134 research outputs found

    In Vitro Release of Interferon-Gamma from Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes in Cutaneous Adverse Drug Reactions

    Get PDF
    Background. Cutaneous drug reactions are common but diagnostically challenging due to phenotypic heterogeneity and simultaneous exposure to multiple drugs. These limitations prompted the development of diagnostic tests. Aims. To evaluate the performance of an in vitro assay measuring interferon-gamma release from patients' lymphocytes in the presence of causative drugs for the diagnosis of drug reactions. Methods. Mononuclear cells derived from patients were incubated with and without suspected drugs, and increment of interferon-gamma levels was measured by ELISA. We performed a telephonic survey to evaluate the effect of stopping the drugs incriminated by the assay on cutaneous manifestations. Results. We assessed 272 patients who used 1035 medications. When assessed against the questionnaire data collected at least 6 months after stopping the causative drug, sensitivity was found to be 83.61% and specificity 92.67%. Likelihood ratio for a positive test is 11.40 and for a negative test 0.18. Positive predictive value is 75.37% and negative predictive value is 95.47%. The test was found to perform significantly better in females and in older patients. Conclusions. Interferon-gamma release test is a useful adjunct tool in the diagnosis of cutaneous drug reactions

    Is an enhanced behaviour change intervention cost-effective compared with physiotherapy for patients with chronic low back pain? : Results from a multicentre trial in Israel

    Get PDF
    Objective To assess the cost-effectiveness of an enhanced transtheoretical model of behaviour change in conjunction with physiotherapy compared with standard care (physiotherapy) in patients with chronic lower back pain (CLBP). Design Cost-utility and cost-effectiveness analyses alongside a multicentre controlled trial from a healthcare perspective with a 1-year time horizon. Setting The trial was conducted in eight centres within the Sharon district in Israel. Participants 220 participants aged between 25 and 55 years who suffered from CLBP for a minimum of 3 months were recruited. Interventions The intervention used a model of behaviour change that sought to increase the adherence and implementation of physical activity in conjunction with physiotherapy. The control arm received standard care in the form of physiotherapy. Primary and secondary measures The primary outcome was the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) of the intervention arm compared with standard care. The secondary outcome was the incremental cost per Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire point. Results The cost per QALY point estimate was 10 645 New Israeli shekels (NIS) (£1737.11). There was an 88% chance the intervention was cost-effective at NIS50 000 per QALY threshold. Excluding training costs, the intervention dominated the control arm, resulting in fewer physiotherapy and physician visits while improving outcomes. Conclusions The enhanced transtheoretical model intervention appears to be a very cost-effective intervention leading to improved outcomes for low cost. Given limitations within this study, there is justification for examining the intervention within a larger, long-term randomised controlled trial

    Biological rhythms in COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness in an observational cohort study of 1.5 million patients

    Get PDF
    BACKGROUNDCircadian rhythms are evident in basic immune processes, but it is unclear if rhythms exist in clinical endpoints like vaccine protection. Here, we examined associations between COVID-19 vaccination timing and effectiveness.METHODSWe retrospectively analyzed a large Israeli cohort with timestamped COVID-19 vaccinations (n = 1,515,754 patients over 12 years old, 99.2% receiving BNT162b2). Endpoints included COVID-19 breakthrough infection and COVID-19-associated emergency department visits and hospitalizations. Our main comparison was among patients vaccinated during morning (800-1159 hours), afternoon (1200-1559 hours), or evening hours (1600-1959 hours). We employed Cox regression to adjust for differences in age, sex, and comorbidities.RESULTSBreakthrough infections differed based on vaccination time, with lowest the rates associated with late morning to early afternoon and highest rates associated with evening vaccination. Vaccination timing remained significant after adjustment for patient age, sex, and comorbidities. Results were consistent in patients who received the basic 2-dose series and who received booster doses. The relationship between COVID-19 immunization time and breakthrough infections was sinusoidal, consistent with a biological rhythm that modifies vaccine effectiveness by 8.6%-25%. The benefits of daytime vaccination were concentrated in younger (\u3c20 years old) and older patients (\u3e50 years old). COVID-19-related hospitalizations varied significantly with the timing of the second booster dose, an intervention reserved for older and immunosuppressed patients (HR = 0.64, morning vs. evening; 95% CI, 0.43-0.97; P = 0.038).CONCLUSIONWe report a significant association between the time of COVID-19 vaccination and its effectiveness. This has implications for mass vaccination programs.FUNDINGNIH

