253 research outputs found

    Update on the correlation of the highest energy cosmic rays with nearby extragalactic matter

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    Data collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory through 31 August 2007 showed evidence for anisotropy in the arrival directions of cosmic rays above the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuz'min energy threshold, \nobreak{6×10196\times 10^{19}eV}. The anisotropy was measured by the fraction of arrival directions that are less than 3.1∘3.1^\circ from the position of an active galactic nucleus within 75 Mpc (using the V\'eron-Cetty and V\'eron 12th12^{\rm th} catalog). An updated measurement of this fraction is reported here using the arrival directions of cosmic rays recorded above the same energy threshold through 31 December 2009. The number of arrival directions has increased from 27 to 69, allowing a more precise measurement. The correlating fraction is (38−6+7)(38^{+7}_{-6})%, compared with 2121% expected for isotropic cosmic rays. This is down from the early estimate of (69−13+11)(69^{+11}_{-13})%. The enlarged set of arrival directions is examined also in relation to other populations of nearby extragalactic objects: galaxies in the 2 Microns All Sky Survey and active galactic nuclei detected in hard X-rays by the Swift Burst Alert Telescope. A celestial region around the position of the radiogalaxy Cen A has the largest excess of arrival directions relative to isotropic expectations. The 2-point autocorrelation function is shown for the enlarged set of arrival directions and compared to the isotropic expectation.Comment: Accepted for publication in Astroparticle Physics on 31 August 201

    Origins of the Ambient Solar Wind: Implications for Space Weather

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    The Sun's outer atmosphere is heated to temperatures of millions of degrees, and solar plasma flows out into interplanetary space at supersonic speeds. This paper reviews our current understanding of these interrelated problems: coronal heating and the acceleration of the ambient solar wind. We also discuss where the community stands in its ability to forecast how variations in the solar wind (i.e., fast and slow wind streams) impact the Earth. Although the last few decades have seen significant progress in observations and modeling, we still do not have a complete understanding of the relevant physical processes, nor do we have a quantitatively precise census of which coronal structures contribute to specific types of solar wind. Fast streams are known to be connected to the central regions of large coronal holes. Slow streams, however, appear to come from a wide range of sources, including streamers, pseudostreamers, coronal loops, active regions, and coronal hole boundaries. Complicating our understanding even more is the fact that processes such as turbulence, stream-stream interactions, and Coulomb collisions can make it difficult to unambiguously map a parcel measured at 1 AU back down to its coronal source. We also review recent progress -- in theoretical modeling, observational data analysis, and forecasting techniques that sit at the interface between data and theory -- that gives us hope that the above problems are indeed solvable.Comment: Accepted for publication in Space Science Reviews. Special issue connected with a 2016 ISSI workshop on "The Scientific Foundations of Space Weather." 44 pages, 9 figure

    Advanced functionality for radio analysis in the Offline software framework of the Pierre Auger Observatory

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    The advent of the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) necessitates the development of a powerful framework for the analysis of radio measurements of cosmic ray air showers. As AERA performs "radio-hybrid" measurements of air shower radio emission in coincidence with the surface particle detectors and fluorescence telescopes of the Pierre Auger Observatory, the radio analysis functionality had to be incorporated in the existing hybrid analysis solutions for fluoresence and surface detector data. This goal has been achieved in a natural way by extending the existing Auger Offline software framework with radio functionality. In this article, we lay out the design, highlights and features of the radio extension implemented in the Auger Offline framework. Its functionality has achieved a high degree of sophistication and offers advanced features such as vectorial reconstruction of the electric field, advanced signal processing algorithms, a transparent and efficient handling of FFTs, a very detailed simulation of detector effects, and the read-in of multiple data formats including data from various radio simulation codes. The source code of this radio functionality can be made available to interested parties on request.Comment: accepted for publication in NIM A, 13 pages, minor corrections to author list and references in v

    Anisotropy studies around the galactic centre at EeV energies with the Auger Observatory

