21,449 research outputs found

    Addressing climate change with behavioral science: A global intervention tournament in 63 countries

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    International audienceEffectively reducing climate change requires marked, global behavior change. However, it is unclear which strategies are most likely to motivate people to change their climate beliefs and behaviors. Here, we tested 11 expert-crowdsourced interventions on four climate mitigation outcomes: beliefs, policy support, information sharing intention, and an effortful tree-planting behavioral task. Across 59,440 participants from 63 countries, the interventions‚Äô effectiveness was small, largely limited to nonclimate skeptics, and differed across outcomes: Beliefs were strengthened mostly by decreasing psychological distance (by 2.3%), policy support by writing a letter to a future-generation member (2.6%), information sharing by negative emotion induction (12.1%), and no intervention increased the more effortful behavior‚ÄĒseveral interventions even reduced tree planting. Last, the effects of each intervention differed depending on people‚Äôs initial climate beliefs. These findings suggest that the impact of behavioral climate interventions varies across audiences and target behaviors

    sj-pdf-1-jmx-10.1177_00222429231217471 - Supplemental material for Revenue Generation Through Influencer Marketing

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    Supplemental material, sj-pdf-1-jmx-10.1177_00222429231217471 for Revenue Generation Through Influencer Marketing by Maximilian Beichert, Andreas Bayerl, Jacob Goldenberg and Andreas Lanz in Journal of Marketing</p

    Supplemental Figure 1 from Breast Cancer Polygenic-Risk Score Influence on Risk-Reducing Endocrine Therapy Use: Genetic Risk Estimate (GENRE) Trial 1-Year and 2-Year Follow-Up

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    Supplemental Figure 1: The Study Schema Defines Information Collected During Each Patient Visit and at Each Follow-Up Time Point. Visit 1 consisted of a baseline breast cancer risk assessment (NCI-BCRAT and IBIS BC risk scores without PRS) and discussion of risk-reducing options, including ET, with a participating physician or nurse practitioner. During Visit 2, NCI-BCRAT and IBIS BC risk scores, with and without PRS, were presented and explained to participants, and ET risks, benefits, and potential adverse effects were discussed again. ET prescriptions were provided to those who wished to proceed. The participants completed the same survey as was completed after Visit 1. Follow-up assessments were performed 1 and 2 years after Visit 2 and evaluated QOL with the FACT-GP/ES questionnaire.</p

    Addressing climate change with behavioral science::A global intervention tournament in 63 countries

    No full text
    Effectively reducing climate change requires marked, global behavior change. However, it is unclear which strategies are most likely to motivate people to change their climate beliefs and behaviors. Here, we tested 11 expert-crowdsourced interventions on four climate mitigation outcomes: beliefs, policy support, information sharing intention, and an effortful tree-planting behavioral task. Across 59,440 participants from 63 countries, the interventions‚Äô effectiveness was small, largely limited to nonclimate skeptics, and differed across outcomes: Beliefs were strengthened mostly by decreasing psychological distance (by 2.3%), policy support by writing a letter to a future-generation member (2.6%), information sharing by negative emotion induction (12.1%), and no intervention increased the more effortful behavior‚ÄĒseveral interventions even reduced tree planting. Last, the effects of each intervention differed depending on people‚Äôs initial climate beliefs. These findings suggest that the impact of behavioral climate interventions varies across audiences and target behaviors

    Supplemental Materials and Methods 1 from Breast Cancer Polygenic-Risk Score Influence on Risk-Reducing Endocrine Therapy Use: Genetic Risk Estimate (GENRE) Trial 1-Year and 2-Year Follow-Up

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    The Supplemental Materials and Methods file depicts a representative graphical report provided to participants at Visits 1 and 2 that illustrates the participant’s estimated 5-year, 10-year, and remaining lifetime breast cancer risk (determined by NCI-BCRAT and IBIS with and without PRS).</p

    From women to objects: Appearance focus, target gender, and perceptions of warmth, morality and competence

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    Most literally, objectification refers to perceiving a person as an object, and consequently, less than fully human. Research on perceptions of humanness and the stereotype content model suggests that humanness is linked to perceptions of warmth, morality and competence. Merging these insights with objectification theory, we hypothesized that focusing on a woman's, but not a man's, appearance should induce objectification, and thus reduce perceptions of these characteristics. In three studies, females, but not males, were perceived as less competent (Studies 2 and 3) and less warm and moral (Studies 1, 2 and 3) when participants were instructed to focus on their appearance. These findings support our position and help rule out stereotype activation as an alternative explanation to dehumanization. Further, they generalized to targets of different races, familiarity, physical attractiveness and occupational status. Implications for gender inequity and the perpetuation of objectification of women are discussed. </p

