784 research outputs found

    Fermi-GBM Discovery of GRB 221009A: An Extraordinarily Bright GRB from Onset to Afterglow

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    We report the discovery of GRB 221009A, the highest flux gamma-ray burst ever observed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM). This GRB has continuous prompt emission lasting more than 600 seconds which smoothly transitions to afterglow visible in the GBM energy range (8 keV--40 MeV), and total energetics higher than any other burst in the GBM sample. By using a variety of new and existing analysis techniques we probe the spectral and temporal evolution of GRB 221009A. We find no emission prior to the GBM trigger time (t0; 2022 October 9 at 13:16:59.99 UTC), indicating that this is the time of prompt emission onset. The triggering pulse exhibits distinct spectral and temporal properties suggestive of the thermal, photospheric emission of shock-breakout, with significant emission up to ∌\sim15 MeV. We characterize the onset of external shock at t0+600 s and find evidence of a plateau region in the early-afterglow phase which transitions to a slope consistent with Swift-XRT afterglow measurements. We place the total energetics of GRB 221009A in context with the rest of the GBM sample and find that this GRB has the highest total isotropic-equivalent energy (EÎł,iso=1.0×1055\textrm{E}_{\gamma,\textrm{iso}}=1.0\times10^{55} erg) and second highest isotropic-equivalent luminosity (LÎł,iso=9.9×1053\textrm{L}_{\gamma,\textrm{iso}}=9.9\times10^{53} erg/s) based on redshift of z = 0.151. These extreme energetics are what allowed us to observe the continuously emitting central engine of GBM from the beginning of the prompt emission phase through the onset of early afterglow.Comment: 26 pages 7 figures - accepted for publication in ApJ

    The Third Fermi Large Area Telescope Catalog of Gamma-ray Pulsars

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    International audienceWe present 294 pulsars found in GeV data from the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Another 33 millisecond pulsars (MSPs) discovered in deep radio searches of LAT sources will likely reveal pulsations once phase-connected rotation ephemerides are achieved. A further dozen optical and/or X-ray binary systems co-located with LAT sources also likely harbor gamma-ray MSPs. This catalog thus reports roughly 340 gamma-ray pulsars and candidates, 10% of all known pulsars, compared to ≀11\leq 11 known before Fermi. Half of the gamma-ray pulsars are young. Of these, the half that are undetected in radio have a broader Galactic latitude distribution than the young radio-loud pulsars. The others are MSPs, with 6 undetected in radio. Overall, >235 are bright enough above 50 MeV to fit the pulse profile, the energy spectrum, or both. For the common two-peaked profiles, the gamma-ray peak closest to the magnetic pole crossing generally has a softer spectrum. The spectral energy distributions tend to narrow as the spindown power E˙\dot E decreases to its observed minimum near 103310^{33} erg s−1^{-1}, approaching the shape for synchrotron radiation from monoenergetic electrons. We calculate gamma-ray luminosities when distances are available. Our all-sky gamma-ray sensitivity map is useful for population syntheses. The electronic catalog version provides gamma-ray pulsar ephemerides, properties and fit results to guide and be compared with modeling results

    Antihypertensive treatment changes and related clinical outcomes in older hospitalized patients

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    Background: Hypertension management in older patients represents a challenge, particularly when hospitalized.Objective: The objective of this study is to investigate the determinants and related outcomes of antihypertensive drug prescription in a cohort of older hospitalized patients.Methods: A total of 5671 patients from REPOSI (a prospective multicentre observational register of older Italian in-patients from internal medicine or geriatric wards) were considered; 4377 (77.2%) were hypertensive. Minimum treatment (MT) for hypertension was defined according to the 2018 ESC guidelines [an angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitor (ACE-I) or an angiotensin-receptorblocker (ARB) with a calcium- channel-blocker (CCB) and/or a thiazide diuretic; if > 80 years old, an ACE I or ARB or CCB or thiazide diuretic]. Determinants of MT discontinuation at discharge were assessed. Study outcomes were any cause rehospitalization/all cause death, all cause death, cardiovascular (CV) hospitalization/death, CV death, non CV death, evaluated according to the presence of MT at discharge.Results: Hypertensive patients were older than normotensives, with a more impaired functional status, higher burden of comorbidity and polypharmacy. A total of 2233 patients were on MT at admission, 1766 were on MT at discharge. Discontinuation of MT was associated with the presence of comorbidities (lower odds for diabetes, higher odds for chronic kidney disease and dementia). An adjusted multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that MT for hypertension at discharge was associated with lower risk of all cause death, all cause death/hospitalization, CV death, CV death/hospitalization and non-CV death. Conclusions: Guidelines-suggested MT for hypertension at discharge is associated with a lower risk of adverse clinical outcomes. Nevertheless, changes in anti hypertensive treatment still occur in a significant proportion of older hospitalized patients

