2,455 research outputs found

    Association of macular pigment optical density with retinal layer thicknesses in eyes with and without manifest primary open-angle glaucoma

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    Objective To investigate associations between baseline macular pigment optical density (MPOD) and retinal layer thicknesses in eyes with and without manifest primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (CAREDS2).Methods and analysis MPOD was measured at CAREDS baseline (2001–2004) via heterochromatic flicker photometry (0.5° from foveal centre). Peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL), macular ganglion cell complex (GCC), ganglion cell layer (GCL), inner plexiform layer (IPL), and RNFL thicknesses were measured at CAREDS2 (2016–2019) via spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Associations between MPOD and retinal thickness were assessed using multivariable linear regression.Results Among 742 eyes (379 participants), manifest POAG was identified in 50 eyes (32 participants). In eyes without manifest POAG, MPOD was positively associated with macular GCC, GCL and IPL thicknesses in the central subfield (P-trend ≤0.01), but not the inner or outer subfields. Among eyes with manifest POAG, MPOD was positively associated with macular GCC, GCL, IPL and RNFL in the central subfield (P-trend ≤0.03), but not the inner or outer subfields, and was positively associated with peripapillary RNFL thickness in the superior and temporal quadrants (P-trend≤0.006).Conclusion We observed a positive association between MPOD and central subfield GCC thickness 15 years later. MPOD was positively associated with peripapillary RNFL superior and temporal quadrant thicknesses among eyes with manifest POAG. Our results linking low MPOD to retinal layers that are structural indicators of early glaucoma provide further evidence that carotenoids may be protective against manifest POAG

    The Involvement of Krüppel-like Factors in Cardiovascular Diseases

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    Krüppel-like factors (KLFs) are a set of DNA-binding proteins belonging to a family of zinc-finger transcription factors, which have been associated with many biological processes related to the activation or repression of genes, inducing cell growth, differentiation, and death, and the development and maintenance of tissues. In response to metabolic alterations caused by disease and stress, the heart will undergo cardiac remodeling, leading to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). KLFs are among the transcriptional factors that take control of many physiological and, in this case, pathophysiological processes of CVD. KLFs seem to be associated with congenital heart disease-linked syndromes, malformations because of autosomal diseases, mutations that relate to protein instability, and/or loss of functions such as atheroprotective activities. Ischemic damage also relates to KLF dysregulation because of the differentiation of cardiac myofibroblasts or a modified fatty acid oxidation related to the formation of a dilated cardiomyopathy, myocardial infarctions, left ventricular hypertrophy, and diabetic cardiomyopathies. In this review, we describe the importance of KLFs in cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, left ventricle hypertrophy, stroke, diabetic cardiomyopathy, and congenital heart diseases. We further discuss microRNAs that have been involved in certain regulatory loops of KLFs as they may act as critical in CVDs

    Environmental and bioclimatic factors influencing yeasts and molds distribution along European shores

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    International audienceThe present study employed data collected during the Mycosands survey to investigate the environmental factors influencing yeasts and molds distribution along European shores applying a species distribution modelling approach. Occurrence data were compared to climatic datasets (temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation), soil datasets (chemical and physical properties), and water datasets (temperature, salinity, and chlorophyll-a concentration) downloaded from web databases. Analyses were performed by MaxEnt software. Results suggested a different probability of distribution of yeasts and molds along European shores. Yeasts seem to tolerate low temperatures better during winter than molds and this reflects a higher suitability for the Northern European coasts. This difference is more evident considering suitability in waters. Both distributions of molds and yeasts are influenced by basic soil pH, probably because acidic soils are more favorable to bacterial growth. Soils with high nitrogen concentrations are not suitable for fungal growth, which, in contrast, are optimal for plant growth, favored by this environment. Finally, molds show affinity with soil rich in nickel and yeasts with soils rich in cadmium resulting in a distribution mainly at the mouths of European rivers or lagoons, where these metals accumulate in river sediments

    Superior effectiveness of tofacitinib compared to vedolizumab in anti-TNF experienced ulcerative colitis patients: a nationwide Dutch Registry study

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    OBJECTIVE: Clinicians face difficulty in when and in what order to position biologics and JAK inhibitors in anti-TNF refractory ulcerative colitis (UC) patients. We aimed to compare the effectiveness and safety of vedolizumab and tofacitinib in anti-TNF exposed UC patients in our prospective nationwide Initiative on Crohn and Colitis (ICC) Registry. METHODS: UC patients who failed anti-TNF treatment and initiated vedolizumab or tofacitinib treatment, were identified in the ICC Registry in the Netherlands. We selected patients with both clinical as well as biochemical or endoscopic disease activity at initiation of therapy. Patients previously treated with vedolizumab or tofacitinib were excluded. Corticosteroid-free clinical remission (SCCAI≤2), biochemical remission (CRP ≤5 mg/L or fecal calprotectin ≤250 μg/g) and safety outcomes were compared after 52 weeks of treatment. Inverse propensity scores weighted comparison was used to adjust for confounding and selection bias. RESULTS: Overall, 83 vedolizumab and 65 tofacitinib treated patients were included. Propensity score weighted analysis showed that tofacitinib treated patients were more likely to achieve corticosteroid-free clinical remission and biochemical remission at week 12, 24 and 52 compared to vedolizumab treated patients (OR: 6.33, 95%CI:3.81-10.50, P<0.01, OR: 3.02, 95%CI: 1.89-4.84, P<0.01 and OR 1.86, 95%CI: 1.15-2.99, P=0.01 and OR: 3.27, 95%CI: 1.96-5.45, P<0.01, OR: 1.87, 95%CI: 1.14-3.07, P=0.01 and OR:1.81, 95%CI: 1.06-3.09, P=0.03, respectively. There was no difference in infection rate or severe adverse events. CONCLUSION: Tofacitinib was associated with superior effectiveness outcomes compared to vedolizumab in anti-TNF experienced UC patients along with comparable safety outcomes

    Development, refinement, and characterization of a nonhuman primate critical care environment.

