62 research outputs found

    Association of candidate genetic variants and circulating levels of ApoE/ApoJ with common neuroimaging features of cerebral amyloid angiopathy

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    IntroductionCerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is characterized by the accumulation of amyloid-beta (A beta) in brain vessels and is a main cause of lobar intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in the elderly. CAA is associated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) markers of small vessel disease (SVD). Since A beta is also accumulated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the brain parenchyma, we aimed to study if several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with AD were also associated with CAA pathology. Furthermore, we also studied the influence of APOE and CLU genetic variants in apolipoprotein E (ApoE) and clusterin/apolipoprotein J (ApoJ) circulating levels and their distribution among lipoproteins. MethodsThe study was carried out in a multicentric cohort of 126 patients with lobar ICH and clinical suspicion of CAA. ResultsWe observed several SNPs associated with CAA neuroimaging MRI markers [cortical superficial siderosis (cSS), enlarged perivascular spaces in the centrum semiovale (CSO-EPVS), lobar cerebral microbleeds (CMB), white matter hyperintensities (WMH), corticosubcortical atrophy and CAA-SVD burden score]. Concretely, ABCA7 (rs3764650), CLU (rs9331896 and rs933188), EPHA1 (rs11767557), and TREML2 (rs3747742) were significantly associated with a CAA-SVD burden score. Regarding circulating levels of apolipoproteins, protective AD SNPs of CLU [rs11136000 (T) and rs9331896 (C)] were significantly associated with higher HDL ApoJ content in the lobar ICH cohort. APOE epsilon 2 carriers presented higher plasma and LDL-associated ApoE levels whereas APOE epsilon 4 carriers presented lower plasma ApoE levels. Additionally, we observed that lower circulating ApoJ and ApoE levels were significantly associated with CAA-related MRI markers. More specifically, lower LDL-associated ApoJ and plasma and HDL-associated ApoE levels were significantly associated with CSO-EPVS, lower ApoJ content in HDL with brain atrophy and lower ApoE content in LDL with the extent of cSS. DiscussionThis study reinforces the relevance of lipid metabolism in CAA and cerebrovascular functionality. We propose that ApoJ and ApoE distribution among lipoproteins may be associated with pathological features related to CAA with higher ApoE and ApoJ levels in HDL possibly enhancing atheroprotective, antioxidative, and anti-inflammatory responses in cerebral beta-amyloidosis

    Immunomodulatory effect of a very-low-calorie ketogenic diet compared with bariatric surgery and a low-calorie diet in patients with excessive body weight

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    Background & aim: Inflammation and oxidative stress are the most probable mechanistic link between obesity and its co-diseases with cancer among them. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the nutritional ketosis and weight loss induced by a very-low-calorie ketogenic diet (VLCKD) modulates the inflammatory and oxidative stress profile, compared with a standard, balanced hypocaloric diet (LCD) or bariatric surgery (BS) in patients with obesity. Methods: The study was performed in 79 patients with overweight or obesity and 32 normal-weight volunteers as the control group. Patients with obesity underwent a weight reduction therapy based on VLCKD, LCD or BS. The quantification of the circulating levels of a multiplexing test of cytokines and carcinogenesis/aging biomarkers, as well as of lipid peroxides and total antioxidant power, was carried out. Results:First, we observed that pro-inflammatory cytokines increase, while anti-inflammatory cytokines decrease under excessive body weight. Relevantly, when patients underwent weight loss strategies, it was shown that energy-restricted and surgical strategies of weight loss induced changes in circulating cytokine and lipid peroxides. This effect was more notable in patients following the VLCKD than the LCD or BS and it was observed mainly in the ketosis phase of the intervention. Particularly, IL-11, IL-12, IL-2, INF-ő≥, INF-ő≤, Pentraxin-3 or MMP1 changed after VLCKD. Whereas, APRIL, TWEAK, osteocalcin and IL-28A increased after BS. Conclusion: As far as we know, this is the first study that evaluate the time-course of cytokines and oxidative stress markers after a VLCKD as compared with a standard LCD and BS. The observed results support the immunomodulatory effect of nutritional ketosis induced by a VLCKD synergistically with weight loss as a strategy to improve innate-immunity and to prevent infections and carcinogenesis in patients with obesityS

