32 research outputs found

    Exploring gender equality and women's empowerment: a critical examination of select L'Oréal corporate documents

    Get PDF
    Although women make up half of the world’s population and over 40 percent of the global labour force, gender inequality is still prevailing. The formal commitment of the United Nations and the World Bank to achieve women’s equality is crucial to addressing the challenges of development and poverty; however, there is no part of the world where women and men are equal. Moreover, gender equality is worsened by globalization, in which private actors such as multinational companies play a controversial role. L’Oréal, the world’s largest beauty corporation, employed approximately 52,000 women in 2013. The company is a signatory of the United Nations Global Compact (2000), and supports the United Nation’s Women’s Empowerment Principles (2010). Although L'Oréal claims that it is engaged in socially responsible corporate practices, with particular attention to issues of gender equality, few critical analyses of these claims exist. This research, a case study analysis of L’Oréal’s gender equality and women’s empowerment policies, concludes that the company’s concept of gender equality is limited, focusing on professional and workplace equality

    A MuSK-ellenes antitest pozitív myasthenia gravis kezelése = Treatment of anti-MuSK antibody positive myasthenia gravis

    Get PDF
    A szerzŇĎk egy 27 √©ves fiatal nŇĎ eset√©t ismertetik, aki d√∂ntŇĎen ocularis-bulbaris t√ľneteket okoz√≥ izomspecifikus kin√°zellenes antitest pozit√≠v myasthenia gravisban szenvedett. Mind az intrav√©n√°s edrophonium, mind a sz√°jon √°t alkalmazott kis d√≥zis√ļ (4√ó30 mg/nap) pyridostigmin kolinerg mell√©khat√°sokat, a mimikai √©s nyakizmok kellemetlen fasciculati√≥j√°t, hypersalivati√≥t okozott. A beteg tart√≥s, viszonylag nagy d√≥zis√ļ kortikoszteroidkezel√©sre (64 mg/nap metilprednisolon) j√≥l reag√°lt, azonban a napi adag 16 mg al√° cs√∂kkent√©sekor a klinikai t√ľnetek gyorsan ki√ļjultak. Az azathioprinnel √©s methotrexattal t√∂rt√©nŇĎ immunszuppresszi√≥ hat√°sa nem volt l√°tv√°nyos. A plazmafer√©zis azonban minden alkalommal gyors javul√°st, csaknem teljes t√ľnetmentess√©get v√°ltott ki. A szerzŇĎk k√∂zlem√©ny√ľkkel arra k√≠v√°nj√°k felh√≠vni a figyelmet, hogy az izomspecifikus kin√°zellenes antitest pozit√≠v myastheni√°s betegek kezel√©si protokollja elt√©r az izomspecifikus kin√°zellenes antitest negat√≠v √©s acetilkolin receptor ellenes antitest pozit√≠v betegek kezel√©s√©tŇĎl. A k√≥rk√©p etiol√≥gi√°j√°ban szerepet j√°tsz√≥ antitest azonos√≠t√°sa m√°r a betegs√©g korai st√°dium√°ban lehetŇĎv√© teszi a myastheni√°s betegek individu√°lis optim√°lis kezel√©si strat√©gi√°j√°nak fel√°ll√≠t√°s√°t, a s√ļlyos mell√©khat√°sok, mint p√©ld√°ul a kolinergi√°s kr√≠zisek megelŇĎz√©s√©t √©s a t√ľnetek gyors javul√°s√°t. Orv. Hetil., 2011, 152, 1586‚Äď1589. | The authors report the case of a 27-year-old woman with muscle-specific receptor tyrosine kinase antibody positive myasthenia with predominantly ocular and bulbar symptoms. Both edrophonium and low dose (4√ó30 mg/day) pyridostigmin resulted in cholinergic side effects including fasciculation mainly in the facial and neck muscles, and excessive salivation. The patient responded well to a relatively high dose of chronic corticosteroid treatment (methyprednisolone 64mg/day), but the decrease of the corticosteroid dose below 16 mg/day induced exacerbation of the clinical symptoms. Immunosuppression with azathioprine and methotrexate failed to maintain the clinical improvement. However, plasma exchange was always very effective, and all clinical symptoms improved significantly. The authors conclude that patients with muscle-specific receptor tyrosine kinase antibody positive myasthenia gravis should have an individual treatment protocol differing from those used in patients who do not have this antibody but are positive for acetylcholine-receptor antibody. Identification of the pathogenic antibody in the early stage of myasthenia gravis may help to develop the optimal, individualized treatment strategy, to avoid severe side effects, and to achieve fast improvement. Orv. Hetil., 2011, 152, 1586‚Äď1589

