36 research outputs found

    Assessment of Indoor Air Quality for Group-Housed Macaques (Macaca spp.)

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    Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) is strongly associated with animal health and wellbeing. To identify possible problems of the indoor environment of macaques (Macaca spp.), we assessed the IAQ. The temperature (°C), relative humidity (%) and concentrations of inhalable dust (mg/m3), endotoxins (EU/m3), ammonia (ppm) and fungal aerosols were measured at stationary fixed locations in indoor enclosures of group-housed rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis). In addition, the personal exposure of caretakers to inhalable dust and endotoxins was measured and evaluated. Furthermore, the air circulation was assessed with non-toxic smoke, and the number of times the macaques sneezed was recorded. The indoor temperature and relative humidity for both species were within comfortable ranges. The geometric mean (GM) ammonia, dust and endotoxin concentrations were 1.84 and 0.58 ppm, 0.07 and 0.07 mg/m3, and 24.8 and 6.44 EU/m3 in the rhesus and cynomolgus macaque units, respectively. The GM dust concentrations were significantly higher during the daytime than during the nighttime. Airborne fungi ranged between 425 and 1877 CFU/m3. Personal measurements on the caretakers showed GM dust and endotoxin concentrations of 4.2 mg/m3 and 439.0 EU/m3, respectively. The number of sneezes and the IAQ parameters were not correlated. The smoke test revealed a suboptimal air flow pattern. Although the dust, endotoxins and ammonia were revealed to be within accepted human threshold limit values (TLV), caretakers were exposed to dust and endotoxin levels exceeding existing occupational reference values

    Assessment of Indoor Air Quality for Group-Housed Macaques (Macaca spp.)

    No full text
    Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) is strongly associated with animal health and wellbeing. To identify possible problems of the indoor environment of macaques (Macaca spp.), we assessed the IAQ. The temperature (°C), relative humidity (%) and concentrations of inhalable dust (mg/m3), endotoxins (EU/m3), ammonia (ppm) and fungal aerosols were measured at stationary fixed locations in indoor enclosures of group-housed rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis). In addition, the personal exposure of caretakers to inhalable dust and endotoxins was measured and evaluated. Furthermore, the air circulation was assessed with non-toxic smoke, and the number of times the macaques sneezed was recorded. The indoor temperature and relative humidity for both species were within comfortable ranges. The geometric mean (GM) ammonia, dust and endotoxin concentrations were 1.84 and 0.58 ppm, 0.07 and 0.07 mg/m3, and 24.8 and 6.44 EU/m3 in the rhesus and cynomolgus macaque units, respectively. The GM dust concentrations were significantly higher during the daytime than during the nighttime. Airborne fungi ranged between 425 and 1877 CFU/m3. Personal measurements on the caretakers showed GM dust and endotoxin concentrations of 4.2 mg/m3 and 439.0 EU/m3, respectively. The number of sneezes and the IAQ parameters were not correlated. The smoke test revealed a suboptimal air flow pattern. Although the dust, endotoxins and ammonia were revealed to be within accepted human threshold limit values (TLV), caretakers were exposed to dust and endotoxin levels exceeding existing occupational reference values

    Spatially Resolved Band Gap and Dielectric Function in Two-Dimensional Materials from Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy

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    The electronic properties of two-dimensional (2D) materials depend sensitively on the underlying atomic arrangement down to the monolayer level. Here we present a novel strategy for the determination of the band gap and complex dielectric function in 2D materials achieving a spatial resolution down to a few nanometers. This approach is based on machine learning techniques developed in particle physics and makes possible the automated processing and interpretation of spectral images from electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Individual spectra are classified as a function of the thickness with K-means clustering, and then used to train a deep-learning model of the zero-loss peak background. As a proof of concept we assess the band gap and dielectric function of InSe flakes and polytypic WS2nanoflowers and correlate these electrical properties with the local thickness. Our flexible approach is generalizable to other nanostructured materials and to higher-dimensional spectroscopies and is made available as a new release of the open-source EELSfitter framework

    Spatially Resolved Band Gap and Dielectric Function in Two-Dimensional Materials from Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy

    No full text
    The electronic properties of two-dimensional (2D) materials depend sensitively on the underlying atomic arrangement down to the monolayer level. Here we present a novel strategy for the determination of the band gap and complex dielectric function in 2D materials achieving a spatial resolution down to a few nanometers. This approach is based on machine learning techniques developed in particle physics and makes possible the automated processing and interpretation of spectral images from electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Individual spectra are classified as a function of the thickness with K-means clustering, and then used to train a deep-learning model of the zero-loss peak background. As a proof of concept we assess the band gap and dielectric function of InSe flakes and polytypic WS2 nanoflowers and correlate these electrical properties with the local thickness. Our flexible approach is generalizable to other nanostructured materials and to higher-dimensional spectroscopies and is made available as a new release of the open-source EELSfitter framework. QN/Conesa-Boj La

    Isolation, biochemical and genomic characterization of glyphosate tolerant bacteria to perform microbe-assisted phytoremediation

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    The large-scale use of the herbicide glyphosate leads to growing ecotoxicological and human health concerns. Microbe-assisted phytoremediation arises as a good option to remove, contain, or degrade glyphosate from soils and waterbodies, and thus avoid further spreading to non-target areas. To achieve this, availability of plant-colonizing, glyphosate-tolerant and -degrading strains is required and at the same time, it must be linked to plant-microorganism interaction studies focusing on a substantive ability to colonize the roots and degrade or transform the herbicide. In this work, we isolated bacteria from a chronically glyphosate-exposed site in Argentina, evaluated their glyphosate tolerance using the minimum inhibitory concentration assay, their in vitro degradation potential, their plant growth-promotion traits, and performed whole genome sequencing to gain insight into the application of a phytoremediation strategy to remediate glyphosate contaminated agronomic soils. Twenty-four soil and root-associated bacterial strains were isolated. Sixteen could grow using glyphosate as the sole source of phosphorous. As shown in MIC assay, some strains tolerated up to 10000 mg kg–1 of glyphosate. Most of them also demonstrated a diverse spectrum of in vitro plant growth-promotion traits, confirmed in their genome sequences. Two representative isolates were studied for their root colonization. An isolate of Ochrobactrum haematophilum exhibited different colonization patterns in the rhizoplane compared to an isolate of Rhizobium sp. Both strains were able to metabolize almost 50% of the original glyphosate concentration of 50 mg l–1 in 9 days. In a microcosms experiment with Lotus corniculatus L, O. haematophilum performed better than Rhizobium, with 97% of glyphosate transformed after 20 days. The results suggest that L. corniculatus in combination with to O. haematophilum can be adopted for phytoremediation of glyphosate on agricultural soils. An effective strategy is presented of linking the experimental data from the isolation of tolerant bacteria with performing plant-bacteria interaction tests to demonstrate positive effects on the removal of glyphosate from soils.Centro de Investigaciones del Medioambient

    Análisis bibliométrico de la producción científica sobre cadena de valor turística

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    To develop the tourism potential of a local community, region ortourist destination in general, it is important to identify each of the elements that compose it and how they work. This information is collected and published, mostly, in scientific papers. Therefore, the central objective of this research is to analyze the state of knowledge, through a retrospective bibliometric study, the scientific production that develops,mentions and proposes elements related to the topic of value chains with a tourismfocus, highlighting factors such as author, affiliation, country,type of document, among others. The research methodology is based on a documentary review and retrospective bibliometric information on papersrelated to the topic of tourism value chains. To do this, the Scopus database was consulted by searching for thetopic‘tourismvalue chain’written in the title, abstract or keywords of the paper, resulting in 52 research works carried out between 2010-2020. Theconsultation of these documents took place between July 20, 2020 and June 25, 2021 on thewebsite www.scopus.com. It is concluded thatthe studies on tourism value chains of the last ten years are few, where the paper modality predominates and Thailand is the leading country, although there are also Latin American countries that can lay the foundations of this issue and make visible the importance of tourism value chain research to achieve equitable development among all the links in the chain.Para desarrollar el potencial turístico de una comunidad local, región o destino turístico en general es importante identificar cada uno de los elementos que lo componen y como es que éstos trabajan. Esta información es recabada y publicada, en su mayoría, en artículos científicos. Por lo que el objetivo central de esta investigación es analizar el estado del conocimiento, mediante un estudio bibliométrico retrospectivo, la producción científica que desarrolle mencione y proponga elementos relacionados con el tema cadenas de valor con enfoque turístico destacando factores como autor, afiliación, país, tipo de documento, entre otros. La metodología de la investigación se basa en una revisión documental e información bibliométrica retrospectiva de artículos relacionados con el tema de cadenas de valor turísticas. Para ello, se consultó la base de datos Scopus haciendo la búsqueda del tema ‘tourism value chain’ escrita en el título, resumen o palabras clave del artículo, teniendo como resultado 52 trabajos de investigación realizados entre los años 2010-2020. La consulta de dichos documentos se realizó entre el 20 de julio 2020 al 25 de junio de 2021 en el sitio web www.scopus.com. Se concluye que los estudios sobre cadenas de valor turísticas de los últimos diez años son pocas, en donde predomina la modalidad de artículo y como país líder Tailandia, aunque también hay países Latinoamericanos que pueden sentar las bases de este tema y visibilizar la importancia de la investigación de cadenas de valor turísticas para lograr un desarrollo equitativo entre todos los eslabones de la cadena