    Long-Term, Real-World Kidney Outcomes with SGLT2i versus DPP4i in Type 2 Diabetes without Cardiovascular or Kidney Disease

    Get PDF
    BACKGROUND: Contemporary guidelines recommend the use of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) independently of glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes and those with kidney disease, with heart failure, or at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Using a large Israeli database, we assessed whether long-term use of SGLT2is versus dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors (DPP4is) is associated with kidney benefits in patients with type 2 diabetes overall and in those without evidence of cardiovascular or kidney disease. METHODS: Patients with type 2 diabetes who initiated SGLT2is or DPP4is between 2015 and 2021 were propensity score-matched (1:1) according to 90 parameters. The kidney-specific composite outcome included confirmed ≥40% decline in eGFR or kidney failure. The kidney-or-death outcome included also all-cause mortality. Risks of outcomes were assessed using Cox proportional hazard regression models. The between-group difference in eGFR slope was also assessed. Analyses were repeated in patients' subgroup lacking evidence of cardiovascular or kidney disease. RESULTS: Overall, 19,648 propensity score-matched patients were included; 10,467 (53%) did not have evidence of cardiovascular or kidney disease. Median follow-up was 38 months (interquartile range, 22-55). The composite kidney-specific outcome occurred at an event rate of 6.9 versus 9.5 events per 1000 patient-years with SGLT2i versus DPP4i. The respective event rates of the kidney-or-death outcome were 17.7 versus 22.1. Compared with DPP4is, initiation of SGLT2is was associated with a lower risk for the kidney-specific (hazard ratio [HR], 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61 to 0.86; P &lt; 0.001) and kidney-or-death (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.71 to 0.89; P &lt; 0.001) outcomes. The respective HRs (95% CI) in those lacking evidence of cardiovascular or kidney disease were 0.67 (0.44 to 1.02) and 0.77 (0.61 to 0.97). Initiation of SGLT2is versus DPP4is was associated with mitigation of the eGFR slope overall and in those lacking evidence of cardiovascular or kidney disease (mean between-group differences 0.49 [95% CI, 0.35 to 0.62] and 0.48 [95% CI, 0.32 to 0.64] ml/min per 1.73 m 2 per year, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Long-term use of SGLT2is versus DPP4is in a real-world setting was associated with mitigation of eGFR loss in patients with type 2 diabetes, even in those lacking evidence of cardiovascular or kidney disease at baseline.</p

    Epidemiology of the diabetes-cardio-renal spectrum:a cross-sectional report of 1.4 million adults

    Get PDF
    Background Type-2 diabetes (T2D), chronic kidney disease, and heart failure (HF) share epidemiological and pathophysiological features. Although their prevalence was described, there is limited contemporary, high-resolution, epidemiological data regarding the overlap among them. We aimed to describe the epidemiological intersections between T2D, HF, and kidney dysfunction in an entire database, overall and by age and sex. Methods This is a cross-sectional analysis of adults >= 25 years, registered in 2019 at Maccabi Healthcare Services, a large healthcare maintenance organization in Israel. Collected data included sex, age, presence of T2D or HF, and last estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in the past two years. Subjects with T2D, HF, or eGFR = 55 years old. eGFR measurements were available in 74.7% of the participants and in over 97% of those with T2D or HF. eGFR availability increased in older age groups. There were 140,636 (10.1%) patients with T2D, 54,187 (3.9%) with eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73m(2), and 11,605 (0.84%) with HF. Overall, 12.6% had at least one condition within the DCR spectrum, 2.0% had at least two, and 0.23% had all three. Cardiorenal syndrome (both HF and eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73m(2)) was prevalent in 0.40% of the entire population and in 2.3% of those with T2D. In patients with both HF and T2D, 55.2% had eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73m(2) and 15.8% had eGFR < 30 mL/min/1.73m(2). Amongst those within the DCR spectrum, T2D was prominent in younger participants, but was gradually replaced by HF and eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73m(2) with increasing age. The congruence between all three conditions increased with age. Conclusions This large, broad-based study provides a contemporary, high-resolution prevalence of the DCR spectrum and its components. The results highlight differences in dominance and degree of congruence between T2D, HF, and kidney dysfunction across ages