    The use of faecal microbiota transplant as treatment for recurrent or refractory Clostridioides difficile infection and other potential indications:second edition of joint British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) and Healthcare Infection Society (HIS) guidelines

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    The first British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) and Healthcare Infection Society (HIS)-endorsed faecal microbiota transplant (FMT) guidelines were published in 2018. Over the past five years, there has been considerable growth in the evidence base (including publication of outcomes from large national FMT registries), necessitating an updated critical review of the literature and a second edition of the BSG/HIS FMT guidelines. These have been produced in accordance with NICE-accredited methodology, thus have particular relevance for UK-based clinicians, but are intended to be of pertinence internationally. This second edition of the guidelines have been divided into recommendations, good practice points, and recommendations against certain practices. With respect to FMT for Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI), key focus areas centred around timing of administration, increasing clinical experience of encapsulated FMT preparations, and optimising donor screening. The latter topic is of particular relevance given the COVID-19 pandemic, and cases of patient morbidity and mortality resulting from FMT-related pathogen transmission. The guidelines also considered emergent literature on the use of FMT in non-CDI settings (including both gastrointestinal and non-gastrointestinal indications), reviewing relevant randomised controlled trials. Recommendations are provided regarding special areas (including compassionate FMT use), and considerations regarding the evolving landscape of FMT and microbiome therapeutics

    Hereditary Arrhythmias

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    Ventricular tachyarrhythmias (ventricular tachycardia [VT] or ventricular fibrillation [VF]) are associated with syncope, aborted cardiac arrest (ACA) or sudden cardiac death (SCD). Patients will experience syncope, ACA, or SCD depending on the duration of the VT and whether VT degenerates into VF. The etiology of these life-threatening hereditary arrhythmias can be classified according to whether structural heart disease is present or not. Structural causes of hereditary arrhythmias include hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia (ARVC/D). Most of the nonstructural causes of hereditary arrhythmias are cardiac channelopathies (disorders involving mutations in genes encoding cardiac ion channels) that include the congenital long QT syndromes (LQTS), Brugada syndrome, and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT). Inherited infiltrative cardiomyopathies, such as Fabry disease, are also an important cause of arrhythmias. This chapter will focus on the clinical and genetic aspects of the LQTS, Brugada syndrome, and ARVC/D, CPVT. It should be noted that these genetic syndromes exhibit incomplete penetrance (i.e., the likelihood that a disease-causing mutation will have a phenotypic expression in a mutation-positive subject) and variable expressivity (i.e., different level of phenotypic expression), implicating environmental factors and possibly other genetic modifiers in the etiology of these diseases

    When Are Social Protests Effective?

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    Around the world, people engage in social protests aimed at addressing major societal problems. Certain protests have led to significant progress, yet other protests have resulted in little demonstrable change. We introduce a framework for evaluating the effectiveness of social protest made up of three components: (i) what types of action are being considered; (ii) what target audience is being affected; and (iii) what outcomes are being evaluated? We then review relevant research to suggest how the framework can help synthesize conflicting findings in the literature. This synthesis points to two key conclusions: that nonviolent protests are effective at mobilizing sympathizers to support the cause, whereas more disruptive protests can motivate support for policy change among resistant individuals.</p

    Addressing climate change with behavioral science: A global intervention tournament in 63 countries

    No full text
    Effectively reducing climate change requires marked, global behavior change. However, it is unclear which strategies are most likely to motivate people to change their climate beliefs and behaviors. Here, we tested 11 expert-crowdsourced interventions on four climate mitigation outcomes: beliefs, policy support, information sharing intention, and an effortful tree-planting behavioral task. Across 59,440 participants from 63 countries, the interventions‚Äô effectiveness was small, largely limited to nonclimate skeptics, and differed across outcomes: Beliefs were strengthened mostly by decreasing psychological distance (by 2.3%), policy support by writing a letter to a future-generation member (2.6%), information sharing by negative emotion induction (12.1%), and no intervention increased the more effortful behavior‚ÄĒseveral interventions even reduced tree planting. Last, the effects of each intervention differed depending on people‚Äôs initial climate beliefs. These findings suggest that the impact of behavioral climate interventions varies across audiences and target behaviors
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