17 research outputs found

    Nucleotide-Binding Sites of the Heterodimeric LmrCD ABC-Multidrug Transporter of Lactococcus lactis Are Asymmetric

    Get PDF
    LmrCD is a lactococcal, heterodimeric multidrug transporter, which belongs to the ABC superfamily. It consists of two half-transporters, LmrC and LmrD, that are necessary and sufficient for drug extrusion and ATP hydrolysis. LmrCD is asymmetric in terms of the conservation of the functional motifs of the nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs). Important residues of the nucleotide-binding site of LmrC and the C loop of LmrD are not conserved. To investigate the functional importance of the LmrC and LmrD subunits, the putative catalytic base residue adjacent to the Walker B motif of both NBDs were substituted for the respective carboxamides. Our data demonstrate that Glu587 of LmrD is essential for both drug transport and ATPase activity of the LmrCD heterodimer, whereas mutation of Asp495 of LmrC has a less severe effect on the activity of the complex. Structural and/or functional asymmetry is further demonstrated by differential labeling of both subunits by 8-azido-[α-32P]ATP, which, at 4 °C, occurs predominantly at LmrC, while aluminiumfluoride (AlFx)-induced trapping of the hydrolyzed nucleotide at 30 °C results in an almost exclusive labeling of LmrD. It is concluded that the LmrCD heterodimer contains two structurally and functionally distinct NBDs.

    Functional analysis of LmrCD, an ABC-type MDR transporter from Lactococcus lactis

    No full text
    Bacterien die hun omgeving delen met concurrenten hebben een groot aantal strategieen ontwikkeld om toxische stoffen te kunnen weerstaan. Zulke beschermingsstrategieen zijn vaak gericht tegen een verbinding of een groep van verwante verbindingen (Hoofdstuk 1). Veel voorkomende manieren om de cel te beschermen tegen deze schadelijke verbindingen zijn het inactiveren van de toxische stof door deze af te breken, of het zodanig veranderen van het cellulaire aangrijpingspunt van de schadelijke verbinding zodat deze de cel niet meer herkent. Meer dan 30 jaar geleden werd ontdekt dat menselijke kankercellen die voor langere tijd zijn blootgesteld aan een chemische behandeling, niet alleen ongevoelig (resistent of immuun) worden tegen de gebruikte anti-kanker verbinding , maar tegelijkertijd ook tegen andere, niet verwante chemische verbindingen waarvan vele ook een antikanker werking hebben (15-1 8). Studies aan hogere eukaryoten zoals menselijke kankercellijnen en bijvoorbeeld gisten, leidden tot de identificatie van membraaneiwitten die verantwoordelijk zijn voor de actieve uitscheiding van vele, niet verwante toxische stoffen over het celmembraan. Dit transport maakt de cel resistent tegen een verscheidenheid van dit soort verbindingen, een eigenschap die multidrug resistentie (MDR) wordt genoemd. Vewolgens werden ook MDR (multidrug resistentie) eiwitten ge'identificeerd in bacterien die een vergelijkbare rol vervullen. In tegenstelling tot in eukaryoten worden de meeste MDR transportsystemen in bacterien aangedreven door de elektrochemische potentiaal van protonen over het membraan. Een klein deel van de beschreven systemen wordt aangedreven door de energie die vrijkomt bij de hydrolyse van ATP.