    The Third Fermi Large Area Telescope Catalog of Gamma-ray Pulsars

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    We present 294 pulsars found in GeV data from the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Another 33 millisecond pulsars (MSPs) discovered in deep radio searches of LAT sources will likely reveal pulsations once phase-connected rotation ephemerides are achieved. A further dozen optical and/or X-ray binary systems co-located with LAT sources also likely harbor gamma-ray MSPs. This catalog thus reports roughly 340 gamma-ray pulsars and candidates, 10% of all known pulsars, compared to ≀11\leq 11 known before Fermi. Half of the gamma-ray pulsars are young. Of these, the half that are undetected in radio have a broader Galactic latitude distribution than the young radio-loud pulsars. The others are MSPs, with 6 undetected in radio. Overall, >235 are bright enough above 50 MeV to fit the pulse profile, the energy spectrum, or both. For the common two-peaked profiles, the gamma-ray peak closest to the magnetic pole crossing generally has a softer spectrum. The spectral energy distributions tend to narrow as the spindown power E˙\dot E decreases to its observed minimum near 103310^{33} erg s−1^{-1}, approaching the shape for synchrotron radiation from monoenergetic electrons. We calculate gamma-ray luminosities when distances are available. Our all-sky gamma-ray sensitivity map is useful for population syntheses. The electronic catalog version provides gamma-ray pulsar ephemerides, properties and fit results to guide and be compared with modeling results.Comment: 142 pages. Accepted by the Astrophysical Journal Supplemen

    The Fermi-LAT Lightcurve Repository

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    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) lightcurve repository (LCR) is a publicly available, continually updated library of gamma-ray lightcurves of variable Fermi-LAT sources generated over multiple timescales. The Fermi-LAT LCR aims to provide publication-quality lightcurves binned on timescales of 3, 7, and 30 days for 1525 sources deemed variable in the source catalog of the first 10 yr of Fermi-LAT observations. The repository consists of lightcurves generated through full likelihood analyses that model the sources and the surrounding region, providing fluxes and photon indices for each time bin. The LCR is intended as a resource for the time-domain and multimessenger communities by allowing users to search LAT data quickly to identify correlated variability and flaring emission episodes from gamma-ray sources. We describe the sample selection and analysis employed by the LCR and provide an overview of the associated data access portal

    On the decay mode Λb → Xs γ

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    Abstract We study the inclusive H b → X s Îł decay with H b a beauty baryon, in particular Λ b , employing an expansion in the heavy quark mass at O m b − 3 O(mb−3) \mathcal{O}\left({m}_b^{-3}\right) at leading order in α s , keeping the dependence on the hadron spin. For a polarized baryon we compute the distribution d 2 Γ dy d cos Ξ P d2Γdy dcos⁥ΞP \frac{d^2\Gamma}{dy\ d\cos {\theta}_P} , with y = 2E Îł /m b , E Îł the photon energy and Ξ P the angle between the baryon spin vector and the photon momentum in the H b rest-frame. We discuss the correlation between the baryon and photon polarization, and show that effects of physics beyond the Standard Model can modify the photon polarization asymmetry. We also discuss a method to treat the singular terms in the photon energy spectrum obtained by the OPE

    Clinical features and outcomes of elderly hospitalised patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart failure or both

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    Background and objective: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and heart failure (HF) mutually increase the risk of being present in the same patient, especially if older. Whether or not this coexistence may be associated with a worse prognosis is debated. Therefore, employing data derived from the REPOSI register, we evaluated the clinical features and outcomes in a population of elderly patients admitted to internal medicine wards and having COPD, HF or COPD + HF. Methods: We measured socio-demographic and anthropometric characteristics, severity and prevalence of comorbidities, clinical and laboratory features during hospitalization, mood disorders, functional independence, drug prescriptions and discharge destination. The primary study outcome was the risk of death. Results: We considered 2,343 elderly hospitalized patients (median age 81 years), of whom 1,154 (49%) had COPD, 813 (35%) HF, and 376 (16%) COPD + HF. Patients with COPD + HF had different characteristics than those with COPD or HF, such as a higher prevalence of previous hospitalizations, comorbidities (especially chronic kidney disease), higher respiratory rate at admission and number of prescribed drugs. Patients with COPD + HF (hazard ratio HR 1.74, 95% confidence intervals CI 1.16-2.61) and patients with dementia (HR 1.75, 95% CI 1.06-2.90) had a higher risk of death at one year. The Kaplan-Meier curves showed a higher mortality risk in the group of patients with COPD + HF for all causes (p = 0.010), respiratory causes (p = 0.006), cardiovascular causes (p = 0.046) and respiratory plus cardiovascular causes (p = 0.009). Conclusion: In this real-life cohort of hospitalized elderly patients, the coexistence of COPD and HF significantly worsened prognosis at one year. This finding may help to better define the care needs of this population

