138 research outputs found

    ChatGPT Empowered Long-Step Robot Control in Various Environments: A Case Application

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    This paper demonstrates how OpenAI's ChatGPT can be used in a few-shot setting to convert natural language instructions into an executable robot action sequence. The paper proposes easy-to-customize input prompts for ChatGPT that meet common requirements in practical applications, such as easy integration with robot execution systems and applicability to various environments while minimizing the impact of ChatGPT's token limit. The prompts encourage ChatGPT to output a sequence of predefined robot actions, represent the operating environment in a formalized style, and infer the updated state of the operating environment. Experiments confirmed that the proposed prompts enable ChatGPT to act according to requirements in various environments, and users can adjust ChatGPT's output with natural language feedback for safe and robust operation. The proposed prompts and source code are open-source and publicly available at https://github.com/microsoft/ChatGPT-Robot-Manipulation-PromptsComment: 17 figures. Last updated April 11th, 202

    An ATR-PrimPol pathway confers tolerance to oncogenic KRAS-induced and heterochromatin-associated replication stress

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    Abstract Activation of the KRAS oncogene is a source of replication stress, but how this stress is generated and how it is tolerated by cancer cells remain poorly understood. Here we show that induction of KRASG12V expression in untransformed cells triggers H3K27me3 and HP1-associated chromatin compaction in an RNA transcription dependent manner, resulting in replication fork slowing and cell death. Furthermore, elevated ATR expression is necessary and sufficient for tolerance of KRASG12V-induced replication stress to expand replication stress-tolerant cells (RSTCs). PrimPol is phosphorylated at Ser255, a potential Chk1 substrate site, under KRASG12V-induced replication stress and promotes repriming to maintain fork progression and cell survival in an ATR/Chk1-dependent manner. However, ssDNA gaps are generated at heterochromatin by PrimPol-dependent repriming, leading to genomic instability. These results reveal a role of ATR-PrimPol in enabling precancerous cells to survive KRAS-induced replication stress and expand clonally with accumulation of genomic instability

    HTLV-1-associated demyelinating neuropathy: A case report and review of the literature

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    A 78-year-old man developed paresthesias in the extremities. He was referred to our hospital because of positive anti-human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) antibodies in the serum and the presence of abnormal lymphocytes. He was diagnosed as chronic-type adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. Neurological examination revealed sensory impairment in the distal parts of the extremities with loss of deep tendon reflexes. Nerve conduction study showed motor and sensory demyelinating polyneuropathy, indicating a diagnosis of HTLV-1-associated demyelinating neuropathy. Corticosteroid therapy followed by intravenous immunoglobulin therapy improved his symptoms. Since demyelinating neuropathy associated with HTLV-1 infection is not well recognized, we here report its characteristics and clinical course through our case report and literature review

    Visible negative pressure wound therapy for open abdominal management: A single‐center retrospective study

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    Abstract Aim This study aimed to compare open abdominal management (OAM) between visible negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) and commercial NPWT to determine whether NPWT can detect intestinal ischemia in its early stages without causing complications or worsening prognosis, and to determine whether the actual visualization results in early detection. Methods Patients were divided into two groups: those who underwent OAM with visible NPWT (A: 32 patients) and those who underwent OAM with commercial NPWT (B: 12 patients). We compared background factors, disease severity, vital signs, blood test values, and 28‐day outcomes between the two groups. We also checked the records to determine how many visualized cases were detected early and operated on. We then examined the weaknesses of this method. Results No differences were observed in the background factors or disease severity between the two groups. The duration of the open abdomen and intensive care unit stay were significantly shorter for group A than for group B. The groups showed no significant differences in lactate levels, 28‐day outcomes, complications during OAM, or other factors. After a review of the medical records, ischemic progression was detected early, and surgery could be performed in seven cases in the visible NPWT group. The progression of ischemia was confirmed at the time of the second‐look operation in two cases in the ascending colon. Conclusion The visualization device allowed us to gain insights into the intra‐abdominal cavity and determine the appropriate time for closing the abdomen without worsening the prognosis

