690 research outputs found

    Purification and Immune Phenotyping of B-1 Cells from Body Cavities of Mice.

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    B-1 cells are fetal-origin B lymphocytes with unique developmental and functional characteristics that can generate natural, polyreactive antibodies with important functions in tissue homeostasis and immune defense. While B-1 cell frequencies in bone marrow and secondary lymphoid tissues are low, relative high frequencies exist within peritoneal and pleural cavities of mice, including both CD5+ and CD5- B-1 cells. These cells represent B-1 reservoirs that, when activated, migrate to lymphoid tissues to secrete antibodies and/or cytokines. Here, we outline efficient methods for the extraction and magnetic isolation of CD5+ B-1 cells from the peritoneal and pleural cavities as well as the separation and phenotypic characterization of CD5+ and CD5- B-1 cells by flow cytometry

    Reactivation of Ocular Dominance Plasticity in the Adult Visual Cortex

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    protein expression. In contrast, neither BDNF nor TrkB-Fc was able to modulate myelin protein expression when injected into the p75 NTR-/-mice, in agreement with the premise that p75 NTR is the functional receptor for BDNF. The lack of BDNF activity was in sharp contrast with that of NT3. In both wild-type and p75 NTR-/-mice, injection with NT3 inhibited myelination and injection with TrkC-Fc enhanced myelination to the same degree. Similar conclusions were obtained with mouse SC/ DRG cocultures (12). Myelin protein expression was enhanced by BDNF and decreased by TrkB-Fc in myelinating cocultures from wildtype embryos NTR-/-embryos. Furthermore, NT3 inhibited and TrkC-Fc enhanced myelination in both wild-type and p75 NTR-/-cocultures with the same efficiency, again indicating that p75 NTR is the functional receptor for BDNF but not for NT3. Our results demonstrate that neurotrophins are key mediators of PNS myelination and that different receptors are implicated in the positive and negative modulation by BDNF and NT3, respectively. A model illustrating their roles during myelination is depicted in Our results offer an example of how neurotrophins promote different effects according to whether p75 NTR or Trk is activated. Other instances in which such behavior has been documented include cell death or survival decisions in different neuronal types (2) and the differential regulation of neurotransmitter release by sympathetic neurons that produces a switch between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission (20). An interesting characteristic of p75 NTR is its high level of expression in SCs during development and in demyelination and remyelination paradigms (21). After nerve injury, the increase in p75 NTR expression is accompanied by an upregulation of BDN

    Power-sharing and democratization in Africa: the Kenyan experience

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    Isolation of human regulatory T lymphocytes by fluorescence-activated cell sorting

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    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a population of lymphocytes that exerts suppressive effects upon the immune system. In human peripheral blood, the major population of T lymphocytes with suppressive capacity are defined by expression of the T cell co-receptor CD4 and the interleukin-2 receptor α-chain (CD25), combined with minimal expression of the interleukin-7 receptor α subunit (CD127). We begin by outlining the method for isolating peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from human blood by centrifugation of whole blood overlayed on a hydrophilic polysaccharide, with an additional erythrocyte lysis step. The protocol that follows utilizes Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting (FACS) for the isolation of this CD4+CD25+CD127lo population of regulatory T cells, with high yield and purity, from immunostained PBMCs. Prior to FACS isolation, this protocol exploits magnetic immunoselection for pre-enrichment of CD25+ PBMC, which reduces the duration of the subsequent FACS isolation

    Polymicrobial sepsis and non-specific immunization induce adaptive immunosuppression to a similar degree.

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    Sepsis is frequently complicated by a state of profound immunosuppression, in its extreme form known as immunoparalysis. We have studied the role of the adaptive immune system in the murine acute peritonitis model. To read out adaptive immunosuppression, we primed post-septic and control animals by immunization with the model antigen TNP-ovalbumin in alum, and measured the specific antibody-responses via ELISA and ELISpot assay as well as T-cell responses in a proliferation assay after restimulation. Specific antibody titers, antibody affinity and plasma cell counts in the bone marrow were reduced in post-septic animals. The antigen-induced splenic proliferation was also impaired. The adaptive immunosuppression was positively correlated with an overwhelming general antibody response to the septic insult. Remarkably, antigen "overload" by non-specific immunization induced a similar degree of adaptive immunosuppression in the absence of sepsis. In both settings, depletion of regulatory T cells before priming reversed some parameters of the immunosuppression. In conclusion, our data show that adaptive immunosuppression occurs independent of profound systemic inflammation and life-threatening illness

