739 research outputs found

    Universities in the Market for Continuing Higher Education

    Get PDF
    The purpose of the paper is to explain why and how American universities have taken the lead in continuing education compared to their European counterparts. In a first step we will discuss different notions of continuing education and develop an analytical framework to handle its various forms. In a second step, we will develop a theoretical typology in the form of a morphography in order to scrutinize the basic structures of a system of continuing higher education. Third, using our morphography, we will introduce some empirical insight from a case study that was pursued at the Pennsylvania State University in July and August 2001. We con-clude with our assessments as to which elements from the American system of higher and con-tinuing education may be transferable to the European tradition.Continuing Education;Higher Education;Morphography

    The Portrayal of Sexual Abuse in Young Adult Literature

    Get PDF

    Benchmarking-Initiativen und ihre Eignung für die Anwendung in der Deutschen Wasserwirtschaft

    Get PDF
    Due to recent legislation, Benchmarking in the German water and sewerage sector will be introduced as widely as possible. Under certain conditions this decision by the German Bundestag might help to improve the efficiency of the industry. I will define two sets of conditions. First, a useful benchmarking initiative should fulfil certain criteria outlined in the paper. One is the coordination of the national system with an international one in order to allow international comparisons in the future. Second, a German benchmarking system should be as flexible as possible. A system which is comparable to the English solution of collecting, defining and comparing data would either make it easier to completely switch to the English regulatory approach or solely use certain interesting benchmarking elements which are presented here. On the basis of these two sets of conditions I analyse if a practicable benchmarking approach does already exist in Germany. I show that those German benchmarking systems which are interrelated with the system of the International Water System are especially applicable and should therefore be fostered.Sewerage, Benchmarking, Germany, Regulation.

    Kundenservice in der deutschen Wasserwirtschaft – Eine Analyse der Internetauftritte ausgewählter Unternehmen

    Get PDF
    There is a lack of competition in the German water and sewerage sector. According to economic theory levels of service can be expected to be inefficient. I will check this hypothesis and therefore take a closer look at various categories of levels of service. In analysing the internet pages of main German water and sewerage companies I exclusively work with those indicators of levels of service which do not need much capital investment in order to be improved. Most of these indicators are similar to those used in England. Therefore it is possible to compare the performances in levels of service in these two countries. I come to the conclusion that service offered by English companies is significantly better and in most cases more efficient than service offered by German ones. I therefore deduce that the main reason for that difference is in fact the existence of more competition in the English water and sewerage sector.Water; Sewerage; Levels of service; Germany; Regulation

    Elektronischer Handel im Lichte der Bestreitbarkeit von Märkten

    Get PDF
    Information and communication technologies are transforming economies and societies around the world. In this respect, E-Commerce has the capability to build a new global economy. That is why government, industries, non-profit organisations, trade unions and consumers would like to come together to set up a regulatory framework. As set out in our paper competition effects have to be considered when doing so. We identify and discuss various regulatory and private entry barriers to electronic markets and answer the question wether or not there is any need for international policy cordination in E-Commerce.E-Commerce; competition; regulation

    Hochschulen und Weiterbildung

    Get PDF
    Vor dem Hintergrund einer Implementierung lebenslangen Lernens wird auch in Deutschland versucht, Hochschulen zunehmend zu einem Engagement im Bereich der Weiterbildung zu motivieren. Ein Blick in die USA verdeutlicht, wie komplex eine solche Aufgabe ist. Wie müsste ein ordnungspolitisches Konzept aussehen, damit sich Hochschulen tatsächlich zu nachfrageorientierten Anbietern entwickeln können? --

    The role of the organic layer for phosphorus nutrition of young beech trees (Fagus sylvatica L.) revealed by multi-isotopic labelling (P-33; H2O-18) at two sites differing in soil phosphorus availability

    Get PDF
    The accumulation of an organic layer in forests is linked to the ratio between litterfall and decomposition rates, the latter being decelerated due to acidification and associated nutrient depletion with proceeding ecosystem development. Nevertheless, the nutrient pool in the organic layer might still represent an important interim storage and source for phosphorus (P) nutrition of forests on nutrient-poor soils. Due to the retention of P in soil e.g., by sorption to sesquioxides, P-poor ecosystems tend to show P recycling by organic matter decomposition. Our objective was to assess the importance of the organic layer to P nutrition of young beech trees. We established a mesocosm experiment including plants and soil from two forest sites differing in P availability. In half of all pots comprising both sites, the organic layer was present while the organic layer was lacking in the other half. We applied P-33 and H2O-18 to the pots. After 0h, 24h, 48h, 96h and 192h we destructively harvested the young beech trees, sampled the organic layer and mineral soil. P-33 activity was measured for every compartment in soil and plant (xylem, leaves, branches, stems) whereas δO-18 values in phosphate(δO-18P) were assessed for soil only. For both sites, δO-18P values in resin-extractable P in soil were close to those expected if isotope fractionation during intracellular pyrophosphate storage and subsequent release takes place. Therefore, δO-18P values indicate that bioavailable P in both soils has been cycled through microorganisms. However, the absence of an organic layer at the P-poor site resulted in a considerable shift of δO-18P values from those to be expected if P has been cycled through microorganisms. For both sites, the presence of the organic layer increased P-33 activity in xylem sap compared to the treatment without (104% P-poor site, 700% P-rich site). The total P-33 activity in plant tissue in pots from the P-rich site was not affected by the presence or absence of an organic layer after 192h, whereas a strong increase of 155 kBq/g DM was recorded for the P-poor site if an organic layer was present. Therefore, the key role of the organic layer for plant P nutrition on a P-depleted site was highlighted by our multi-isotopic labelling approach. In conclusion, our results suggest that P mobilization strategies differ among sites i.e., a P recycling vs. a P acquiring strategy

    Nutrient Addition Modifies Phosphatase Activities along an Altitudinal Gradient in a Tropical Montane Forest in Southern Ecuador

    Get PDF
    Atmospheric nutrient deposition and climate change are expected to endanger the diversity of tropical forest ecosystems. Nitrogen (N) deposition might influence nutrient fluxes beyond the N cycle by a concomitant increased demand for other nutritional elements such as phosphorus (P). Organisms might respond to the increased P demand by enhanced activity of enzymes involved in releasing inorganic P from organic matter (OM). Our aims were to assess the effect of i) climate shifts (approximated by an altitudinal gradient), and ii) nutrient addition (N, P, N+P) on phosphatase activity (PA) in organic layer and mineral soil of a tropical montane rainforest in Southern Ecuador. A nutrient manipulation experiment (NUMEX) was set up along an altitudinal gradient (1000, 2000, and 3000 m a.s.l.). We determined PA and inorganic and total P concentrations. PA at 1000 m was significantly lower (mean ± standard error: 48 ± 20 µmol p-NP g-1 dm h-1) as compared to 2000 m and 3000 m (119 ± 11 and 137 ± 19, respectively). One explanation might be that very rapid decomposition of OM at 1000 m results in very thin organic layers reducing the stabilization of enzymes and thus, resulting in leaching loss of enzymes under the humid tropical climate. We found no effect of N addition on PA neither in the organic layer nor in mineral soil, probably because of the low nutrient addition rates that showed ambiguous results so far on productivity measures as a proxy for P demand. In the organic layers of P and N+P treatments, we found decreased PA and increased concentrations of inorganic P. This indicates that the surplus of inorganic P reduced the biosynthesis of phosphatase enzymes. PA in megadiverse montane rainforests is likely to be unaffected by increased atmospheric N deposition but reduced upon atmospheric P deposition
    corecore