    K√ľl√∂nleges atommagokt√≥l a molekul√°ris elektronik√°ig = From Exotic Nuclei to Molecular Electronics

    Get PDF
    K√∂t√∂tt √©s nem k√∂t√∂tt magfizikai n√©h√°nytest-rendszerek le√≠r√°si m√≥dszereit t√∂k√©letes√≠tett√ľk mag-, atom- √©s szil√°rdtest-fizikai feladatok megold√°s√°ra. Gauss-b√°zisos stochasztikus vari√°ci√≥s m√≥dszer√ľnkkel m√≥dszeresen megkerest√ľk n√©h√°ny t√∂lt√∂tt r√©szecske k√∂t√∂tt √°llapotait. T√∂lt√∂tt excitonok rezonanci√°it lokaliz√°ltuk. Felder√≠tett√ľk a pozitron+H rendszer rezonanci√°inak szerkezet√©t. Meg√°llap√≠tottuk, hogy Fagyejev-Merkurjev-t√≠pus√ļ m√≥dszer√ľnk h√°rom t√∂lt√∂tt r√©szecske le√≠r√°s√°ra egy m√°sik m√≥dszerrel egyen√©rt√©kŇĪ, de takar√©kosabb. K√©t elektron √©s egy pozitron egy√ľttes√©ben v√©gtelen sok rezonanci√°t tal√°ltunk a k√©ttest-k√ľsz√∂bh√∂z tapadva. Ezeket a Jefimov-hat√°snak tulajdon√≠tjuk. √ögy tal√°ltuk, hogy a proton+deuteron rendszer nemlok√°lis k√©ttest-potenci√°llal √©ppolyan j√≥l le√≠rhat√≥, mint h√°romtest-erŇĎt tartalmaz√≥ lok√°lis potenci√°llal. A k√©talfa-rendszer alap√°llapoti rezonanciaenergi√°j√°t, sz√≥r√°si f√°zisait, a 12C alfaszerŇĪ √°llapotait egy potenci√°lmodellben egyszerre reproduk√°ltuk. A magok csom√≥kra bonthat√≥s√°g√°t, deform√°ci√≥j√°t, kollekt√≠v viselked√©s√©t, alakf√°zisait √©s -√°tmeneteit a szimmetri√°k nyelv√©n t√°rgyaltuk. Magszerkezeti sz√°m√≠t√°sainkban komplex energi√°j√ļ Gamow-megold√°sokat, kontinuum√°llapotokat √©s virtu√°lis √°llapotokat haszn√°ltunk vagy komplex sk√°l√°z√°ssal transzform√°lt megfelelŇĎiket. Megmutattuk, hogyan kell a komplex sk√°l√°z√°st √ľtk√∂z√©sekre alkalmazni. B√°zist akottunk a molekul√°ris elektronika c√©ljaira, √©s konkr√©t nanoelektonikai rendszerekre alkalmaztuk is. | We improved the description of bound and unbound nuclear few-body systems to facilitate nuclear, atomic and solid-state physics. We calculated the bound states of a few charged particles with our stochastic variational technique using Gaussian bases. We localized the resonances of charged excitons. We explored the structure of the resonances of the positron+H system. We have found that our Faddeev-Merkuriev method of describing three charged particles is equivalent to another technique but is more economical. We have found an infinite number of resonances in a system of two electrons and one positron, accumulated at the two-body threshold. We attribute these to the Efimov effect. We showed that the proton+deuteron system is described with a non-local two-body potential as perfectly as with the best local potential containing a three-body term. The ground-state energy and phase shifts of a two-alpha system and the alpha-like states of 12C were reproduced simultaneously in a potential model. We discussed the clustering, deformation, collective behaviour, shape phases and phase transitions of nuclei in terms of symmetries. In nuclear structure calculations we used Gamow, continuum and virtual states, all belonging to complex energies, or their complex-scaled substitutes. We have elaborated the collision theory with complex scaling. We constructed bases optimized for molecular electronics, and applied them to units of nanoelectronics

    Nagy √ľvegk√©pzŇĎ hajlam√ļ √©s nagy entr√≥pi√°j√ļ √∂tv√∂zetek k√©pzŇĎd√©se √©s stabilit√°sa

