108 research outputs found

    Impact of brain tissue filtering on neurostimulation fields: A modeling study

    Get PDF
    Electrical neurostimulation techniques, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), are increasingly used in the neurosciences, e.g., for studying brain function, and for neurotherapeutics, e.g., for treating depression, epilepsy, and Parkinson's disease. The characterization of electrical properties of brain tissue has guided our fundamental understanding and application of these methods, from electrophysiologic theory to clinical dosing-metrics. Nonetheless, prior computational models have primarily relied on ex-vivo impedance measurements. We recorded the in-vivo impedances of brain tissues during neurosurgical procedures and used these results to construct MRI guided computational models of TMS and DBS neurostimulatory fields and conductance-based models of neurons exposed to stimulation. We demonstrated that tissues carry neurostimulation currents through frequency dependent resistive and capacitive properties not typically accounted for by past neurostimulation modeling work. We show that these fundamental brain tissue properties can have significant effects on the neurostimulatory-fields (capacitive and resistive current composition and spatial/temporal dynamics) and neural responses (stimulation threshold, ionic currents, and membrane dynamics). These findings highlight the importance of tissue impedance properties on neurostimulation and impact our understanding of the biological mechanisms and technological potential of neurostimulatory methods.United States. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (Contract W31P4Q-09-C-0117)National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (U.S.) (Award R43NS062530)National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (U.S.) (Award 1R44NS080632

    The compound Poisson limit ruling periodic extreme behaviour of non-uniformly hyperbolic dynamics

    Full text link
    We prove that the distributional limit of the normalised number of returns to small neighbourhoods of periodic points of non-uniformly hyperbolic dynamical systems is compound Poisson. The returns to small balls around a fixed point in the phase space correspond to the occurrence of rare events, or exceedances of high thresholds, so that there is a connection between the laws of Return Times Statistics and Extreme Value Laws. The fact that the fixed point in the phase space is a repelling periodic point implies that there is a tendency for the exceedances to appear in clusters whose average sizes is given by the Extremal Index, which depends on the expansion of the system at the periodic point. We recall that for generic points, the exceedances, in the limit, are singular and occur at Poisson times. However, around periodic points, the picture is different: the respective point processes of exceedances converge to a compound Poisson process, so instead of single exceedances, we have entire clusters of exceedances occurring at Poisson times with a geometric distribution ruling its multiplicity. The systems to which our results apply include: general piecewise expanding maps of the interval (Rychlik maps), maps with indifferent fixed points (Manneville-Pomeau maps) and Benedicks-Carleson quadratic maps.Comment: To appear in Communications in Mathematical Physic

    High autistic trait individuals do not modulate gaze behaviour in response to social presence but look away more when actively engaged in an interaction

    Get PDF
    Autism is characterised by difficulties in social functioning, notably in interactions with other people. Yet, most studies addressing social difficulties have used static images or, at best, videos of social stimuli, with no scope for real interaction. Here, we study one crucial aspect of social interactions—gaze behaviour—in an interactive setting. First, typical individuals were shown videos of an experimenter and, by means of a deception procedure, were either led to believe that the experimenter was present via a live video-feed or was pre-recorded. Participants' eye movements revealed that when passively viewing an experimenter they believed to be “live,” they looked less at that person than when they believed the experimenter video was pre-recorded. Interestingly, this reduction in viewing behaviour in response to the believed “live” presence of the experimenter was absent in individuals high in autistic traits, suggesting a relative insensitivity to social presence alone. When participants were asked to actively engage in a real-time interaction with the experimenter, however, high autistic trait individuals looked significantly less at the experimenter relative to low autistic trait individuals. The results reinforce findings of atypical gaze behaviour in individuals high in autistic traits, but suggest that active engagement in a social interaction may be important in eliciting reduced looking. We propose that difficulties with the spatio-temporal dynamics associated with real social interactions rather than underlying difficulties processing the social stimulus itself may drive these effects. The results underline the importance of developing ecologically valid methods to investigate social cognition

    Limit laws of entrance times for low complexity Cantor minimal systems

    Full text link
    This paper is devoted to the study of limit laws of entrance times to cylinder sets for Cantor minimal systems of zero entropy using their representation by means of ordered Bratteli diagrams. We study in detail substitution subshifts and we prove these limit laws are piecewise linear functions. The same kind of results is obtained for classical low complexity systems given by non stationary ordered Bratteli diagrams

    Correlation decay and recurrence estimates for some robust nonuniformly hyperbolic maps