    Pleasant Stroke Touch on Human Back by a Human and a Robot

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    Pleasant touching is an important aspect of social interactions that is widely used as a caregiving technique. To address the problems resulting from a lack of available human caregivers, previous research has attempted to develop robots that can perform this kind of pleasant touch. However, it remains unclear whether robots can provide such a pleasant touch in a manner similar to humans. To investigate this issue, we compared the effect of the speed of gentle strokes on the back between human and robot agents on the emotional responses of human participants (n = 28). A robot or a human stroked on the participants’ back at two different speeds (i.e., 2.6 and 8.5 cm/s). The participants’ subjective (valence and arousal ratings) and physiological (facial electromyography (EMG) recorded from the corrugator supercilii and zygomatic major muscles and skin conductance response) emotional reactions were measured. The subjective ratings demonstrated that the speed of 8.5 cm/s was more pleasant and arousing than the speed of 2.6 cm/s for both human and robot strokes. The corrugator supercilii EMG showed that the speed of 8.5 cm/s resulted in reduced activity in response to both human and robot strokes. These results demonstrate similar speed-dependent modulations of stroke on subjective and physiological positive emotional responses across human and robot agents and suggest that robots can provide a pleasant touch similar to that of humans

    Interactive Task Encoding System for Learning-from-Observation

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    We introduce a practical pipeline that interactively encodes multimodal human demonstrations for robot teaching. This pipeline is designed as an input system for a framework called Learning-from-Observation (LfO), which aims to program household robots with manipulative tasks through few-shots human demonstration without coding. While most previous LfO systems run with visual demonstration, recent research on robot teaching has shown the effectiveness of verbal instruction in making recognition robust and teaching interactive. To the best of our knowledge, however, no LfO system has yet been proposed that utilizes both verbal instruction and interaction, namely \textit{multimodal LfO}. This paper proposes the interactive task encoding system (ITES) as an input pipeline for multimodal LfO. ITES assumes that the user teaches step-by-step, pausing hand movements in order to match the granularity of human instructions with the granularity of robot execution. ITES recognizes tasks based on step-by-step verbal instructions that accompany the hand movements. Additionally, the recognition is made robust through interactions with the user. We test ITES on a real robot and show that the user can successfully teach multiple operations through multimodal demonstrations. The results suggest the usefulness of ITES for multimodal LfO. The source code is available at https://github.com/microsoft/symbolic-robot-teaching-interface.Comment: 7 pages, 10 figures. Last updated January 24st, 202

    GPT Models Meet Robotic Applications: Co-Speech Gesturing Chat System

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    This technical paper introduces a chatting robot system that utilizes recent advancements in large-scale language models (LLMs) such as GPT-3 and ChatGPT. The system is integrated with a co-speech gesture generation system, which selects appropriate gestures based on the conceptual meaning of speech. Our motivation is to explore ways of utilizing the recent progress in LLMs for practical robotic applications, which benefits the development of both chatbots and LLMs. Specifically, it enables the development of highly responsive chatbot systems by leveraging LLMs and adds visual effects to the user interface of LLMs as an additional value. The source code for the system is available on GitHub for our in-house robot (https://github.com/microsoft/LabanotationSuite/tree/master/MSRAbotChatSimulation) and GitHub for Toyota HSR (https://github.com/microsoft/GPT-Enabled-HSR-CoSpeechGestures)

    Performance evaluation of grid-following and grid-forming inverters on frequency stability in low-inertia power systems by power hardware-in-the-loop testing

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    Developing advanced control functions for inverter-based resources (IBRs) to replace the inertial response of retiring synchronous generators (SGs) is progressing rapidly. Although various control mechanisms have been proposed for grid-following (GFL) inverters and grid-forming (GFM) inverters, the comprehensive comparison of their performance in contributing to grid stabilization based on hardware testings has not been studied well. This paper performs power hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) testing for multiple inverter prototypes from different manufacturers and compares their performance concerning the difference in inverter types, control methods, and IBR penetration conditions in the power system. It also tests the possible interference between islanding detection methods (IDMs) and frequency control capabilities of GFL and GFM inverters
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