    The Fermi-LAT Light Curve Repository

    No full text
    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) light curve repository (LCR) is a publicly available, continually updated library of gamma-ray light curves of variable Fermi-LAT sources generated over multiple timescales. The Fermi-LAT LCR aims to provide publication-quality light curves binned on timescales of 3 days, 7 days, and 30 days for 1525 sources deemed variable in the source catalog of the first 10 years of Fermi-LAT observations. The repository consists of light curves generated through full likelihood analyses that model the sources and the surrounding region, providing fluxes and photon indices for each time bin. The LCR is intended as a resource for the time-domain and multi-messenger communities by allowing users to quickly search LAT data to identify correlated variability and flaring emission episodes from gamma-ray sources. We describe the sample selection and analysis employed by the LCR and provide an overview of the associated data access portal

    Fermi-GBM Discovery of GRB 221009A: An Extraordinarily Bright GRB from Onset to Afterglow

    No full text
    International audienceWe report the discovery of GRB 221009A, the highest flux gamma-ray burst ever observed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM). This GRB has continuous prompt emission lasting more than 600 seconds, afterglow visible in the \gbm energy range (8 keV--40 MeV), and total energetics higher than any other burst in the GBM sample. By using a variety of new and existing analysis techniques we probe the spectral and temporal evolution of GRB 221009A. We find no emission prior to the GBM trigger time (t0; 2022 October 9 at 13:16:59.99 UTC), indicating that this is the time of prompt emission onset. The triggering pulse exhibits distinct spectral and temporal properties suggestive of shock-breakout with significant emission up to ∌\sim15 MeV. We characterize the onset of external shock at \t0+600 s and find evidence of a plateau region in the early-afterglow phase which transitions to a slope consistent with \swift-XRT afterglow measurements. We place the total energetics of GRB 221009A in context with the rest of the GBM sample and find that this GRB has the highest total isotropic-equivalent energy (EÎł,iso=1.0×1055\textrm{E}_{\gamma,\textrm{iso}}=1.0\times10^{55} erg) and second highest isotropic-equivalent luminosity (LÎł,iso=9.9×1053\textrm{L}_{\gamma,\textrm{iso}}=9.9\times10^{53} erg/s) based on redshift of z = 0.151. These extreme energetics are what allowed GBMto observe the continuously emitting central engine from the beginning of the prompt emission phase through the onset of early afterglow

    Status of the plastic scintillator detector for the HERD experiment

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    Future satellite experiments for cosmic-ray and gamma-ray detection will employ plastic scintillators to discriminate gamma-rays from charged particles and to identify nuclei up to Iron. The High Energy Cosmic Radiation Detector (HERD) facility will be one of those new experiments and it will be installed onboard the Chinese Tiangong Space Station (TSS). The main goal of the HERD experiment is to detect charged cosmic-rays up to PeVand gamma-rays up to hundred GeVs. The plastic scintillator detector (PSD) surrounds the inner detectors on five sides. For energies above a few GeVs a high detector segmentation is required in order to avoid the back-splash effect, due to the interaction between high energy particles and the innermost calorimeter. Each PSD basic element (bar or tile) is coupled to several Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) for the detection of scintillation light. In 2021 we have performed a beam test campaign to test all the subdetectors of the HERD experiment at CERN PS and SPS. We tested two different PSD prototypes, one with a long bar geometry and the other with a squared tile geometry. In both prototypes two scintillating materials (BC-404 and BC-408) were used. Both the prototypes were equipped with SiPMs of two different sizes (MPPC S14160-3050 and S14160-1315) and they were read-out by the CAEN Citiroc-based board DT5550 W. In this work we will describe the PSD design along with the beam test results
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