67,202 research outputs found

    Bacterial compositions of Jomon people’s coprolites.

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    Bar charts show the taxonomic classification of detected gut bacteria and proportion of each bacterial groups. The ratio was calculated based on the number of aligned reads. The colored bars indicate the top five abundant classifications. The light gray bar contains reads of all other known bacterial families, and the dark gray bar contains reads of unclassified bacteria. (TIF)</p

    Solar neutrino measurements using the full data period of Super-Kamiokande-IV

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    International audienceAn analysis of solar neutrino data from the fourth phase of Super-Kamiokande~(SK-IV) from October 2008 to May 2018 is performed and the results are presented. The observation time of the data set of SK-IV corresponds to 29702970~days and the total live time for all four phases is 58055805~days. For more precise solar neutrino measurements, several improvements are applied in this analysis: lowering the data acquisition threshold in May 2015, further reduction of the spallation background using neutron clustering events, precise energy reconstruction considering the time variation of the PMT gain. The observed number of solar neutrino events in 3.493.49--19.4919.49~MeV electron kinetic energy region during SK-IV is 65,443388+390(stat.)±925(syst.)65,443^{+390}_{-388}\,(\mathrm{stat.})\pm 925\,(\mathrm{syst.}) events. Corresponding 8B\mathrm{^{8}B} solar neutrino flux is (2.314±0.014(stat.)±0.040(syst.))×106 cm2s1(2.314 \pm 0.014\, \rm{(stat.)} \pm 0.040 \, \rm{(syst.)}) \times 10^{6}~\mathrm{cm^{-2}\,s^{-1}}, assuming a pure electron-neutrino flavor component without neutrino oscillations. The flux combined with all SK phases up to SK-IV is (2.336±0.011(stat.)±0.043(syst.))×106 cm2s1(2.336 \pm 0.011\, \rm{(stat.)} \pm 0.043 \, \rm{(syst.)}) \times 10^{6}~\mathrm{cm^{-2}\,s^{-1}}. Based on the neutrino oscillation analysis from all solar experiments, including the SK 58055805~days data set, the best-fit neutrino oscillation parameters are sin2θ12,solar=0.306±0.013\rm{sin^{2} \theta_{12,\,solar}} = 0.306 \pm 0.013 and Δm21,solar2=(6.100.81+0.95)×105 eV2\Delta m^{2}_{21,\,\mathrm{solar}} = (6.10^{+ 0.95}_{-0.81}) \times 10^{-5}~\rm{eV}^{2}, with a deviation of about 1.5σ\sigma from the Δm212\Delta m^{2}_{21} parameter obtained by KamLAND. The best-fit neutrino oscillation parameters obtained from all solar experiments and KamLAND are sin2θ12,global=0.307±0.012\sin^{2} \theta_{12,\,\mathrm{global}} = 0.307 \pm 0.012 and Δm21,global2=(7.500.18+0.19)×105 eV2\Delta m^{2}_{21,\,\mathrm{global}} = (7.50^{+ 0.19}_{-0.18}) \times 10^{-5}~\rm{eV}^{2}

    Electron microscopy observations of the diversity of Ryugu organic matter and its relationship to minerals at the micro-to-nanoscale

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    International audienceTransmission electron microscopy analyses of Hayabusa2 samples show that Ryugu organic matter exhibits a range of morphologies, elemental compositions, and carbon functional chemistries consistent with those of carbonaceous chondrites that have experienced low-temperature aqueous alteration. Both nanoglobules and diffuse organic matter are abundant. Non-globular organic particles are also present, and including some that contain nanodiamond clusters. Diffuse organic matter is finely distributed in and around phyllosilicates, forms coatings on other minerals, and is also preserved in vesicles in secondary minerals such as carbonate and pyrrhotite. The average elemental compositions determined by energy-dispersive spectroscopy of extracted, demineralized insoluble organic matter samples A0107 and C0106 are C100N3O9S1 and C100N3O7S1, respectively, with the difference in O/C slightly outside the difference in the standard error of the mean. The functional chemistry of the nanoglobules varies from mostly aromatic C=C to mixtures of aromatic C=C, ketone C=O, aliphatic (CHn), and carboxyl (COOH) groups. Diffuse organic matter associated with phyllosilicates has variable aromatic C, ketone and carboxyl groups, and some localized aliphatics, but is dominated by molecular carbonate (CO3) absorption, comparable to prior observations of clay-bound organic matter in CI meteorites

    Risk factors and management of intraprocedural rupture during coil embolization of unruptured intracranial aneurysms: role of balloon guiding catheter

