, 0.20; P = .004). Patients with low ALC had higher rates of bacteremia (22.7% vs 8.1%; P \u3c .001) and cytomegaloviremia (15.2% vs 6.8%; P = .03) than patients with mid/high ALC. Low ALC pretransplant through postoperative day 30 was associated with 180-day mortality among patients who received rabbit antithymocyte globulin induction (P = .001). Pretransplant lymphopenia is associated with short-term mortality and a higher incidence of posttransplant infections in DDLT patients

    Carbonate record of temporal change in oxygen fugacity and gaseous species in asteroid Ryugu

    Get PDF
    The Hayabusa2 spacecraft explored asteroid Ryugu and brought its surface materials to Earth. Ryugu samples resemble Ivuna-type (CI) chondrites-the most chemically primitive meteorites-and contain secondary phyllosilicates and carbonates, which are indicative of aqueous alteration. Understanding the conditions (such as temperature, redox state and fluid composition) during aqueous alteration is crucial to elucidating how Ryugu evolved to its present state, but little is known about the temporal changes in these conditions. Here we show that calcium carbonate (calcite) grains in Ryugu and Ivuna samples have variable O-18/O-16 and C-13/C-12 ratios that are, respectively, 24-46 & PTSTHOUSND; and 65-108 & PTSTHOUSND; greater than terrestrial standard values, whereas those of calcium-magnesium carbonate (dolomite) grains are much more homogeneous, ranging within 31-36 & PTSTHOUSND; for oxygen and 67-75 & PTSTHOUSND; for carbon. We infer that the calcite precipitated first over a wide range of temperatures and oxygen partial pressures, and that the proportion of gaseous CO2/CO/CH4 molecules changed temporally. By contrast, the dolomite formed later in a more oxygen-rich and thus CO2-dominated environment when the system was approaching equilibrium. The characteristic isotopic compositions of secondary carbonates in Ryugu and Ivuna are not observed for other hydrous meteorites, suggesting a unique evolutionary pathway for their parent asteroid(s). The asteroid Ryugu experienced aqueous alteration under changing temperature and redox conditions, according to an isotopic analysis of secondary calcite and dolomite grains in samples from Ryugu obtained by the Hayabusa2 spacecraft

    Generation of four induced pluripotent stem cells lines from PBMC of the DFNA58 family members: Two hearing-impaired duplication carriers (USPi006-A e USPi007-A) and two normal-hearing noncarriers (USPi004-A and USPi005-A)

    No full text
    The DFNA58 locus contains a genomic duplication involving three protein-coding genes (CNRIP1, PLEK, and PPP3R1′s exon 1) and other uncharacterized lncRNA genes (LOC101927723, LOC107985892 and LOC102724389). To clarify the role of these genes in hearing and precisely determine their role in hearing loss, four iPSC lines were generated from two carriers and two noncarriers of the duplication