203 research outputs found

    Phytochemical screening and in vitro evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial efficacies of Pteropyum scoparium (Jaub. & Spach) Sidaf crude extracts

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    Objective: Pteropyrum scoparium Jaub. &amp; Spach locally known as “Sidaf” is a meal known to the ancient Omani people with many health benefits. It is traditionally used in Oman to treat high cholesterol, hypertension, indigestion problems, wound healing, and diabetes. However, these claims are yet to be scientifically proven. Hence, this study aimed to perform phytochemical, antioxidant, and antimicrobial analysis of P. scoparium leaves aqueous and alcoholic extracts to confirm its medicinal potential. Methods: A detailed phytochemical analysis of ethanol and aqueous extracts of leaves was carried out to confirm the presence of bioactive substances. DPPH (2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), agar-well diffusion and disc diffusion methods were used to evaluate antioxidant and antimicrobial potential, respectively. The extracts were tested against four microorganisms viz. E. coli (ATCC 25922), S. aureus (ATCC 23235), Penicillium sp. (ATCC 11597) and Rhizopus stolonifer (ATCC 14037). Results: The ethanol extract exhibited higher DPPH scavenging activity than aqueous extract that was confirmed with IC50 values of both extracts. However, the aqueous extract was found to be significantly more effective as an antimicrobial agent than the ethanol extract. This could be due to higher coumarins content that is thrice as much as in ethanol extract. One-way repeated measure RM ANOVA showed that there was a statistically significant difference in the antimicrobial susceptibility of all four organisms for the aqueous and ethanol well diffusion extracts (DF = 7; SS = 56.350, MS = 8.050; F = 5.865; P < 0.001). The highest mean zone of inhibition was recorded for S. aureus (12 ± 3.851 mm) well diffusion aqueous extract followed by R. stolonifer (11.750 ± 4.250 mm) well diffusion aqueous extract, and S. aureus (10.625 ± 3.771 mm) well diffusion ethanol extract. Conclusions: Phytochemical screening of ethanol and aqueous extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, carbohydrates, amino acid, fats &amp; fixed oils, phenolic compounds &amp; tannins, proteins, phytosterols, saponins, gum &amp; mucilage, terpenoids, coumarins and anthocyanins. The findings from this study will be useful in evaluating the phytochemical constituents present in the extract and developing commercial drugs as antioxidant and antimicrobial agents based on this plant

    Locating causal hubs of memory consolidation in spontaneous brain network in male mice

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    Abstract Memory consolidation after learning involves spontaneous, brain-wide network reorganization during rest and sleep, but how this is achieved is still poorly understood. Current theory suggests that the hippocampus is pivotal for this reshaping of connectivity. Using fMRI in male mice, we identify that a different set of spontaneous networks and their hubs are instrumental in consolidating memory during post-learning rest. We found that two types of spatial memory training invoke distinct functional connections, but that a network of the sensory cortex and subcortical areas is common for both tasks. Furthermore, learning increased brain-wide network integration, with the prefrontal, striatal and thalamic areas being influential for this network-level reconfiguration. Chemogenetic suppression of each hub identified after learning resulted in retrograde amnesia, confirming the behavioral significance. These results demonstrate the causal and functional roles of resting-state network hubs in memory consolidation and suggest that a distributed network beyond the hippocampus subserves this process

    Ethnobotanical uses and phytochemical, biological, and toxicological profiles of Datura metel L.: A review

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    Datura metel L., a recognized poisonous plant in the Solanaceae family, is widely distributed in the world. Traditionally, D. metel is used in many diseases, including neurological and heart diseases; fever; catarrh; pain; diarrhea; skin diseases; chronic bronchitis; asthma; digestive disorders; and so on. It possesses many important phytochemicals that can be used to treat various types of diseases. This review aims at summarizing the traditional uses, phytochemical, biological, and toxicological profiles of D. metel based on the database reports. For this, an up-to-date (till March 20, 2023) search was made in the databases: PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Scopus, and MedLine, with relevant keywords for the published evidence. Findings suggest that the plant has many traditional uses, such as a cure for madness, epilepsy, psoriasis, heart diseases, diarrhea, mad dog bites, indigestion, etc. It possesses various important phytochemicals, including withanolides, daturaolone, datumetine, daturglycosides, ophiobolin A, baimantuoluoline A, and many others. D. metel has many important biological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, insecticidal, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, analgesic, anti-pyretic, neurological, contraceptive, and wound healing capacity. In conclusion, the toxic plant, D. metel, can be considered a potential source of phyto-therapeutic lead compounds