    Effect of SGLT2 Inhibitors on Stroke and Atrial Fibrillation in Diabetic Kidney Disease: Results From the CREDENCE Trial and Meta-Analysis

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    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Chronic kidney disease with reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate or elevated albuminuria increases risk for ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. This study assessed the effects of sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) on stroke and atrial fibrillation/flutter (AF/AFL) from CREDENCE (Canagliflozin and Renal Events in Diabetes With Established Nephropathy Clinical Evaluation) and a meta-analysis of large cardiovascular outcome trials (CVOTs) of SGLT2i in type 2 diabetes mellitus.METHODS: CREDENCE randomized 4401 participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease to canagliflozin or placebo. Post hoc, we estimated effects on fatal or nonfatal stroke, stroke subtypes, and intermediate markers of stroke risk including AF/AFL. Stroke and AF/AFL data from 3 other completed large CVOTs and CREDENCE were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis.RESULTS: In CREDENCE, 142 participants experienced a stroke during follow-up (10.9/1000 patient-years with canagliflozin, 14.2/1000 patient-years with placebo; hazard ratio [HR], 0.77 [95% CI, 0.55-1.08]). Effects by stroke subtypes were: ischemic (HR, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.61-1.28]; n=111), hemorrhagic (HR, 0.50 [95% CI, 0.19-1.32]; n=18), and undetermined (HR, 0.54 [95% CI, 0.20-1.46]; n=17). There was no clear effect on AF/AFL (HR, 0.76 [95% CI, 0.53-1.10]; n=115). The overall effects in the 4 CVOTs combined were: total stroke (HRpooled, 0.96 [95% CI, 0.82-1.12]), ischemic stroke (HRpooled, 1.01 [95% CI, 0.89-1.14]), hemorrhagic stroke (HRpooled, 0.50 [95% CI, 0.30-0.83]), undetermined stroke (HRpooled, 0.86 [95% CI, 0.49-1.51]), and AF/AFL (HRpooled, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.71-0.93]). There was evidence that SGLT2i effects on total stroke varied by baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (P=0.01), with protection in the lowest estimated glomerular filtration rate (<45 mL/min/1.73 m2]) subgroup (HRpooled, 0.50 [95% CI, 0.31-0.79]).CONCLUSIONS: Although we found no clear effect of SGLT2i on total stroke in CREDENCE or across trials combined, there was some evidence of benefit in preventing hemorrhagic stroke and AF/AFL, as well as total stroke for those with lowest estimated glomerular filtration rate. Future research should focus on confirming these data and exploring potential mechanisms. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02065791

    Isolation, biochemical and genomic characterization of glyphosate tolerant bacteria to perform microbe-assisted phytoremediation