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    Data from the Pierre Auger Observatory are analyzed to search for anisotropies near the direction of the Galactic Centre at EeV energies. The exposure of the surface array in this part of the sky is already significantly larger than that of the fore-runner experiments. Our results do not support previous findings of localized excesses in the AGASA and SUGAR data. We set an upper bound on a point-like flux of cosmic rays arriving from the Galactic Centre which excludes several scenarios predicting sources of EeV neutrons from Sagittarius AA. Also the events detected simultaneously by the surface and fluorescence detectors (the `hybrid' data set), which have better pointing accuracy but are less numerous than those of the surface array alone, do not show any significant localized excess from this direction.Comment: Matches published versio

    Search for First Harmonic Modulation in the Right Ascension Distribution of Cosmic Rays Detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory

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    We present the results of searches for dipolar-type anisotropies in different energy ranges above 2.5×10172.5\times 10^{17} eV with the surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory, reporting on both the phase and the amplitude measurements of the first harmonic modulation in the right-ascension distribution. Upper limits on the amplitudes are obtained, which provide the most stringent bounds at present, being below 2% at 99% C.L.C.L. for EeV energies. We also compare our results to those of previous experiments as well as with some theoretical expectations.Comment: 28 pages, 11 figure

    Evidence for a mixed mass composition at the `ankle' in the cosmic-ray spectrum

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    We report a first measurement for ultra-high energy cosmic rays of the correlation between the depth of shower maximum and the signal in the water Cherenkov stations of air-showers registered simultaneously by the fluorescence and the surface detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory. Such a correlation measurement is a unique feature of a hybrid air-shower observatory with sensitivity to both the electromagnetic and muonic components. It allows an accurate determination of the spread of primary masses in the cosmic-ray flux. Up till now, constraints on the spread of primary masses have been dominated by systematic uncertainties. The present correlation measurement is not affected by systematics in the measurement of the depth of shower maximum or the signal in the water Cherenkov stations. The analysis relies on general characteristics of air showers and is thus robust also with respect to uncertainties in hadronic event generators. The observed correlation in the energy range around the `ankle' at lg⁡(E/eV)=18.5−19.0\lg(E/{\rm eV})=18.5-19.0 differs significantly from expectations for pure primary cosmic-ray compositions. A light composition made up of proton and helium only is equally inconsistent with observations. The data are explained well by a mixed composition including nuclei with mass A>4A > 4. Scenarios such as the proton dip model, with almost pure compositions, are thus disfavoured as the sole explanation of the ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray flux at Earth.Comment: Published version. Added journal reference and DOI. Added Report Numbe

    Avaliação da qualidade de vida, da dor nas costas, da funcionalidade e de alteraçÔes da coluna vertebral de estudantes de fisioterapia

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    O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a qualidade de vida, dor nas costas, funcionalidade e as alteraçÔes da coluna vertebral de estudantes de fisioterapia. Participaram 42 universitĂĄrios, sendo avaliada a coluna vertebral por meio do arcĂŽmetro, a dor nas costas por meio de um questionĂĄrio multidimensional de dor, a qualidade de vida por meio do questionĂĄrio SF-36 e funcionalidade a partir do Roland-Morris. Foi realizada estatĂ­stica descritiva e teste qui-quadrado (α=0,05). Os resultados demonstraram: prevalĂȘncia de alteraçÔes nas curvaturas da coluna vertebral de 38,1%; (n=16); alta prevalĂȘncia de dor nas costas (69%; n=29); baixa prevalĂȘncia de comprometimento da funcionalidade (3,4%; n=1); que nĂŁo hĂĄ associação entre as alteraçÔes nas curvaturas da coluna vertebral e funcionalidade e dor nas costas; e que os escores dos domĂ­nios do SF-36 foram maiores que 45, exceto o domĂ­nio "dor", cujo escore aproximado foi de 35. Conclui-se que quanto menor os nĂ­veis de intensidade da dor melhor o nĂ­vel de qualidade de vida