    Stroke genetics informs drug discovery and risk prediction across ancestries

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    Previous genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of stroke - the second leading cause of death worldwide - were conducted predominantly in populations of European ancestry(1,2). Here, in cross-ancestry GWAS meta-analyses of 110,182 patients who have had a stroke (five ancestries, 33% non-European) and 1,503,898 control individuals, we identify association signals for stroke and its subtypes at 89 (61 new) independent loci: 60 in primary inverse-variance-weighted analyses and 29 in secondary meta-regression and multitrait analyses. On the basis of internal cross-ancestry validation and an independent follow-up in 89,084 additional cases of stroke (30% non-European) and 1,013,843 control individuals, 87% of the primary stroke risk loci and 60% of the secondary stroke risk loci were replicated (P < 0.05). Effect sizes were highly correlated across ancestries. Cross-ancestry fine-mapping, in silico mutagenesis analysis(3), and transcriptome-wide and proteome-wide association analyses revealed putative causal genes (such as SH3PXD2A and FURIN) and variants (such as at GRK5 and NOS3). Using a three-pronged approach(4), we provide genetic evidence for putative drug effects, highlighting F11, KLKB1, PROC, GP1BA, LAMC2 and VCAM1 as possible targets, with drugs already under investigation for stroke for F11 and PROC. A polygenic score integrating cross-ancestry and ancestry-specific stroke GWASs with vascular-risk factor GWASs (integrative polygenic scores) strongly predicted ischaemic stroke in populations of European, East Asian and African ancestry(5). Stroke genetic risk scores were predictive of ischaemic stroke independent of clinical risk factors in 52,600 clinical-trial participants with cardiometabolic disease. Our results provide insights to inform biology, reveal potential drug targets and derive genetic risk prediction tools across ancestries.</p

    Dislipidemias y prevenci√≥n del ictus: recomendaciones del Grupo de Estudio de Enfermedades Cerebrovasculares de la Sociedad Espa√Īola de Neurolog√≠a

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    Objective: We present an update of the Spanish Society of Neurology's recommendations for prevention of both primary and secondary stroke in patients with dyslipidaemia. Development: We performed a systematic review to evaluate the main aspects of the management of dyslipidaemias in primary and secondary stroke prevention and establish a series of recommendations. Conclusions: In primary prevention, the patient's vascular risk should be determined in order to define target values for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In secondary prevention after an atherothrombotic stroke, a target value <55 mg/dL is recommended; in non-atherothombotic ischaemic strokes, given the unclear relationship with dyslipidaemia, target value should be established according to the vascular risk group of each patient. In both primary and secondary prevention, statins are the drugs of first choice, and ezetimibe and/or PCSK9 inhibitors may be added in patients not achieving the target value.Objetivo: Actualizar las recomendaciones de la Sociedad Espa√Īola de Neurolog√≠a para la prevenci√≥n del ictus, tanto primaria como secundaria en pacientes con dislipidemia. Desarrollo: Se ha realizado una revisi√≥n sistem√°tica en Pubmed evaluando los principales aspectos relacionados con el manejo de las dislipidemias en la prevenci√≥n primaria y secundaria del ictus, elabor√°ndose una serie de recomendaciones relacionadas con los mismos. Conclusiones: En prevenci√≥n primaria se recomienda determinar el riesgo vascular del paciente con el fin de definir los objetivos de LDLc. En prevenci√≥n secundaria tras un ictus de origen aterotromb√≥tico se recomienda un objetivo de LDLc‚ÄČ<‚ÄČ55‚ÄČmg/dl, mientras que en ictus isqu√©micos de origen no aterotromb√≥tico dado que su relaci√≥n con dislipidemias es incierta se establecer√°n los objetivos en base al grupo de riesgo vascular de cada paciente. Tanto en prevenci√≥n primaria como secundaria las estatinas son los f√°rmacos de primera elecci√≥n, pudiendo asociarse ezetimiba y/o inhibidores de PCSK9 en aquellos casos que no alcancen los objetivos terap√©uticos