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    BackgroundSystemic inflammatory response remains a poorly understood cause of morbidity and mortality after traumatic injury. Recent nonhuman primate (NHP) trauma models have been used to characterize the systemic response to trauma, but none have incorporated a critical care phase without the use of general anesthesia. We describe the development of a prolonged critical care environment with sedation and ventilation support, and also report corresponding NHP biologic and inflammatory markers.MethodsEight adult male rhesus macaques underwent ventilation with sedation for 48-96 hours in a critical care setting. Three of these NHPs underwent "sham" procedures as part of trauma control model development. Blood counts, chemistries, coagulation studies, and cytokines/chemokines were collected throughout the study, and histopathologic analysis was conducted at necropsy.ResultsEight NHPs were intentionally survived and extubated. Three NHPs were euthanized at 72-96 hours without extubation. Transaminitis occurred over the duration of ventilation, but renal function, acid-base status, and hematologic profile remained stable. Chemokine and cytokine analysis were notable for baseline fold-change for Il-6 and Il-1ra (9.7 and 42.7, respectively) that subsequently downtrended throughout the experiment unless clinical respiratory compromise was observed.ConclusionsA NHP critical care environment with ventilation support is feasible but requires robust resources. The inflammatory profile of NHPs is not profoundly altered by sedation and mechanical ventilation. NHPs are susceptible to the pulmonary effects of short-term ventilation and demonstrate a similar bioprofile response to ventilator-induced pulmonary pathology. This work has implications for further development of a prolonged care NHP model

    Charged-particle multiplicity fluctuations in Pb–Pb collisions at √ sNN = 2.76 TeV

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    Measurements of event-by-event fluctuations of charged-particle multiplicities in Pb–Pb collisionsat √sNN = 2.76 TeV using the ALICE detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are presented in the pseudorapidity range |η| < 0.8 and transverse momentum 0.2 < pT < 2.0 GeV/c. The amplitude of the fluctuations is expressed in terms of the variance normalized by the mean of the multiplicity distribution. The η and pT dependences of the fluctuations and their evolution with respect to collision centrality are investigated. The multiplicity fluctuations tend to decrease from peripheral to central collisions. The results are compared to those obtained from HIJING and AMPT Monte Carlo event generators as well as to experimental data at lower collision energies. Additionally, the measured multiplicity fluctuations are discussed in the context of the isothermal compressibility of the high-density strongly-interacting system formed in central Pb–Pb collisions

    The Involvement of Krüppel-like Factors in Cardiovascular Diseases

    No full text
    Krüppel-like factors (KLFs) are a set of DNA-binding proteins belonging to a family of zinc-finger transcription factors, which have been associated with many biological processes related to the activation or repression of genes, inducing cell growth, differentiation, and death, and the development and maintenance of tissues. In response to metabolic alterations caused by disease and stress, the heart will undergo cardiac remodeling, leading to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). KLFs are among the transcriptional factors that take control of many physiological and, in this case, pathophysiological processes of CVD. KLFs seem to be associated with congenital heart disease-linked syndromes, malformations because of autosomal diseases, mutations that relate to protein instability, and/or loss of functions such as atheroprotective activities. Ischemic damage also relates to KLF dysregulation because of the differentiation of cardiac myofibroblasts or a modified fatty acid oxidation related to the formation of a dilated cardiomyopathy, myocardial infarctions, left ventricular hypertrophy, and diabetic cardiomyopathies. In this review, we describe the importance of KLFs in cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, left ventricle hypertrophy, stroke, diabetic cardiomyopathy, and congenital heart diseases. We further discuss microRNAs that have been involved in certain regulatory loops of KLFs as they may act as critical in CVDs

    Charm-quark fragmentation fractions and production cross section at mid rapidity in pp collisions at the LHC

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    Recent pT-integrated cross-section measurements of the ground-state charm mesons and baryons, D0, D+, Ds+, Λc+, and Ξc0, are used to evaluate the charm fragmentation fractions and production cross section per unit of rapidity at midrapidity (|y|&lt;0.5), in pp collisions at s=5.02 TeV at the LHC. The latter is dσcc¯/dy||y|&lt;0.5=1165±44(stat)-101+134(syst) μb. These measurements were obtained for the first time in hadronic collisions at the LHC, including the charm baryon states, recently measured by ALICE at midrapidity. The charm fragmentation fractions differ significantly from the values measured in e+e- and ep collisions, providing evidence of the dependence of the parton-to-hadron fragmentation fractions on the collision system, indicating that the assumption of their universality is not supported by the measured cross sections. An increase of a factor of about 3.3 for the fragmentation fraction for the Λc+ with a significance of 5σ between the values obtained in pp collisions and those obtained in e+e- (ep) collisions is reported. The fragmentation fraction for the Ξc0 was obtained for the first time in any collision system. The measured fragmentation fractions were used to update the cc¯ cross sections per unit of rapidity at |y|&lt;0.5 at s=2.76 and 7 TeV, which are about 40% higher than the previously published results. The data were compared with perturbative-QCD calculations and lie at the upper edge of the theoretical bands
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