12 research outputs found

    The Jumping Up (J-Up) Test: Making the Diagnosis of Acute Appendicitis Easier in Children

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    We evaluate a new clinical test, jumping up (J-up) test, to diagnose easier appendicitis in children. A total of 407 patients, aged 5 to16 years, with right lower quadrant abdominal pain were asked to jump rising both hands and trying to reach a toy hanging down from the ceiling of the examination room. Bieri pediatric Face Pain Scale was used for recording the pain response. J-up test has sensitivity of 87% and specificity of 70%. A positive J-up test combined with leukocytosis (white blood cells count >12 000/mm3), neutrophilia >75%, neutrophil/lymphocyte >2, and C-reactive protein >5 mg/dL, achieved a posttest probability of appendicitis of 85%. A negative J-up test combined with the aforementioned blood markers within normal range had a posttest probability for non-appendicitis of 92%. J-up test is a reliable clinical test, which could be used even by an inexperienced doctor. Combined with classical blood markers, it could successfully predict which child is in urgent need or not of surgery. © The Author(s) 2019

    Hygroscopic properties of potassium-halide nanoparticles

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    The hygroscopic properties of KBr, KCl, and KI nanoparticles having diameters from 8 to 60 nm were measured using a tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer. In all cases, the deliquescence and efflorescence relative humidity values increased with decreasing particle diameter. The associated growth factors also decreased with decreasing particle diameter, in agreement with predictions by Köhler theory. Overall, the theoretically predicted growth factors agreed well with the measurements, i.e., within ±3% uncertainty. For KCl particles having sizes down to 15 nm, however, a dynamic shape factor of 1.08, corresponding to non-spherical crystalline particles prior deliquescence, was inferred for agreement between measurements and theory. By comparison, KBr and KI within the same size range warranted shape factors of unity, equivalent to a sphere. These results contribute to an understanding of nanosize behavior widely relevant to material sciences as well as atmospheric aerosol particles over the oceans.Atmospheric Remote Sensin

    Evidence for marine biogenic influence on summertime Arctic aerosol

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    International audienceWe present vertically-resolved observations of aerosol composition during pristine summertime Arctic background conditions. The methansulfonic acid (MSA)-to-sulfate ratio peaked near the surface (mean 0.10), indicating a contribution from ocean-derived biogenic sulfur. Similarly, the organic aerosol (OA)-to-sulfate ratio increased towards the surface (mean 2.0). Both MSA-to-sulfate and OA-to-sulfate ratios were significantly correlated with FLEXPART-WRF-predicted airmass residence time over open water, indicating marine influenced OA. External mixing of sea salt aerosol from a larger number fraction of organic, sulfate and amine-containing particles, together with low wind speeds (median 4.7 m s−1), suggests a role for secondary organic aerosol formation. Cloud condensation nuclei concentrations were nearly constant (∼120 cm−3) when the OA fraction was −3 when the organic fraction was larger and residence times over open water were longer. Our observations illustrate the importance of marine-influenced OA under Arctic background conditions, which are likely to change as the Arctic transitions to larger areas of open water

    Nanoparticle emissions from traditional pottery manufacturing

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    Traditional pottery manufacturing involves firing of the ceramics in kilns, a process that leads to high concentrations of airborne particles that are harmful to human health. In order to assess the associated exposure levels and the involved risks, here, for the first time, we investigate the size, the concentration and the elemental composition of the particles emitted during the different stages of the ceramic firing process. Number size distributions of the emitted particles, having diameters in the range from 10 nm to 20 [small mu ]m, were measured in a traditional small-sized pottery studio using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and an Optical Particle Counter (OPC). The measurements showed dominance of the nanoparticle mode (i.e., particles smaller than 100 nm) when the kiln reached temperatures above 600 [degree]C. The mean size of the particles ranged from 30 to 70 nm and their peak number concentration was 6.5 [times] 105 cm-3 during the first stage of the firing process where the ceramics were unpainted and unglazed. During the second stage of the firing process, where the ceramics were painted and glazed, the mean particle size ranged from 15 to 40 nm and their number concentration peaked at 1.2 [times] 106 cm-3. Elemental analysis of individual particles collected during the two firing stages and studied by Energy-Dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy showed that the emitted nanoparticles contain significant amounts of lead. These findings provide new information for understanding the health impacts of traditional pottery manufacturing, and underline the need for adopting adequate measures to control nanoparticle emissions at the source