    Directionality and Coordination of Dehydration and Ring Formation during Biosynthesis of the Lantibiotic Nisin

    Get PDF
    The lantibiotic nisin is a potent antimicrobial substance, which contains unusual lanthionine rings and dehydrated amino acid residues and is produced by Lactococcus lactis. Recently, the nisin biosynthetic machinery has been applied to introduce lanthionine rings in peptides other than nisin with potential therapeutic use. Due to difficulties in the isolation of the proposed synthetase complex (NisBTC), mechanistic information concerning the enzymatic biosynthesis of nisin is scarce. Here, we present the molecular characterization of a number of nisin mutants that affect ring formation. We have investigated in a systematic manner how these mutations influence dehydration events, which are performed enzymatically by the dehydratase NisB. Specific mutations that hampered ring formation allowed for the dehydration of serine residues that directly follow the rings and are normally unmodified. The combined information leads to the conclusion that 1) nisin biosynthesis is an organized directional process that starts at the N terminus of the molecule and continues toward the C terminus, and 2) NisB and NisC are alternating enzymes, whose activities follow one after another in a repetitive way. Thus, the dehydration and cyclization processes are not separated in time and space. On the basis of these results and previous knowledge, a working model for the sequence of events in the maturation of nisin is proposed

    Distribution and Physiology of ABC-Type Transporters Contributing to Multidrug Resistance in Bacteria

    Get PDF
    Membrane proteins responsible for the active efflux of structurally and functionally unrelated drugs were first characterized in higher eukalyotes. To date, a vast number of transporters contributing to multidrug resistance (MDR transporters) have been reported for a large variety of organisms. Predictions about the functions of genes in the growing number of sequenced genomes indicate that MDR transporters are ubiquitous in nature. The majority of described MDR transporters in bacteria use ion motive force, while only a few systems have been shown to rely on ATP hydrolysis. However, recent reports on MDR proteins from gram-positive organisms, as well as genome analysis, indicate that the role of ABC-type MDR transporters in bacterial drug resistance might be underestimated. Detailed structural and mechanistic analyses of these proteins can help to understand their molecular mode of action and may eventually lead to the development of new strategies to counteract their actions, thereby increasing the effectiveness of drug-based therapies. This review focuses on recent advances in the analysis of ABC-type MDR transporters in bacteria

    Determining sites of interaction between prenisin and its modification enzymes NisB and NisC

    No full text
    Although nisin is a model lantibiotic, our knowledge of the specific interactions of prenisin with its modification enzymes remains fragmentary. Here, we demonstrate that the nisin modification enzymes NisB and NisC can be pulled down in vitro from Lactococcus lactis by an engineered His-tagged prenisin. This approach enables us to determine important intermolecular interactions of prenisin with its modification machinery within L. lactis. We demonstrate that (i) NisB has stronger interactions with precursor nisin than NisC has, (ii) deletion of the propeptide part keeping the nisin leader intact leads to a lack of binding, (iii) NisB point mutants of highly conserved residues W616, F342A, Y346F and P639A are still able to dehydrate prenisin, (iv) NisB Delta(77-79)Y80F mutant decreased the levels of NisB-prenisin interactions and resulted in unmodified prenisin, (v) substitution of an active site residue H331A in NisC leads to higher amounts of the co-purified complex, (vi) NisB is present in the form of a dimer, and (vii) the region FNLD (-18 to -15) of the leader is an important site for binding not only to NisB, but also to NisC.</p

    ydaG and ydbA of Lactococcus lactis Encode a Heterodimeric ATP-binding Cassette-type Multidrug Transporter

    Get PDF
    Multidrug resistance (MDR)-type transporters mediate the active extrusion of structurally and functionally dissimilar compounds from the cells, thereby rendering cells resistant to a range of drugs. The ydaG and ydbA genes of Lactococcus lactis encode two ATP-binding cassette half-transporters, which both share homology with MDR proteins such as LmrA from L. lactis or the mammalian P-glycoprotein. The ydaG/ydbA genes were cloned and expressed separately and jointly in L. lactis using the nisin-inducible system. When both proteins are co-expressed, several structurally dissimilar drugs such as ethidium, daunomycin, and BCECF-AM are extruded from the cell. YdaG and YdbA could be co-purified as a stable heterodimer. ATPase activity was found to be associated with the YdaG/YdbA heterodimer only and not with the individual subunits. Both the ydaG and ydbA genes are up-regulated in multidrug-resistant L. lactis strains selected for growth in the presence of a variety of toxic compounds. This is the first demonstration of a functional heterodimeric ATP-binding cassette-type MDR transporter.