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    The large-scale use of the herbicide glyphosate leads to growing ecotoxicological and human health concerns. Microbe-assisted phytoremediation arises as a good option to remove, contain, or degrade glyphosate from soils and waterbodies, and thus avoid further spreading to non-target areas. To achieve this, availability of plant-colonizing, glyphosate-tolerant and -degrading strains is required and at the same time, it must be linked to plant-microorganism interaction studies focusing on a substantive ability to colonize the roots and degrade or transform the herbicide. In this work, we isolated bacteria from a chronically glyphosate-exposed site in Argentina, evaluated their glyphosate tolerance using the minimum inhibitory concentration assay, their in vitro degradation potential, their plant growth-promotion traits, and performed whole genome sequencing to gain insight into the application of a phytoremediation strategy to remediate glyphosate contaminated agronomic soils. Twenty-four soil and root-associated bacterial strains were isolated. Sixteen could grow using glyphosate as the sole source of phosphorous. As shown in MIC assay, some strains tolerated up to 10000 mg kg–1 of glyphosate. Most of them also demonstrated a diverse spectrum of in vitro plant growth-promotion traits, confirmed in their genome sequences. Two representative isolates were studied for their root colonization. An isolate of Ochrobactrum haematophilum exhibited different colonization patterns in the rhizoplane compared to an isolate of Rhizobium sp. Both strains were able to metabolize almost 50% of the original glyphosate concentration of 50 mg l–1 in 9 days. In a microcosms experiment with Lotus corniculatus L, O. haematophilum performed better than Rhizobium, with 97% of glyphosate transformed after 20 days. The results suggest that L. corniculatus in combination with to O. haematophilum can be adopted for phytoremediation of glyphosate on agricultural soils. An effective strategy is presented of linking the experimental data from the isolation of tolerant bacteria with performing plant-bacteria interaction tests to demonstrate positive effects on the removal of glyphosate from soils.Fil: Massot, Francisco. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Houssay. Instituto de Nanobiotecnología. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica. Instituto de Nanobiotecnología; ArgentinaFil: Gkorezis, Panagiotis. Hasselt University; BélgicaFil: Van Hamme, Jonathan. Thompson Rivers University; CanadáFil: Marino, Damian Jose Gabriel. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas; Argentina. Universidad Nacional de La Plata. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas. Departamento de Química. Centro de Investigaciones del Medio Ambiente; ArgentinaFil: Trifunovic, Bojana. University of Belgrade. Faculty of Agriculture. Department of Phytomedicine; SerbiaFil: Vukovic, Gorica. University of Belgrade. Faculty of Agriculture. Department of Phytomedicine; SerbiaFil: D'haen, Jan. Hasselt University; BélgicaFil: Pintelon, Isabel. Universiteit Antwerp; BélgicaFil: Giulietti, Ana Maria. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Houssay. Instituto de Nanobiotecnología. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica. Instituto de Nanobiotecnología; ArgentinaFil: Merini, Luciano Jose. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas; Argentina. Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria. Centro Regional La Pampa-San Luis. Estación Experimental Agropecuaria Anguil; ArgentinaFil: Vangronsveld, Jaco. Hasselt University; Bélgica. Maria Curie-Skłodowska University. Faculty of Biology and Biotechnology. Department of Plant Physiology and Biophysics; PoloniaFil: Thijs, Sofie. Hasselt University; Bélgic

    Comparison of two inoculation methods of endophytic bacteria to enhance phytodegradation efficacy of an aged petroleum hydrocarbons polluted soil

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    Endophyte-enhanced phytodegradation is a promising technology to clean up polluted soils. To improve the success rate of this nature-based remediation approach, it is important to advance the inoculation method as this has been shown to strongly affect the final outcome. However, studies evaluating inoculation strategies and their effect on hydrocarbon degradation are limited. This study aims to investigate two different manners of endophyte inoculation in Lolium perenne growing in an aged petroleum hydrocarbon polluted soil: (1) direct soil inoculation (SI), and (2) pre-inoculation of the caryopses followed by soil inoculation (PI). Different endophytic bacterial strains, Rhodococcus erythropolis 5WK and Rhizobium sp. 10WK, were applied individually as well as in combination. Depending on the method of inoculation, the petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) degradation potential was significantly different. The highest PHC removal was achieved after pre-inoculation of ryegrass caryopses with a consortium of both bacterial strains. Moreover, both strains established in the aged-polluted soil and could also colonize the roots and shoots of L. perenne. Importantly, used endophytes showed the selective colonization of the environment compartments. Our findings show that the method of inoculation determines the effciency of the phytodegradation process, especially the rate of PHC degradation. This study provides valuable information for choosing the most cost-effective and beneficial means to optimize phytodegradation
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