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    IntroductionIntraprocedural rupture (IPR) is a serious complication of endovascular coil embolization of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs). Although outcomes after IPR are poor, methods to prevent subsequent neurological deterioration have not yet been investigated. We evaluated the risk factors and management strategies for IPR, particularly the role of balloon guiding catheters (BGCs) in rapid hemostasis.MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed all UIA cases treated with coil embolization at three institutions between 2003 and 2021, focusing on preoperative radiological data, operative details, and outcomes.ResultsIn total, 2,172 aneurysms were treated in 2026 patients. Of these, 19 aneurysms in 19 patients (0.8%) ruptured during the procedure. Multivariate analysis revealed that aneurysms with a bleb (OR: 3.03, 95% CI: 1.21 to 7.57, p = 0.017), small neck size (OR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.37 to 0.85, p = 0.007), and aneurysms in the posterior communicating artery (PcomA) (OR: 4.92, 95% CI: 1.19 to 20.18, p = 0.027) and anterior communicating artery (AcomA) (OR: 12.08, 95% CI: 2.99 to 48.79, p &lt; 0.001) compared with the internal carotid artery without PcomA were significantly associated with IPR. The incidence of IPR was similar between the non-BGC and BGC groups (0.9% vs. 0.8%, p = 0.822); however, leveraging BGC was significantly associated with lower morbidity and mortality rates after IPR (0% vs. 44%, p = 0.033).DiscussionThe incidence of IPR was relatively low. A bleb, small aneurysm neck, and location on PcomA and AcomA are independent risk factors for IPR. The use of BGC may prevent fatal clinical deterioration and achieve better clinical outcomes in patients with IPR

    Alignment to amoeba genome.

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    Coprolites contain various kinds of ancient DNAs derived from gut micro-organisms, viruses, and foods, which can help to determine the gut environment of ancient peoples. Their genomic information should be helpful in elucidating the interaction between hosts and microbes for thousands of years, as well as characterizing the dietary behaviors of ancient people. We performed shotgun metagenomic sequencing on four coprolites excavated from the Torihama shell-mound site in the Japanese archipelago. The coprolites were found in the layers of the Early Jomon period, corresponding stratigraphically to 7000 to 5500 years ago. After shotgun sequencing, we found that a significant number of reads showed homology with known gut microbe, viruses, and food genomes typically found in the feces of modern humans. We detected reads derived from several types of phages and their host bacteria simultaneously, suggesting the coexistence of viruses and their hosts. The food genomes provide biological evidence for the dietary behavior of the Jomon people, consistent with previous archaeological findings. These results indicate that ancient genomic analysis of coprolites is useful for understanding the gut environment and lifestyle of ancient peoples.</div

    Alignment to CRISPR targeted sequences.

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    Coprolites contain various kinds of ancient DNAs derived from gut micro-organisms, viruses, and foods, which can help to determine the gut environment of ancient peoples. Their genomic information should be helpful in elucidating the interaction between hosts and microbes for thousands of years, as well as characterizing the dietary behaviors of ancient people. We performed shotgun metagenomic sequencing on four coprolites excavated from the Torihama shell-mound site in the Japanese archipelago. The coprolites were found in the layers of the Early Jomon period, corresponding stratigraphically to 7000 to 5500 years ago. After shotgun sequencing, we found that a significant number of reads showed homology with known gut microbe, viruses, and food genomes typically found in the feces of modern humans. We detected reads derived from several types of phages and their host bacteria simultaneously, suggesting the coexistence of viruses and their hosts. The food genomes provide biological evidence for the dietary behavior of the Jomon people, consistent with previous archaeological findings. These results indicate that ancient genomic analysis of coprolites is useful for understanding the gut environment and lifestyle of ancient peoples.</div

    EVACUATION BEHAVIOR AND CHILDCARE CONTINUITY AT A NURSERY SCHOOL IN AJIGASAWA TOWN, AOMORI PREFECUTURE DUE TO HEAVY RAIN FROM AUGUST 9, 2022

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    日本海から東北北部に伸びる停滞前線の影響による豪雨で2022年8月9日に青森県鯵ヶ沢町を流れる中村川が氾濫し,鰺ヶ沢町の市街地で1mを超える浸水被害が発生した.町中心部にある保育園は床上0.75mの浸水被害を受けたほか,在園中の園児47名はバスと徒歩で近くの小学校へ避難した.避難は避難指示が発令された直後の11時から約30分かけて行われた.被災当日にも代替保育施設の検討が行われ,休園することなく応急保育の後,公民館を利用して保育が継続された.保育園での聞き取りから,避難行動と保育継続の課題を整理した.さらに,保育園周辺の浸水痕跡調査と中村川の洪水氾濫解析から市街地の洪水進行過程を再現した上で,避難経路や避難行動は適切であったかについて検証した.Due to the heavy rain from August 9, 2022, the Nakamura River, which flows through Ajigasawa Town, Aomori Prefecture, overflowed, causing flood damage exceeding 1 m. A nursery school was flooded up to 0.75m above the floor, and 47 children evacuated to a nearby elementary school by bus and on foot. Evacuation was carried out for about 30 minutes from 11:00 immediately after the evacuation order was issued. Even on the day of the disaster, an alternative nursery school was considered, and after the emergency nursery school, the nursery school was continued using the public hall. Based on interviews at the nursery school, we sorted out the problems of evacuation behavior and childcare continuity. In addition, after reproducing the progress of the flood in the urban area based on the flood trace survey around the nursery school and the flood inundation analysis of the Nakamura River, it was verified whether the evacuation route and evacuation behavior were appropriate
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