853 research outputs found

    Smc5/6 coordinates formation and resolution of joint molecules with chromosome morphology to ensure meiotic divisions

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    During meiosis, Structural Maintenance of Chromosome (SMC) complexes underpin two fundamental features of meiosis: homologous recombination and chromosome segregation. While meiotic functions of the cohesin and condensin complexes have been delineated, the role of the third SMC complex, Smc5/6, remains enigmatic. Here we identify specific, essential meiotic functions for the Smc5/6 complex in homologous recombination and the regulation of cohesin. We show that Smc5/6 is enriched at centromeres and cohesin-association sites where it regulates sister-chromatid cohesion and the timely removal of cohesin from chromosomal arms, respectively. Smc5/6 also localizes to recombination hotspots, where it promotes normal formation and resolution of a subset of joint-molecule intermediates. In this regard, Smc5/6 functions independently of the major crossover pathway defined by the MutLγ complex. Furthermore, we show that Smc5/6 is required for stable chromosomal localization of the XPF-family endonuclease, Mus81-Mms4Eme1. Our data suggest that the Smc5/6 complex is required for specific recombination and chromosomal processes throughout meiosis and that in its absence, attempts at cell division with unresolved joint molecules and residual cohesin lead to severe recombination-induced meiotic catastroph

    Mutations and SNPs of human cardiac sodium channel alpha subunit gene (SCN5A) in Japanese patients with Brugada syndrome

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    Background: Brugada syndrome is an inherited arrhythmogenic disease characterized by right bundle branch block pattern and ST segment elevation, leading to the change of V1 to V3 on electrocardiogram, and an increased risk of sudden cardiac death resulting from ventricular fibrillation. The sodium channel alpha 5 subunit (SCN5A) gene encodes a cardiac voltage-dependent sodium channel, and SCN5A mutations have been reported in Brugada syndrome. However, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and gene mutations have not been well investigated in Japanese patients with Brugada syndrome. Methods and Results: The SCN5A gene was examined in 58 patients by using PCR and the ABI 3130xl sequencer, revealing 17 SNP patterns and 13 mutations. Of the 13 mutations, 8 were missense mutations (with amino acid change), 4 were silent mutations (without amino acid change), and one case was a mutation within the splicing junction. Six of the eight missense mutations were novel mutations. Interestingly, we detected an R1664H mutation, which was identified originally in long QT syndrome. Conclusion: We found 13 mutations of the SCN5A gene in 58 patients with Brugada syndrome. The disease may be attributable to some of the mutations and SNPs

    Pseudorabies Virus Infected Porcine Epithelial Cell Line Generates a Diverse Set of Host MicroRNAs and a Special Cluster of Viral MicroRNAs

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    Pseudorabies virus (PRV) belongs to Alphaherpesvirinae subfamily that causes huge economic loss in pig industry worldwide. It has been recently demonstrated that many herpesviruses encode microRNAs (miRNAs), which play crucial roles in viral life cycle. However, the knowledge about PRV-encoded miRNAs is still limited. Here, we report a comprehensive analysis of both viral and host miRNA expression profiles in PRV-infected porcine epithelial cell line (PK-15). Deep sequencing data showed that the ∼4.6 kb intron of the large latency transcript (LLT) functions as a primary microRNA precursor (pri-miRNA) that encodes a cluster of 11 distinct miRNAs in the PRV genome, and 209 known and 39 novel porcine miRNAs were detected. Viral miRNAs were further confirmed by stem-loop RT-PCR and northern blot analysis. Intriguingly, all of these viral miRNAs exhibited terminal heterogeneity both at the 5′ and 3′ ends. Seven miRNA genes produced mature miRNAs from both arms and two of the viral miRNA genes showed partially overlapped in their precursor regions. Unexpectedly, a terminal loop-derived small RNA with high abundance and one special miRNA offset RNA (moRNA) were processed from a same viral miRNA precursor. The polymorphisms of viral miRNAs shed light on the complexity of host miRNA-processing machinery and viral miRNA-regulatory mechanism. The swine genes and PRV genes were collected for target prediction of the viral miRNAs, revealing a complex network formed by both host and viral genes. GO enrichment analysis of host target genes suggests that PRV miRNAs are involved in complex cellular pathways including cell death, immune system process, metabolic pathway, indicating that these miRNAs play significant roles in virus-cells interaction of PRV and its hosts. Collectively, these data suggest that PRV infected epithelial cell line generates a diverse set of host miRNAs and a special cluster of viral miRNAs, which might facilitate PRV replication in cells

    Effect of P to A Mutation of the N-Terminal Residue Adjacent to the Rgd Motif on Rhodostomin: Importance of Dynamics in Integrin Recognition

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    Rhodostomin (Rho) is an RGD protein that specifically inhibits integrins. We found that Rho mutants with the P48A mutation 4.4–11.5 times more actively inhibited integrin α5β1. Structural analysis showed that they have a similar 3D conformation for the RGD loop. Docking analysis also showed no difference between their interactions with integrin α5β1. However, the backbone dynamics of RGD residues were different. The values of the R2 relaxation parameter for Rho residues R49 and D51 were 39% and 54% higher than those of the P48A mutant, which caused differences in S2, Rex, and τe. The S2 values of the P48A mutant residues R49, G50, and D51 were 29%, 14%, and 28% lower than those of Rho. The Rex values of Rho residues R49 and D51 were 0.91 s−1 and 1.42 s−1; however, no Rex was found for those of the P48A mutant. The τe values of Rho residues R49 and D51 were 9.5 and 5.1 times lower than those of P48A mutant. Mutational study showed that integrin α5β1 prefers its ligands to contain (G/A)RGD but not PRGD sequences for binding. These results demonstrate that the N-terminal proline residue adjacent to the RGD motif affect its function and dynamics, which suggests that the dynamic properties of the RGD motif may be important in Rho's interaction with integrin α5β1