    Get PDF
    K√©t √∂tv√∂zetcsal√°d, a t√∂mbi form√°ban elŇĎ√°ll√≠tott amorf (BMG) √©s a nagy entr√≥pi√°j√ļ (HEA) √∂tv√∂zetek k√©pzŇĎd√©si mechanizmus√°t √©s stabilit√°s√°t hasonl√≠tjuk √∂ssze jelen k√∂zlem√©nyben. Az √∂sszehasonl√≠t√°s fŇĎ elve az olvad√©kaik t√ļlhŇĪl√©si k√©pess√©ge a megszil√°rdul√°s folyamat√°ban. A BMG-√∂tv√∂zetek olvad√©kai a k√ľl√∂nb√∂zŇĎ t√≠pus√ļ k√©miai k√∂t√©sek miatt nagy t√ļlhŇĪl√©si hajlamot, s ebbŇĎl eredŇĎen nagy √ľvegk√©pzŇĎ hajlamot is mutatnak. Ennek jellemzŇĎ mechanizmusa a klaszterk√©pzŇĎd√©s, amellyel az atommozg√©konys√°g s √≠gy a krist√°lycs√≠ra-k√©pzŇĎd√©s is visszaszorul. A HEA-√∂tv√∂zetek olvad√©kai nem mutatnak ilyen hajlamot. Nagy hŇĎm√©rs√©kleten, k√∂zvetlen√ľl az olvad√°spont k√∂rny√©k√©n, az olvad√©kf√°zissal azonos √∂sszet√©telŇĪ, rendezetlen szil√°rd oldat form√°j√°ban krist√°lyosodnak. A k√©tf√©le olvad√©kt√≠pusban az elt√©rŇĎ atomi mobilit√°s t√ľkr√∂zŇĎdik az olvad√©kok viszkozit√°s√°nak elt√©rŇĎ hŇĎm√©rs√©klet-f√ľgg√©s√©ben is. A HEA-√∂tv√∂zeteknek a konfigur√°ci√≥s entr√≥pia √°ltal domin√°lt f√°zisstabilit√°s√°hoz elektronszerkezeti t√©nyezŇĎk is hozz√°j√°rulnak: itt szerepet kap a d-elektronok r√©szv√©tele az atomok k√∂z√∂tti k√∂t√©sekben

    The Formation and Stability of Bulk Amorphous and High Entropy Alloys

    Get PDF
    Two kinds of phase stabilization mechanism are discussed and compared: the first is characteristic of the formation of bulk amorphous alloys, in which the high supercooling ability of multicomponent liquids is responsible for the glassy phase stabilization. Here the hindered nucleation of crystalline phases is the center phenomenon. The origin of this hindering is the slowing atomic mobility in the supercooling melt. In contrast the melt supercooling is negligible during the high entropy alloy formation. It is believed that stability of the crystalline single fcc phase is the consequence of the characteristic of high configurational entropy at high temperatures. However, the significance of this entropy-dominated stabilization is overestimated in several references. It has been concluded that transition metal contraction (arising from the d electron participation in the overall bonding state) does also contribute to the high temperature stability of fcc single phase in the high entropy alloys

    Location and type of isocitrate dehydrogenase mutations influence clinical characteristics and disease outcome of acute myeloid leukemia

    Get PDF
    Background: Mutations of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 are novel common genetic alterations identified in acute myeloid leukemia. Aims: To investigate the frequency, clinical associations and prognostic effect of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 mutations together, followed by a detailed investigation of particular mutations. Methods: A consecutive cohort of 376 patients diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia were enrolled to compare clinical characteristics. Prognostic impact was analyzed for 314 patients younger than 60 years treated with curative intention. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 mutations were screened using allele-specific PCR and high resolution melting, followed by a confirmatory sequencing. Results: Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1 and 2 mutations were mutually exclusive, detected in 8.5% and 7.5% of the cases respectively. Presence of mutations was associated with older age (p=0.001), higher platelet count (p=0.001), intermediate risk karyotype (p<0.0001), nucleophosmin1 mutation (p=0.022), and with lower mRNA expression level of ABCG2 gene (p=0.006), as compared to mutation negative cases. Remission, relapse rates and overall survival were not different in IDH-mutation positive patients. Interestingly, particular mutations differred in association with nucleophosmin1 mutation: co-occurrence was observed in 14.3% of R132C vs. 70% of R132H carriers (p=0.02); and in 47.4% of R140Q vs. 0% R172K carriers (p=0.02) of IDH1 and IDH2 genes, respectively. R132H negatively influenced overall survival compared to isocitrate dehidrogenase 1 and 2 negative (p=0.02) or to R132C (p=0.019) patients. Conclusions: IDH mutations are frequent recurrent mutations in acute myeloid leukemia. Although a general common pathogenetic role is proposed, our results indicate that differences in clinical characteristics and treatment outcome may exist among disctinct mutations of both genes

