528 research outputs found

    Periodic and quasi-periodic attractors for the spin-orbit evolution of Mercury with a realistic tidal torque

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    Mercury is entrapped in a 3:2 resonance: it rotates on its axis three times for every two revolutions it makes around the Sun. It is generally accepted that this is due to the large value of the eccentricity of its orbit. However, the mathematical model originally introduced to study its spin-orbit evolution proved not to be entirely convincing, because of the expression commonly used for the tidal torque. Only recently, in a series of papers mainly by Efroimsky and Makarov, a different model for the tidal torque has been proposed, which has the advantages of being more realistic, and of providing a higher probability of capture in the 3:2 resonance with respect to the previous models. On the other hand, a drawback of the model is that the function describing the tidal torque is not smooth and consists of a superposition of kinks, so that both analytical and numerical computations turn out to be rather delicate: indeed, standard perturbation theory based on power series expansion cannot be applied and the implementation of a fast algorithm to integrate the equations of motion numerically requires a high degree of care. In this paper, we make a detailed study of the spin-orbit dynamics of Mercury, as predicted by the realistic model: In particular, we present numerical and analytical results about the nature of the librations of Mercury's spin in the 3:2 resonance. The results provide evidence that the librations are quasi-periodic in time.Comment: 32 pages, 8 figures, 5 table

    Basins of attraction in forced systems with time-varying dissipation

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    We consider dissipative periodically forced systems and investigate cases in which having information as to how the system behaves for constant dissipation may be used when dissipation varies in time before settling at a constant final value. First, we consider situations where one is interested in the basins of attraction for damping coefficients varying linearly between two given values over many different time intervals: we outline a method to reduce the computation time required to estimate numerically the relative areas of the basins and discuss its range of applicability. Second, we observe that sometimes very slight changes in the time interval may produce abrupt large variations in the relative areas of the basins of attraction of the surviving attractors: we show how comparing the contracted phase space at a time after the final value of dissipation has been reached with the basins of attraction corresponding to that value of constant dissipation can explain the presence of such variations. Both procedures are illustrated by application to a pendulum with periodically oscillating support.Comment: 16 pages, 13 figures, 7 table

    Quasi-periodic attractors, Borel summability and the Bryuno condition for strongly dissipative systems

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    We consider a class of ordinary differential equations describing one-dimensional analytic systems with a quasi-periodic forcing term and in the presence of damping. In the limit of large damping, under some generic non-degeneracy condition on the force, there are quasi-periodic solutions which have the same frequency vector as the forcing term. We prove that such solutions are Borel summable at the origin when the frequency vector is either any one-dimensional number or a two-dimensional vector such that the ratio of its components is an irrational number of constant type. In the first case the proof given simplifies that provided in a previous work of ours. We also show that in any dimension dd, for the existence of a quasi-periodic solution with the same frequency vector as the forcing term, the standard Diophantine condition can be weakened into the Bryuno condition. In all cases, under a suitable positivity condition, the quasi-periodic solution is proved to describe a local attractor.Comment: 10 page

    Direct loss-based seismic design of reinforced concrete frame and wall structures

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    This paper presents a procedure to design reinforced concrete (RC) buildings to achieve an acceptable target level of earthquake-induced loss (e.g., deaths, dollars, downtime) under a site-specific hazard profile. The procedure is called ‚Äúdirect‚ÄĚ since the target loss level is specified at the first step of the process, and virtually no iteration is required. The procedure is based on a simplified loss assessment involving a surrogate model for the seismic demand (i.e., probability distribution of peak horizontal deformation given ground-motion intensity) and simplified loss models for direct and indirect losses. For an arbitrarily-selected target loss level and structural geometry, the procedure provides the force-displacement curve of the corresponding equivalent single degree of freedom system. The principles of displacement-based design are adopted to provide member detailings (beams, columns, walls) consistent with such force-displacement curve. The procedure is applied to 16 realistic RC case studies with a lateral resisting system composed of frames in one direction and cantilever walls in the perpendicular one. They show different geometries, hazard profiles, and target values of direct economic expected annual loss. A benchmark loss estimation is obtained using cloud-based non-linear time-history analyses of multi-degree of freedom models. The procedure is conservative since the benchmark loss levels are always smaller than the targets. Such discrepancy is within 10% for 12 out of 32 case studies, between 10% and 20% for 13, between 20% and 31% for the remaining six. Therefore, the proposed procedure is deemed dependable for preliminary design

    Stable dynamics in forced systems with sufficiently high/low forcing frequency

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    We consider a class of parametrically forced Hamiltonian systems with one-and-a-half degrees of freedom and study the stability of the dynamics when the frequency of the forcing is relatively high or low. We show that, provided the frequency of the forcing is sufficiently high, KAM theorem may be applied even when the forcing amplitude is far away from the perturbation regime. A similar result is obtained for sufficiently low frequency forcing, but in that case we need the amplitude of the forcing to be not too large; however we are still able to consider amplitudes of the forcing which are outside of the perturbation regime. Our results are illustrated by means of numerical simulations for the system of a forced cubic oscillator. In addition, we find numerically that the dynamics are stable even when the forcing amplitude is very large (beyond the range of validity of the analytical results), provided the frequency of the forcing is taken correspondingly low

    Periodic and quasi-periodic attractors for the spin-orbit evolution of Mercury with a realistic tidal torque

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    In this paper, we make a detailed study of the spin-orbit dynamics of Mercury, as predicted by the realistic model which has been recently introduced in a series of papers mainly by Efroimsky and Makarov. We present numerical and analytical results concerning the nature of the librations of Mercury’s spin in the 3:2 resonance. The results provide evidence that the librations are quasi-periodic in time, consisting of a slow oscillation, with an amplitude of order of arcminutes, superimposed on the 88-day libration. This contrasts with recent astronomical observations and hence suggests that the 3:2 resonance in which Mercury has been trapped might have been originally described by a large-amplitude quasi-periodic libration which, only at a later stage, with the formation of a molten core, evolved into the small-amplitude libration which is observed nowadays
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