    Consensus guidelines for the use and interpretation of angiogenesis assays

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    The formation of new blood vessels, or angiogenesis, is a complex process that plays important roles in growth and development, tissue and organ regeneration, as well as numerous pathological conditions. Angiogenesis undergoes multiple discrete steps that can be individually evaluated and quantified by a large number of bioassays. These independent assessments hold advantages but also have limitations. This article describes in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro bioassays that are available for the evaluation of angiogenesis and highlights critical aspects that are relevant for their execution and proper interpretation. As such, this collaborative work is the first edition of consensus guidelines on angiogenesis bioassays to serve for current and future reference

    Identification of Cytauxzoon felis antigens via protein microarray and assessment of expression library immunization against cytauxzoonosis

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    Abstract Background Cytauxzoonosis is a disease of felids in North America caused by the tick-transmitted apicomplexan parasite Cytauxzoon felis. Cytauxzoonosis is particularly virulent for domestic cats, but no vaccine currently exists. The parasite cannot be cultivated in vitro, presenting a significant limitation for vaccine development. Methods Recent sequencing of the C. felis genome has identified over 4300 putative protein-encoding genes. From this pool we constructed a protein microarray containing 673 putative C. felis proteins. This microarray was probed with sera from C. felis-infected and naïve cats to identify differentially reactive antigens which were incorporated into two expression library vaccines, one polyvalent and one monovalent. We assessed the efficacy of these vaccines to prevent of infection and/or disease in a tick-challenge model. Results Probing of the protein microarray resulted in identification of 30 differentially reactive C. felis antigens that were incorporated into the two expression library vaccines. However, expression library immunization failed to prevent infection or disease in cats challenged with C. felis. Conclusions Protein microarray facilitated high-throughput identification of novel antigens, substantially increasing the pool of characterized C. felis antigens. These antigens should be considered for development of C. felis vaccines, diagnostics, and therapeutics

    The role of PKCzeta in cord blood T-cell maturation towards Th1 cytokine profile and its epigenetic regulation by fish oil

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    While immunodeficiency of immaturity of the neonate has been considered important as the basis for unusual susceptibility to infection, it has also been recognized that the ability to progress from an immature Th2 cytokine predominance to a Th1 profile has relevance in determining whether children will develop allergy, providing an opportunity for epigenetic regulation through environmental pressures. However, this notion remains relatively unexplored. Here, we present evidence that there are two major control points to explain the immunodeficiency in cord blood (CB) T-cells, a deficiency in interleukin (IL)-12 (IL-12) producing and IL-10 overproducing accessory cells, leading to a decreased interferon γ (IFNγ) synthesis and the other, an intrinsic defect in T-cell protein kinase C (PKC) ζ (PKCζ) expression. An important finding was that human CB T-cells rendered deficient in PKCζ, by shRNA knockdown, develop into low tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) and IFNγ but increased IL-13 producing cells. Interestingly, we found that the increase in PKCζ levels in CB T-cells caused by prenatal supplementation with fish oil correlated with modifications of histone acetylation at the PKCζ gene (PRKCZ) promoter. The data demonstrate that PKCζ expression regulates the maturation of neonatal T-cells into specific functional phenotypes and that environmental influences may work via PKCζ to regulate these phenotypes and disease susceptibility.Hani Harb, James Irvine, Manori Amarasekera, Charles S. Hii, Dörthe A. Kesper, YueFang Ma, Nina D′Vaz, Harald Renz, Daniel P. Potaczek, Susan L. Prescott and Antonio Ferrant

    Dietary thiols in exercise: oxidative stress defence, exercise performance, and adaptation

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    Endurance athletes are susceptible to cellular damage initiated by excessive levels of aerobic exercise-produced reactive oxygen species (ROS). Whilst ROS can contribute to the onset of fatigue, there is increasing evidence that they play a crucial role in exercise adaptations. The use of antioxidant supplements such as vitamin C and E in athletes is common; however, their ability to enhance performance and facilitate recovery is controversial, with many studies suggesting a blunting of training adaptations with supplementation. The up-regulation of endogenous antioxidant systems brought about by exercise training allows for greater tolerance to subsequent ROS, thus, athletes may benefit from increasing these systems through dietary thiol donors. Recent work has shown supplementation with a cysteine donor (N-acetylcysteine; NAC) improves antioxidant capacity by augmenting glutathione levels and reducing markers of oxidative stress, as well as ergogenic potential through association with delayed fatigue in numerous experimental models. However, the use of this, and other thiol donors may have adverse physiological effects. A recent discovery for the use of a thiol donor food source, keratin, to potentially enhance endogenous antioxidants may have important implications for endurance athletes hoping to enhance performance and recovery without blunting training adaptations.fals