    Albuminuria Testing in Hypertension and Diabetes:An Individual-Participant Data Meta-Analysis in a Global Consortium

    Get PDF
    Albuminuria is an under-recognized component of chronic kidney disease definition, staging, and prognosis. Guidelines, particularly for hypertension, conflict on recommendations for urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) measurement. Separately among 1 344 594 adults with diabetes and 2 334 461 nondiabetic adults with hypertension from the chronic kidney disease Prognosis Consortium, we assessed ACR testing, estimated the prevalence and incidence of ACR ≥30 mg/g and developed risk models for ACR ≥30 mg/g. The ACR screening rate (cohort range) was 35.1% (12.3%-74.5%) in diabetes and 4.1% (1.3%-20.7%) in hypertension. Screening was largely unrelated to the predicted risk of prevalent albuminuria. The median prevalence of ACR ≥30 mg/g across cohorts was 32.1% in diabetes and 21.8% in hypertension. Higher systolic blood pressure was associated with a higher prevalence of albuminuria (odds ratio [95% CI] per 20 mm Hg in diabetes, 1.50 [1.42-1.60]; in hypertension, 1.36 [1.28-1.45]). The ratio of undetected (due to lack of screening) to detected ACR ≥30 mg/g was estimated at 1.8 in diabetes and 19.5 in hypertension. Among those with ACR/g, the median 5-year incidence of ACR ≥30 mg/g across cohorts was 23.9% in diabetes and 21.7% in hypertension. Incident albuminuria was associated with initiation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors (incidence-rate ratio [95% CI], diabetes 3.09 [2.71-3.53]; hypertension 2.87 [2.29-3.59]). In conclusion, despite similar risk of albuminuria to those with diabetes, ACR screening in patients with hypertension was low. Our findings suggest that regular albuminuria screening should be emphasized to enable early detection of chronic kidney disease and initiation of treatment with cardiovascular and renal benefits

    Perceptions of hypertension treatment among patients with and without diabetes

    Get PDF
    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Despite the availability of a wide selection of effective antihypertensive treatments and the existence of clear treatment guidelines, many patients with hypertension do not have controlled blood pressure. We conducted a qualitative study to explore beliefs and perceptions regarding hypertension and gain an understanding of barriers to treatment among patients with and without diabetes.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Ten focus groups were held for patients with hypertension in three age ranges, with and without diabetes. The topic guides for the groups were: What will determine your future health status? What do you understand by "raised blood pressure"? How should one go about treating raised blood pressure?</p> <p>Results</p> <p>People with hypertension tend to see hypertension not as a disease but as a risk factor for myocardial infarction or stroke. They do not view it as a continuous, degenerative process of damage to the vascular system, but rather as a binary risk process, within which you can either be a winner (not become ill) or a loser. This makes non-adherence to treatment a gamble with a potential positive outcome. Patients with diabetes are more likely to accept hypertension as a chronic illness with minor impact on their routine, and less important than their diabetes. Most participants overestimated the effect of stress as a causative factor believing that a reduction in levels of stress is the most important treatment modality. Many believe they "know their bodies" and are able to control their blood pressure. Patients without diabetes were most likely to adopt a treatment which is a compromise between their physician's suggestions and their own understanding of hypertension.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Patient denial and non-adherence to hypertension treatment is a prevalent phenomenon reflecting a conscious choice made by the patient, based on his knowledge and perceptions regarding the medical condition and its treatment. There is a need to change perception of hypertension from a gamble to a disease process. Changing the message from the existing one of "silent killer" to one that depicts hypertension as a manageable disease process may have the potential to significantly increase adherence rates.</p
    corecore