    Modification of the TSI 3081 differential mobility analyzer to include three monodisperse outlets: Comparison between experimental and theoretical performance

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    Differential mobility analyzers (DMAs) are widely used to determine the size of aerosol particles, and to probe their size-dependent physicochemical properties when two are employed in tandem. A limitation of tandem DMA (TDMA) systems is their long measuring cycle when the properties of more than one monodisperse population of particles need to be probed. In this work, we propose a simple modification of the classical cylindrical DMA by including three monodisperse-particle outlets in its central electrode (namely, the 3MO-DMA), with the objective of using it as the first DMA in TDMA systems for reducing their measuring cycle. The performance of the 3MO-DMA at different flow conditions was evaluated using laboratory-generated aerosol particles, and compared with theoretical predictions. The theory predicted accurately (i.e., within 3%) the geometric mean diameters of the three distinct populations, as well as the resolutions of the first and the third outlet, under all experimental conditions. For the second outlet, the resolution was 10% to 74% lower than that predicted theoretically depending on the sheath-to-aerosol flow ratio. Nevertheless, the geometric standard deviation of the monodisperse aerosol from all the outlets was less than 1.09, which is sufficient for using the 3MO-DMA designed and tested in this work as a first DMA to produce a monodisperse aerosol flow containing three distinct particle populations in TDMA systems.Atmospheric Remote SensingAtmospheric Physic

    Nanoparticle emissions from traditional pottery manufacturing

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    Traditional pottery manufacturing involves firing of the ceramics in kilns, a process that leads to high concentrations of airborne particles that are harmful to human health. In order to assess the associated exposure levels and the involved risks, here, for the first time, we investigate the size, the concentration and the elemental composition of the particles emitted during the different stages of the ceramic firing process. Number size distributions of the emitted particles, having diameters in the range from 10 nm to 20 ?m, were measured in a traditional small-sized pottery studio using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and an Optical Particle Counter (OPC). The measurements showed dominance of the nanoparticle mode (i.e., particles smaller than 100 nm) when the kiln reached temperatures above 600 °C. The mean size of the particles ranged from 30 to 70 nm and their peak number concentration was 6.5 × 105 cm?3 during the first stage of the firing process where the ceramics were unpainted and unglazed. During the second stage of the firing process, where the ceramics were painted and glazed, the mean particle size ranged from 15 to 40 nm and their number concentration peaked at 1.2 × 106 cm?3. Elemental analysis of individual particles collected during the two firing stages and studied by Energy-Dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy showed that the emitted nanoparticles contain significant amounts of lead. These findings provide new information for understanding the health impacts of traditional pottery manufacturing, and underline the need for adopting adequate measures to control nanoparticle emissions at the source.ChemE/Chemical EngineeringApplied Science

    Chemical composition and hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles over the Aegean Sea

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    The chemical composition and water uptake characteristics of sub-micrometre atmospheric particles over the region of the Aegean Sea were measured between 25 August and 11 September 2011 within the framework of the Aegean-Game campaign. High temporal-resolution measurements of the chemical composition of the particles were conducted using an airborne compact time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (cToF-AMS). These measurements were performed during two flights from the island of Crete to the island of Lemnos and back. A hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyser (HTDMA) located on the island of Lemnos was used to measure the ability of the particles to take up water. The HTDMA measurements showed that the particles in the dominant mode were internally mixed, having hygroscopic growth factors that ranged from 1.00 to 1.59 when exposed to 85% relative humidity. When the aircraft flew near the ground station on Lemnos, the cToF-AMS measurements showed that the organic volume fraction of the particles ranged from 43 to 56%. These measurements corroborate the range of hygroscopic growth factors measured by the HTDMA during that time. Good closure between HTDMA and cToF-AMS measurements was achieved when assuming that the organic species were less hygroscopic and had an average density that corresponds to aged organic species. Using the results from the closure study, the cToF-AMS measurements were employed to determine vertical profiles of a representative aerosol hygroscopic parameter ?mix. Calculated ?mix values ranged from 0.19 to 0.84 during the first flight and from 0.22 to 0.80 during the second flight. Air masses of different origin as determined by back trajectory calculations can explain the spatial variation in chemical composition and ?mix values of the particles observed in the region.ChemE/Chemical EngineeringApplied Science
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