    Neglected fracture shaft femur presenting with pseudoaneurysm: a case report

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    A pseudoaneurysm is a collection of blood leaking from a damaged arterial wall. Development of the false aneurysm is due to either initial injury of the vessel or is a complication of internal fixation of the femoral fracture. Femoral artery pseudoaneurysms (FAPs) may close spontaneously if the tear is small enough to allow for clotting and sealing. On the other hand, rupture of the aneurysm can trigger thrombosis, distal embolization and compression of adjacent structures. We present a case of left superficial femoral arterial pseudoaneurysm in a 36-year-old male with fracture of left femoral shaft. A 36-year-old male with history of road traffic accident presented to our institute with pain and swelling in left thigh. Patient was investigated and diagnosed with fracture left femoral shaft with a pseudoaneurysm of the left superficial femoral artery (SFA). Stenting was done for SFA followed by open reduction and internal fixation of the femoral shaft fracture. Such cases require multidisciplinary approach and a proper planning with involvement of different medical specialities to achieve optimal results and to minimise any intraoperative and post operative complications

    A protocol to investigate neural coupling of brain oscillations in rodents using in vivo electrophysiological recordings

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    Memory processes are highly dependent on a cross-talk between brain regions via synchronized neural oscillations. Here, we present a protocol to perform multi-site electrophysiological recordings in vivo in freely moving rodents to investigate functional connectivity across brain regions during memory processes. We describe steps for recording local field potentials (LFPs) during behavior, extracting LFP bands, and analyzing synchronized LFP activity across brain regions. This technique also provides the potential to simultaneously assess single unit activity using tetrodes. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Wang et al.1</p

    Proceedings of the 10th annual deep brain stimulation think tank: Advances in cutting edge technologies, artificial intelligence, neuromodulation, neuroethics, interventional psychiatry, and women in neuromodulation

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    The deep brain stimulation (DBS) Think Tank X was held on August 17-19, 2022 in Orlando FL. The session organizers and moderators were all women with the theme women in neuromodulation. Dr. Helen Mayberg from Mt. Sinai, NY was the keynote speaker. She discussed milestones and her experiences in developing depression DBS. The DBS Think Tank was founded in 2012 and provides an open platform where clinicians, engineers and researchers (from industry and academia) can freely discuss current and emerging DBS technologies as well as the logistical and ethical issues facing the field. The consensus among the DBS Think Tank X speakers was that DBS has continued to expand in scope however several indications have reached the "trough of disillusionment." DBS for depression was considered as "re-emerging" and approaching a slope of enlightenment. DBS for depression will soon re-enter clinical trials. The group estimated that globally more than 244,000 DBS devices have been implanted for neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. This year's meeting was focused on advances in the following areas: neuromodulation in Europe, Asia, and Australia; cutting-edge technologies, closed loop DBS, DBS tele-health, neuroethics, lesion therapy, interventional psychiatry, and adaptive DBS

    Optogenetic Stimulation and Spatial Localization of Neurons Using a Multi-OLED Approach

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    Mapping neurons in the brain with micron-resolution is important to understand the neuronal circuits involved in cognitive function and their impairment in neurological diseases. Although current optogenetic tools allow fast activation and inhibition of neuronal activity, they require the use of lasers or LEDs optically coupled to large implants, resulting in poor spatial resolution and light delivery occurring in only one plane. Here, we experimentally test and model the radiation patterns of a simple yet thoroughly designed multi-OLED system to predict the location of a single neuron based on its OLED-evoked response amplitude. Highly simplified OLED pixels based on Super Yellow with an emissive area of 1.5 × 3.5 mm2 were optimized to deliver a light intensity of 38 μW mm–2 at the neuron level. Investigated neurons expressing a red-shifted light-sensitive opsin Chrimson showed a robust neural response up to 16.7 pA that was time-locked to the light stimulation. Critically, the applied model to predict the neuron’s location based on the electrophysiological response amplitude matched the observed location with an error below 80 μm. Taken together, this proof-of-principle study demonstrates that a simple OLED system can be used to stimulate and locate neuronal activity, with the prospect to extend this approach to more advanced geometries in vivo.</p

    Theta coupling within the medial prefrontal cortex regulates fear extinction and renewal

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    Fear learning, and its extinction, are fundamental learning processes that allow for a response adaptation to aversive events and threats in the environment. Thus, it is critical to understand the neural mechanism that underpins fear learning and its relapse following extinction. The neural dynamics within the subregions of the medial prefrontal cortex, including the prelimbic cortex (PL) and the infralimbic (IL) cortex, and functional connectivity between them during fear extinction and its relapse, are not well understood. Using in-vivo electrophysiological recordings in awake behaving rats, we identified increased theta activity in the PL during fear learning and in the IL following extinction. Importantly, the PL-IL theta coupling is significantly enhanced throughout fear learning and extinction, but not in fear relapse. Together, our results provide evidence for the importance of synchronized PL-IL activity to regulate context-dependent retrieval of a fear extinction memory.</p
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