    Influence of Shifting Positions of Ser, Thr, and Cys Residues in Prenisin on the Efficiency of Modification Reactions and on the Antimicrobial Activities of the Modified Prepeptides▿ †

    Get PDF
    Since the recent discovery that the nisin modification and transport machinery can be used to produce and modify peptides unrelated to nisin, specific questions arose concerning the specificity of the modification enzymes involved and the limits of their promiscuity with respect to the dehydration and cyclization processes. The nisin leader peptide has been postulated to fulfill a recognition and binding function required for these modifications. Here, we investigated whether the relative positions of the modifiable residues in the nisin prepeptide, with respect to the leader peptide, could influence the efficiency of their modification. We conducted a systematic study on the insertion of one to four alanines in front of either ring A or ring D to change the “reading frame” of modifiable residues, resulting in altered distance and topology of the modifiable residues relative to the leader. The insertion of N-terminal and hinge-located Ala residues had only a modest influence on the modification efficiency, demonstrating that the “phasing” of these residues relative to the leader peptide is not a critical factor in determining modification. However, in all cases, but especially with the N-terminal insertions, the antimicrobial activities of the fully modified nisin species were decreased

    The ABC-Type Multidrug Resistance Transporter LmrCD Is Responsible for an Extrusion-Based Mechanism of Bile Acid Resistance in Lactococcus lactisâ–ż

    Get PDF
    Upon prolonged exposure to cholate and other toxic compounds, Lactococcus lactis develops a multidrug resistance phenotype that has been attributed to an elevated expression of the heterodimeric ABC-type multidrug transporter LmrCD. To investigate the molecular basis of bile acid resistance in L. lactis and to evaluate the contribution of efflux-based mechanisms in this process, the drug-sensitive L. lactis NZ9000 ΔlmrCD strain was challenged with cholate. A resistant strain was obtained that, compared to the parental strain, showed (i) significantly improved resistance toward several bile acids but not to drugs, (ii) morphological changes, and (iii) an altered susceptibility to antimicrobial peptides. Transcriptome and transport analyses suggest that the acquired resistance is unrelated to elevated transport activity but, instead, results from a multitude of stress responses, changes to the cell envelope, and metabolic changes. In contrast, wild-type cells induce the expression of lmrCD upon exposure to cholate, whereupon the cholate is actively extruded from the cells. Together, these data suggest a central role for an efflux-based mechanism in bile acid resistance and implicate LmrCD as the main system responsible in L. lactis

    LmrCD is a major multidrug resistance transporter in Lactococcus lactis

    No full text
    When Lactococcus lactis is challenged with drugs it displays a multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype. In silico analysis of the genome of L. lactis indicates the presence of at least 40 putative MDR transporters, of which only four, i.e. the ABC transporters LmrA, LmrC and LmrD, and the major facilitator LmrP, have been experimentally associated with the MDR. To understand the molecular basis of the MDR phenotype in L. lactis, we have performed a global transcriptome analysis comparing four independently isolated drug-resistant strains of L. lactis with the wild-type strain. The results show a strong and consistent upregulation of the lmrC and lmrD genes in all four strains, while the mRNA levels of other putative MDR transporters were not significantly altered. Deletion of lmrCD renders L. lactis sensitive to several toxic compounds, and this phenotype is associated with a reduced ability to secrete these compounds. Another gene, which is strongly upregulated in all mutant strains, specifies LmrR (YdaF), a local transcriptional repressor of lmrCD that belongs to the PadR family of transcriptional regulators and that binds to the promoter region of lmrCD. These results demonstrate that the heterodimeric MDR ABC transporter LmrCD is a major determinant of both acquired and intrinsic drug resistance of L. lactis.
    corecore