    Full text link
    We study decay of correlations, the asymptotic distribution of hitting times and fluctuations of the return times for a robust class of multidimensional non-uniformly hyperbolic transformations. Oliveira and Viana [15] proved that there is a unique equilibrium state for a large class of non- uniformly expanding transformations and Holder continuous potentials with small variation. For an open class of potentials with small variation, we prove quasi-compactness of the Ruelle-Perron-Frobenius operator in a space VθV_\theta of functions with essential bounded variation that strictly contain Holder continuous observables. We deduce that the equilibrium states have exponential decay of correlations. Furthermore, we prove exponential asymptotic distribu- tion of hitting times and log-normal fluctuations of the return times around the average given by the metric entropy.Comment: 24 page

    Rapid and Reversible Recruitment of Early Visual Cortex for Touch

    Get PDF
    The loss of vision has been associated with enhanced performance in non-visual tasks such as tactile discrimination and sound localization. Current evidence suggests that these functional gains are linked to the recruitment of the occipital visual cortex for non-visual processing, but the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying these crossmodal changes remain uncertain. One possible explanation is that visual deprivation is associated with an unmasking of non-visual input into visual cortex.We investigated the effect of sudden, complete and prolonged visual deprivation (five days) in normally sighted adult individuals while they were immersed in an intensive tactile training program. Following the five-day period, blindfolded subjects performed better on a Braille character discrimination task. In the blindfold group, serial fMRI scans revealed an increase in BOLD signal within the occipital cortex in response to tactile stimulation after five days of complete visual deprivation. This increase in signal was no longer present 24 hours after blindfold removal. Finally, reversible disruption of occipital cortex function on the fifth day (by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation; rTMS) impaired Braille character recognition ability in the blindfold group but not in non-blindfolded controls. This disruptive effect was no longer evident once the blindfold had been removed for 24 hours.Overall, our findings suggest that sudden and complete visual deprivation in normally sighted individuals can lead to profound, but rapidly reversible, neuroplastic changes by which the occipital cortex becomes engaged in processing of non-visual information. The speed and dynamic nature of the observed changes suggests that normally inhibited or masked functions in the sighted are revealed by visual loss. The unmasking of pre-existing connections and shifts in connectivity represent rapid, early plastic changes, which presumably can lead, if sustained and reinforced, to slower developing, but more permanent structural changes, such as the establishment of new neural connections in the blind

    Atypical processing of gaze cues and faces explains comorbidity between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    Get PDF
    This study investigated the neurobiological basis of comorbidity between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We compared children with ASD, ADHD or ADHD+ASD and typically developing controls (CTRL) on behavioural and electrophysiological correlates of gaze cue and face processing. We measured effects of ASD, ADHD and their interaction on the EDAN, an ERP marker of orienting visual attention towards a spatially cued location and the N170, a right-hemisphere lateralised ERP linked to face processing. We identified atypical gaze cue and face processing in children with ASD and ADHD+ASD compared with the ADHD and CTRL groups. The findings indicate a neurobiological basis for the presence of comorbid ASD symptoms in ADHD. Further research using larger samples is needed

    Short-Term Visual Deprivation Does Not Enhance Passive Tactile Spatial Acuity

    Get PDF
    An important unresolved question in sensory neuroscience is whether, and if so with what time course, tactile perception is enhanced by visual deprivation. In three experiments involving 158 normally sighted human participants, we assessed whether tactile spatial acuity improves with short-term visual deprivation over periods ranging from under 10 to over 110 minutes. We used an automated, precisely controlled two-interval forced-choice grating orientation task to assess each participant's ability to discern the orientation of square-wave gratings pressed against the stationary index finger pad of the dominant hand. A two-down one-up staircase (Experiment 1) or a Bayesian adaptive procedure (Experiments 2 and 3) was used to determine the groove width of the grating whose orientation each participant could reliably discriminate. The experiments consistently showed that tactile grating orientation discrimination does not improve with short-term visual deprivation. In fact, we found that tactile performance degraded slightly but significantly upon a brief period of visual deprivation (Experiment 1) and did not improve over periods of up to 110 minutes of deprivation (Experiments 2 and 3). The results additionally showed that grating orientation discrimination tends to improve upon repeated testing, and confirmed that women significantly outperform men on the grating orientation task. We conclude that, contrary to two recent reports but consistent with an earlier literature, passive tactile spatial acuity is not enhanced by short-term visual deprivation. Our findings have important theoretical and practical implications. On the theoretical side, the findings set limits on the time course over which neural mechanisms such as crossmodal plasticity may operate to drive sensory changes; on the practical side, the findings suggest that researchers who compare tactile acuity of blind and sighted participants should not blindfold the sighted participants
    corecore