    Table_3_A Polygenic Risk Score Based on a Cardioembolic Stroke Multitrait Analysis Improves a Clinical Prediction Model for This Stroke Subtype.DOCX

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    [Background] Occult atrial fibrillation (AF) is one of the major causes of embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS). Knowing the underlying etiology of an ESUS will reduce stroke recurrence and/or unnecessary use of anticoagulants. Understanding cardioembolic strokes (CES), whose main cause is AF, will provide tools to select patients who would benefit from anticoagulants among those with ESUS or AF. We aimed to discover novel loci associated with CES and create a polygenetic risk score (PRS) for a more efficient CES risk stratification.[Methods] Multitrait analysis of GWAS (MTAG) was performed with MEGASTROKE-CES cohort (n = 362,661) and AF cohort (n = 1,030,836). We considered significant variants and replicated those variants with MTAG p-value < 5 √ó 10‚ąí8 influencing both traits (GWAS-pairwise) with a p-value < 0.05 in the original GWAS and in an independent cohort (n = 9,105). The PRS was created with PRSice-2 and evaluated in the independent cohort.[Results] We found and replicated eleven loci associated with CES. Eight were novel loci. Seven of them had been previously associated with AF, namely, CAV1, ESR2, GORAB, IGF1R, NEURL1, WIPF1, and ZEB2. KIAA1755 locus had never been associated with CES/AF, leading its index variant to a missense change (R1045W). The PRS generated has been significantly associated with CES improving discrimination and patient reclassification of a model with age, sex, and hypertension.[Conclusion] The loci found significantly associated with CES in the MTAG, together with the creation of a PRS that improves the predictive clinical models of CES, might help guide future clinical trials of anticoagulant therapy in patients with ESUS or AF.Peer reviewe

    Stroke genetics informs drug discovery and risk prediction across ancestries

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    Previous genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of stroke ‚ÄĒ the second leading cause of death worldwide ‚ÄĒ were conducted predominantly in populations of European ancestry1,2. Here, in cross-ancestry GWAS meta-analyses of 110,182 patients who have had a stroke (five ancestries, 33% non-European) and 1,503,898 control individuals, we identify association signals for stroke and its subtypes at 89 (61 new) independent loci: 60 in primary inverse-variance-weighted analyses and 29 in secondary meta-regression and multitrait analyses. On the basis of internal cross-ancestry validation and an independent follow-up in 89,084 additional cases of stroke (30% non-European) and 1,013,843 control individuals, 87% of the primary stroke risk loci and 60% of the secondary stroke risk loci were replicated (P‚ÄČ<‚ÄČ0.05). Effect sizes were highly correlated across ancestries. Cross-ancestry fine-mapping, in silico mutagenesis analysis3, and transcriptome-wide and proteome-wide association analyses revealed putative causal genes (such as SH3PXD2A and FURIN) and variants (such as at GRK5 and NOS3). Using a three-pronged approach4, we provide genetic evidence for putative drug effects, highlighting F11, KLKB1, PROC, GP1BA, LAMC2 and VCAM1 as possible targets, with drugs already under investigation for stroke for F11 and PROC. A polygenic score integrating cross-ancestry and ancestry-specific stroke GWASs with vascular-risk factor GWASs (integrative polygenic scores) strongly predicted ischaemic stroke in populations of European, East Asian and African ancestry5. Stroke genetic risk scores were predictive of ischaemic stroke independent of clinical risk factors in 52,600 clinical-trial participants with cardiometabolic disease. Our results provide insights to inform biology, reveal potential drug targets and derive genetic risk prediction tools across ancestries

    Los riesgos de la energía eólia para los ecosistemas marinos

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    Ante el cambio clim√°tico, es urgente reducir las emisiones de gases causantes del efecto invernadero. Ello implica reducir el consumo energ√©tico y utilizar energ√≠as renovables como la e√≥lica marina, se√Īalada por la Uni√≥n Europea (UE) como un sector clave de la llamada ‚Äúeconom√≠a azul

