14,923 research outputs found

    Using deep learning to quantify neuronal activation from single-cell and spatial transcriptomic data

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    Neuronal activity-dependent transcription directs molecular processes that regulate synaptic plasticity, brain circuit development, behavioral adaptation, and long-term memory. Single cell RNA-sequencing technologies (scRNAseq) are rapidly developing and allow for the interrogation of activity-dependent transcription at cellular resolution. Here, we present NEUROeSTIMator, a deep learning model that integrates transcriptomic signals to estimate neuronal activation in a way that we demonstrate is associated with Patch-seq electrophysiological features and that is robust against differences in species, cell type, and brain region. We demonstrate this method’s ability to accurately detect neuronal activity in previously published studies of single cell activity-induced gene expression. Further, we applied our model in a spatial transcriptomic study to identify unique patterns of learning-induced activity across different brain regions in male mice. Altogether, our findings establish NEUROeSTIMator as a powerful and broadly applicable tool for measuring neuronal activation, whether as a critical covariate or a primary readout of interest.</p

    “In My Mind, It Was Just Temporary”: A Qualitative Study of the Impacts of Cancer on Men and Their Strategies to Cope

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    Individuals who are diagnosed and treated for cancer use a variety of strategies to manage its impacts. However, there is currently a lack of research on men’s experience with managing cancer impacts, which is necessary to better support them throughout the cancer care continuum. This study explored the experience of men diagnosed with cancer, focusing on the impacts of the illness and its treatment and men’s strategies to cope. A qualitative descriptive design was used. Thirty-one men ( M age = 52.7 [26–82] years) diagnosed with various cancer types were recruited to take part in individual telephone interviews ( n = 14) or online focus groups ( n = 17) addressing the impacts of cancer and strategies they used to cope with these impacts. Directed content analysis was performed, using Fitch’s (2008) supportive care framework to guide the analysis. Cancer impacts and strategies used to cope were classified into six categories: physical, psychological, interpersonal, informational, practical, and spiritual. Results indicate that the cancer experience is diverse and multifaceted rather than homogeneous. Medical and supportive care services could be more effectively personalized to meet the diversity of men’s needs by adopting a comprehensive and holistic approach to supportive care. Working in partnership with patients, it appears promising to recognize and identify men’s needs and match them to appropriate resources to provide truly supportive care

    Man Lost in the Convergence of Time, Avebury (2022): Reconfiguring film through human figure removal and collage

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    This article outlines the processes taken in composing the piece man lost in the convergence of time, a series of prints in which generative diffusion models are used to abstract video through language, by initially removing the human from a film shoot at Avebury’s ceremonial path, Wiltshire (2022). With this work we seek to reveal intrinsic bias in high- resolution image models released to the public for appropriation, introducing sets of text prompts which anchor video-to-video translation allegorical to science fiction. We developed a collage methodology where a secondary model opposed to the diffusion process predicts masks using dichotomous image segmentation, allowing us to composite the footage and mask to further diffusion steps recursively. Our series illustrates different attempts where we were successful in creating formal abstraction with semantic consistency and carry on a discussion on possible futures of experimental compositing techniques with CLIP-guidance conditioned by field recordings. We acknowledge our work promotes reinterpretation of space in moving image, as it has been in different generative model contexts

    General Practitioners perspectives on infant telomere length screening after a pregnancy complication: a qualitative analysis.

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    OnlinePublBackground: Pregnancy complications can impact the mother and child’s health in the short and longterm resulting in an increased risk of chronic disease later in life. Telomere length is a biomarker of future cardiometabolic diseases and may offer a novel way of identifying offspring most at risk for future chronic diseases. Objective(s): To qualitatively explore General Practitioners’ (GPs) perspectives on the feasibility and uptake for recommending a telomere screening test in children who were born after a pregnancy complication. Methods:Twelve semi-structured interviews were conducted with GPs within metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed for codes and themes. Results: Two themes were generated: ethical considerations and practical considerations. Ethically, the GP participants discussed barriers including consenting on behalf of a child, parental guilt, and the impact of health insurance, whereas viewing it for health promotion was a facilitator. For practical considerations, barriers included the difficulty in identifying people eligible for screening, maintaining medical communication between service providers, and time and financial constraints, whereas linking screening for telomere length with existing screening would facilitate uptake. Conclusions: GPs were generally supportive of potential telomere screening in infants, particularly via a saliva test that could be embedded in current antenatal care. However, several challenges, such as lack of knowledge, ethical considerations, and time and financial constraints, need to be overcome before such a test could be implemented into practice.Carolyn J. Puglisi, Joshua McDonough, Tina Bianco-Miotto, Jessica A. Griege

