11,835 research outputs found

    NIH RECOVER tissue pathology PASC biorepository core manual of procedures.

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    NIH RECOVER tissue pathology PASC biorepository core manual of procedures.</p

    Extracting the speed of sound in the strongly interacting matter created in ultrarelativistic lead-lead collisions at the LHC

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    International audienceUltrarelativistic nuclear collisions create a strongly interacting state of hot and dense quark-gluon matter that exhibits a remarkable collective flow behavior with minimal viscous dissipation. To gain deeper insights into its intrinsic nature and fundamental degrees of freedom, we extracted the speed of sound in this medium created using lead-lead (PbPb) collisions at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of 5.02 TeV. The data were recorded by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 0.607 nb‚ąí1^{-1}. The measurement is performed by studying the multiplicity dependence of the average transverse momentum of charged particles emitted in head-on PbPb collisions. Our findings reveal that the speed of sound in this matter is nearly half the speed of light, with a squared value of 0.241 ¬Ī\pm 0.002 (stat) ¬Ī\pm 0.016 (syst) in natural units. The effective medium temperature, estimated using the mean transverse momentum, is 219 ¬Ī\pm 8 (syst) MeV. The measured squared speed of sound at this temperature aligns precisely with predictions from lattice quantum chromodynamic (QCD) calculations. This result provides a stringent constraint on the equation of state of the created medium and direct evidence for a deconfined QCD phase being attained in relativistic nuclear collisions

    Efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors for metastatic colorectal cancer with microsatellite instability in second or latter line using synthetic control arms: A non-randomised evaluation

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    Purpose Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) appeared active in single-arm trials for patients with chemoresistant metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) harboring microsatellite instability (MSI). Given the paucity of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in this setting, we evaluated the effect size of ICIs using intra-patients comparison and ARCAD database as historical controls. Patients and methods Individual-patient data from NIPICOL and CheckMate 142 phases II trials that evaluated a combination of ICIs for MSI mCRC patients (N=176) and from five non-ICI mCRC historical RCTs in second-line or latter (N=4026) were analyzed. Firstly, promising of ICIs was identified using intra-patient comparison based on growth modulation index (GMI). Survival outcomes of ICIs-treated patients were then compared with those matched non-ICIs treated from ARCAD database historical RCTs. Results Among ICIs-treated patients, median progression-free survival (PFS) on ICIs was 32.66 (range 0.10-74.25) versus 4.07 months (range 0.7-49.87) on prior therapy, resulting on median GMI of 4.97 (range 0.07-59.51; hazard-ratio (HR)=0.16 (95%CI=0.11-0.22, P<0.001)). Compared to matched non-ICI patients, in third-line, median overall survival (OS) was not reached with ICIs versus 3.52 months with placebo (HR=0.20, 95%CI=0.10-0.41, P<0.001), and 6.51 months with active drugs (HR=0.30, 95%CI=0.15-0.60, P=0.001). In second-line, median OS was not reached with ICIs versus 11.7 months with chemotherapy+placebo (HR=0.12, 95%CI=0.07-0.22, P<0.001), and 16.3 months with chemotherapy+targeted therapy (HR=0.10, 95%CI=0.05-0.19, P<0.001). Conclusion ICIs demonstrates high effect size for MSI mCRC patients in second-line and later. This work might be useful as an example of methodology to avoid RCTs when benefit from experimental therapy is likely to be high

    Individual <i>P</i>. <i>falciparum</i> isolates vary in their growth response to <i>EcR</i>-silencing.

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    (A) For An. coluzzii females, both p1 and p2 parasites produced larger oocysts in EcR-silenced females, but p3 parasites failed to respond to dsEcR conditions and did not grow larger than controls (GLMM, LRT). (B) For An. gambiae, all P. falciparum isolates responded to EcR-silencing by growing larger except for p6 parasites, which remained the same size as controls (Cntrl), even though they were fed to the same batch of mosquitoes as p5 parasites (GLMM, LRT). (A-B) Oocyst size does not vary significantly between parasite isolates in dsGFP controls for An. gambiae or An. coluzzii (An. coluzzii dsGFP: GLMM, LRT X22 = 1.52, p = 0.466; An. gambiae dsGFP: GLMM, LRT X24 = 3.47, p = 0.483), yet it does for dsEcR-treated females in both species (An. coluzzii dsEcR: GLMM, LRT X21 = 6.3, p = 0.012; An. gambiae dsEcR: GLMM, LRT X21 = 4.67, p = 0.031). (C) Oocyst size varies significantly between An. coluzzii and An. gambiae control females infected with the same parasite isolates (p1 and p3) (GLMM, LRT), whereby oocysts are larger in An. coluzzii than in An. gambiae. (D) An. coluzzii were collected as larvae from VK5, Burkina Faso and infected with P. falciparum isolates p1-p6. Pre-gravid females that failed to develop eggs were less likely to become infected (pie charts, P = oocyst prevalence, Fisher‚Äôs Exact), although among infected individuals, there was no difference in oocyst intensity (Mann-Whitney). (E) Pre-gravid females had significantly larger oocysts at 7 days pIBM compared to gravid females (GLMM, LRT). For all applicable panels, average oocyst size per midgut is shown for simplicity‚Äďanalyses are based on nested data incorporating all oocyst measurements. N = sample size, or number of mosquitoes. Noocysts = number of individual oocyst measurements. p# = parasite isolate.</p

    Measurement of multidifferential cross sections for dijet production in proton-proton collisions at s\sqrt{s} = 13 TeV