    RP11-362K2.2 : RP11-767I20.1 Genetic Variation Is Associated with Post-Reperfusion Therapy Parenchymal Hematoma. A GWAS Meta-Analysis

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    Stroke is one of the most common causes of death and disability. Reperfusion therapies are the only treatment available during the acute phase of stroke. Due to recent clinical trials, these therapies may increase their frequency of use by extending the time-window administration, which may lead to an increase in complications such as hemorrhagic transformation, with parenchymal hematoma (PH) being the more severe subtype, associated with higher mortality and disability rates. Our aim was to find genetic risk factors associated with PH, as that could provide molecular targets/pathways for their prevention/treatment and study its genetic correlations to find traits sharing genetic background. We performed a GWAS and meta-analysis, following standard quality controls and association analysis (fastGWAS), adjusting age, NIHSS, and principal components. FUMA was used to annotate, prioritize, visualize, and interpret the meta-analysis results. The total number of patients in the meta-analysis was 2034 (216 cases and 1818 controls). We found rs79770152 having a genome-wide significant association (beta 0.09, p-value 3.90 x 10(-8)) located in the RP11-362K2.2:RP11-767I20.1 gene and a suggestive variant (rs13297983: beta 0.07, p-value 6.10 x 10(-8)) located in PCSK5 associated with PH occurrence. The genetic correlation showed a shared genetic background of PH with Alzheimer's disease and white matter hyperintensities. In addition, genes containing the ten most significant associations have been related to aggregated amyloid-beta, tau protein, white matter microstructure, inflammation, and matrix metalloproteinases.Peer reviewe

    Comparison of Plasma Lipoprotein Composition and Function in Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy and Alzheimer’s Disease

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    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) refers to beta-amyloid (Aő≤) deposition in brain vessels and is clinically the main cause of lobar intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Aő≤ can also accumulate in brain parenchyma forming neuritic plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our study aimed to determine whether the peripheral lipid profile and lipoprotein composition are associated with cerebral beta-amyloidosis pathology and may reflect biological differences in AD and CAA. For this purpose, lipid and apolipoproteins levels were analyzed in plasma from 51 ICH-CAA patients (collected during the chronic phase of the disease), 60 AD patients, and 60 control subjects. Lipoproteins (VLDL, LDL, and HDL) were isolated and their composition and pro/antioxidant ability were determined. We observed that alterations in the lipid profile and lipoprotein composition were remarkable in the ICH-CAA group compared to control subjects, whereas the AD group presented no specific alterations compared with controls. ICH-CAA patients presented an atheroprotective profile, which consisted of lower total and LDL cholesterol levels. Plasma from chronic ICH-CAA patients also showed a redistribution of ApoC-III from HDL to VLDL and a higher ApoE/ApoC-III ratio in HDL. Whether these alterations reflect a protective response or have a causative effect on the pathology requires further investigation

    Circulating AQP4 Levels in Patients with Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy-Associated Intracerebral Hemorrhage

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    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a major cause of lobar intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in elderly patients. Growing evidence suggests a potential role of aquaporin 4 (AQP4) in amyloid-beta-associated diseases, including CAA pathology. Our aim was to investigate the circulating levels of AQP4 in a cohort of patients who had suffered a lobar ICH with a clinical diagnosis of CAA. AQP4 levels were analyzed in the serum of 60 CAA-related ICH patients and 19 non-stroke subjects by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The CAA-ICH cohort was divided according to the time point of the functional outcome evaluation: mid-term (12 +/- 18.6 months) and long-term (38.5 +/- 32.9 months) after the last ICH. Although no differences were found in AQP4 serum levels between cases and controls, lower levels were found in CAA patients presenting specific hemorrhagic features such as >= 2 lobar ICHs and >= 5 lobar microbleeds detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition, CAA-related ICH patients who presented a long-term good functional outcome had higher circulating AQP4 levels than subjects with a poor outcome or controls. Our data suggest that AQP4 could potentially predict a long-term functional outcome and may play a protective role after a lobar ICH
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