    I Don’t Think You like Me: Examining Metaperceptions of Interpersonal Liking in Second Language Academic Interaction

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    People often think about how they are perceived by others, but their perceptions (described as metaperceptions) are frequently off-target. Speakers communicating in their first language demonstrate a robust phenomenon, called the liking gap, where they consistently underestimate how much they are liked by their interlocutors. We extended this research to second language (L2) speakers to determine whether they demonstrate a similar negative bias and if it predicts willingness to engage in future interactions. We paired 76 English L2 university students with a previously unacquainted student to carry out a 10 min academic discussion task in English. After the conversation, students rated each other’s interpersonal liking, speaking skill, and interactional behavior, provided their metaperceptions for their partner’s ratings of the same dimensions, and assessed their willingness to engage in future interaction. We found a reliable interpersonal liking gap for all speakers, along with speaking skill and interaction behavior gaps for female speakers only. Only the female speakers (irrespective of their partner’s gender) seemed to factor metaperceptions into their willingness to engage in future communication. We discuss the implications of these initial findings and call for further work into the role of metaperception in L2 communication

    “I feel like nothing else will ever be this hard” : the dimensions of teacher resilience during the COVID-19 pandemic

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    While the COVID-19 global pandemic has resulted in numerous lockdowns, understanding how teachers experience the shift to remote learning and the person focussed skills and capacities they employ during this time is vital. We draw from an online qualitative study to examine questionnaire data from 137 Australian teachers. Using the four dimensions of teacher resilience as a lens for analysis, we highlight the multidimensional approach teachers employ to navigate the challenge of teaching remotely. © 2023 Kappa Delta Pi

    A qualitative study of physiotherapy educators’ views and experience of practice education and simulation-based learning

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    Background: Globally, practice education is a core component of physiotherapy training. Physiotherapy educators struggle to find sufficient workplace placements to ensure adequate clinical experience. Simulation-based learning (SBL) could complement clinical workplace experiences and bridge the gap between demand and provision. This study explores academic physiotherapy educators’ views and experiences of practice education and the potential contribution of SBL. Methods: Representatives from all six Schools of Physiotherapy on the island of Ireland participated in focus groups. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. Qualitative data were analysed using interpretive description methodology. Results: We conducted seven focus groups with 29 academic educators (26 females and 3 males). Three core themes were identified: (i) challenges in practice education, (ii) the potential for SBL in practice education and (iii) barriers and enablers to integrating SBL in practice education. COVID-19 had dual impacts, both exacerbating challenges and precipitating innovations in practice education. Analysis revealed guidance for how to fit SBL within practice education although varied understanding and limited experience with using SBL remained. Barriers to SBL included cost, time, logistics and stakeholder buy-in, while collaboration represented a key facilitator. Perceived benefits of SBL included enhanced student capacity and experience. Conclusions: A number of contributing factors threaten traditional workplace-based physiotherapy practice education in Ireland. SBL may reduce this threat and solicit ever better performances from students. Future research should examine the feasibility of proposed SBL deployment and foster buy-in from key stakeholders.</p

    The association of North Dakota skilled nursing facility characteristics with COVID-19 outbreak severity

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    Context: COVID-19 exerted severe challenges on skilled nursing facility (SNF) residents and staff. A combination of internal and external factors predisposed SNFs to an increased propensity of COVID-19 spread. Objective: The purpose of this paper is to examine which facility characteristics may have contributed to COVID-19 outbreaks within urban and rural North Dakota skilled nursing facilities. Methods: A 23-question survey regarding facility characteristics was developed and distributed to all 78 North Dakota skilled nursing facilities (SNF). Findings: Of the North Dakota SNF, 40 out of 78 total facilities (51.2%) participated in the survey. Of those participating, 38 of 40 (95%) were in counties with populations under 50,000, with the smallest county population being 1,876. A Spearman’s rank test suggested a relationship between the community spread of COVID-19 and the COVID-19 positivity of SNF residents. Spearman’s rank also suggested a positive association between the SNF resident COVID-19 positivity in relation to staff positivity (p-value 0.042) and county rates (p-value 0.045). Limitations: While this is a comprehensive survey with a very good response rate, two key limitations are identified. First, the survey relies on self-reported data from SNF staff. Second, it is not clear what data would have been received from non-responding SNFs. Implications: Substantial lessons have been learned, which may not only aid future pandemic preparedness but improve the quality of care for nursing home residents during a pandemic or other respiratory disease outbreaks. Proactively knowing susceptibilities and vulnerabilities ahead of time will allow local and state leaders to plan and allocate resources. Future state and local pandemic emergency plans need to be reviewed with the prioritization of skilled nursing facilities as front line facilities during a pandemic, rather than placing their “traditional” emphasis of emergency preparedness on hospitals
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