    P√©nz√ľgyi sz√°m√≠t√°sok. Bevezet√©s a p√©nz√ľgyi term√©kek √©rt√©kel√©s√©re

    Get PDF
    K√∂nyv√ľnk a P√©nz√ľgyi sz√°m√≠t√°sok t√°rgyhoz kapcsol√≥dik, amelynek keret√©ben c√©lunk az alapvetŇĎ eszk√∂z√°raz√°si ismeretekre √©p√≠tve bemutatni a p√©nz- √©s tŇĎkepiacok mŇĪk√∂d√©s√©t √©s logik√°j√°t, a fontosabb szereplŇĎk jellemzŇĎit √©s a k√∂zelm√ļlt tendenci√°it, valamint √°ttekinteni a legfontosabb elm√©leti √∂sszef√ľgg√©seket √©s modelleket. A k√∂nyv √∂ssze√°ll√≠t√°sa sor√°n arra t√∂rekedt√ľnk, hogy √°ttekint√©st adjunk az elm√©leti √∂sszef√ľgg√©sekrŇĎl, a tesztk√©rd√©sek sor√°n ezek kapcsolatait is megvizsg√°ljuk. Ezen fel√ľl a sz√°mos gyakorlati alkalmaz√°shoz kapcsol√≥d√≥ p√©lda seg√≠ti meg√©rteni √©s elsaj√°t√≠tani p√©nz√ľgyi √∂sszef√ľgg√©sek k√ľl√∂nb√∂zŇĎ vet√ľleteit. A tant√°rgy egy nemzetk√∂zileg elismert alaptank√∂nyvre, Bodie-Kane-Marcus Befektet√©sek c√≠mŇĪ k√∂nyv√©re √©p√ľl, amelyet a hazai tendenci√°k bemutat√°s√°val, k√∂z√©p-eur√≥pai piaci tapasztalatokkal eg√©sz√≠tett√ľnk ki. A fejezetekhez sz√ľks√©ges elm√©leti √∂sszef√ľgg√©seket a Befektet√©sek k√∂nyv tartalmazza, ehhez elk√©sz√≠tett√ľk a legfontosabb fogalmak tartalmaz√≥ le√≠r√°sokat a fejezetek elej√©n, valamint bŇĎv√≠tett√ľk a t√©mak√∂rh√∂z kapcsol√≥d√≥ olvasm√°nyokkal. A tananyagfejleszt√©s sor√°n a fŇĎ motiv√°ci√≥nk az volt, hogy a hallgat√≥k magas szinten elsaj√°t√≠ts√°k a sztenderd nemzetk√∂zi p√©nz√ľgyi piaci ismeretanyagot annak √©rdek√©ben, hogy a nemzetk√∂zi csereprogramokban, illetve az alapszakos k√©pz√©s befejez√©se ut√°n a tov√°bbtanul√°sban, √©s a munkaerŇĎpiacon is meg√°llj√°k a hely√ľket itthon √©s k√ľlf√∂ld√∂n egyar√°nt

    Post-intervention Status in Patients With Refractory Myasthenia Gravis Treated With Eculizumab During REGAIN and Its Open-Label Extension

    Get PDF
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether eculizumab helps patients with anti-acetylcholine receptor-positive (AChR+) refractory generalized myasthenia gravis (gMG) achieve the Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America (MGFA) post-intervention status of minimal manifestations (MM), we assessed patients' status throughout REGAIN (Safety and Efficacy of Eculizumab in AChR+ Refractory Generalized Myasthenia Gravis) and its open-label extension. METHODS: Patients who completed the REGAIN randomized controlled trial and continued into the open-label extension were included in this tertiary endpoint analysis. Patients were assessed for the MGFA post-intervention status of improved, unchanged, worse, MM, and pharmacologic remission at defined time points during REGAIN and through week 130 of the open-label study. RESULTS: A total of 117 patients completed REGAIN and continued into the open-label study (eculizumab/eculizumab: 56; placebo/eculizumab: 61). At week 26 of REGAIN, more eculizumab-treated patients than placebo-treated patients achieved a status of improved (60.7% vs 41.7%) or MM (25.0% vs 13.3%; common OR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.1-4.5). After 130 weeks of eculizumab treatment, 88.0% of patients achieved improved status and 57.3% of patients achieved MM status. The safety profile of eculizumab was consistent with its known profile and no new safety signals were detected. CONCLUSION: Eculizumab led to rapid and sustained achievement of MM in patients with AChR+ refractory gMG. These findings support the use of eculizumab in this previously difficult-to-treat patient population. CLINICALTRIALSGOV IDENTIFIER: REGAIN, NCT01997229; REGAIN open-label extension, NCT02301624. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class II evidence that, after 26 weeks of eculizumab treatment, 25.0% of adults with AChR+ refractory gMG achieved MM, compared with 13.3% who received placebo
    corecore