121 research outputs found

    Synthesis of some new S-, SS- and N,S-substituted 1,3-halonitrodienes

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    Mono(thio) substituted butadiene compounds 3a-c are prepared by mixing 2-nitropentachlorobutadiene (1) with thiols (2a-c). 2-Nitrodiene 1 gives bis(thio)substituted 4a and 4d by the reaction with the same thiols in EtOH containing sodium hydroxide. N,S-Substituted 1,3-butadienes 6a-h were obtained by the reactions of 3a-c with primary amines. S-Substituted nitrodiene compounds 3a-c give 8a-c and 10a-c by the reaction with piperazines 7 and 9 in ether


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    Plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs) represent an important constraint for plant production worldwide. They are widely distributed around the world and are able to parasitize every plant species. Furthermore, the current restrictions on the use of chemical nematicides have increased the problems caused by PPNs, irrespec-tive of the production system. Intensive vegetable production under protected culti-vation is the system most vulnerable to PPN, especially to root-knot nematodes.Postprint (published version

    Growth of Ge nanoparticles on SiO 2 /Si interfaces during annealing of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposited thin films

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    Abstract Multilayer germanosilicate (Ge:SiO 2 ) films have been grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Each Ge:SiO 2 layer is separated by a pure SiO 2 layer. The samples were heat treated at 900┬░C for 15 and 45 min. Transmission electron microscopy investigations show precipitation of particles in the layers of highest Ge concentration. Furthermore there is evidence of diffusion between the layers. This paper focuses mainly on observed growth of Ge particles close to the interface, caused by Ge diffusion from the Ge:SiO 2 layer closest to the interface through a pure SiO 2 layer and to the interface. The particles grow as spheres in a direction away from the interface. Particles observed after 15 min anneal time are 4 nm in size and are amorphous, while after 45 min anneal time they are 7 nm in size and have a crystalline diamond type Ge structure

    Hepatic alveolar echinococcosis-sixteen years 237 cases

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    Distributed contact flip chip InGaN/GaN blue LED; comparison with conventional LEDs

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    This paper presents high performance, GaN/InGaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs) in three different device configurations, namely Top Emitting (TE) LED, conventional Flip Chip (FC) and Distributed Contact (DC) FC. Series resistances as low as 1.1 Omega have been obtained from FC device configurations with a back reflecting ohmic contact of Ni/Au/RTA/Ni/Ag metal stack. A small shift has been observed between electroluminescence (EL) emissions of TE LED and the FC LEDs. In addition, FWHM value of the EL emission of DCFC LED has shown the minimum value of 160 meV (26.9 nm). Furthermore, DCFC LED configuration has shown the highest quantum efficiency and power output, with 330 mW at 500 mA current injection, compared to that of traditional wire bonded TE LEDs and the conventional FC LEDs

    Brazilian criminal organizations as transnational violent non-state actors: a case study of the Primeiro Comando da Capital (PCC)

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    This article details the history and expansion of the Primeiro Comando da Capital (PCC/First Command of the Capital) in Brazil from its beginning in Tabuate Prison to its evolution to a transnational non-state violent actor
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