108 research outputs found

    Higher COVID-19 pneumonia risk associated with anti-IFN-α than with anti-IFN-ω auto-Abs in children

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    We found that 19 (10.4%) of 183 unvaccinated children hospitalized for COVID-19 pneumonia had autoantibodies (auto-Abs) neutralizing type I IFNs (IFN-alpha 2 in 10 patients: IFN-alpha 2 only in three, IFN-alpha 2 plus IFN-omega in five, and IFN-alpha 2, IFN-omega plus IFN-beta in two; IFN-omega only in nine patients). Seven children (3.8%) had Abs neutralizing at least 10 ng/ml of one IFN, whereas the other 12 (6.6%) had Abs neutralizing only 100 pg/ml. The auto-Abs neutralized both unglycosylated and glycosylated IFNs. We also detected auto-Abs neutralizing 100 pg/ml IFN-alpha 2 in 4 of 2,267 uninfected children (0.2%) and auto-Abs neutralizing IFN-omega in 45 children (2%). The odds ratios (ORs) for life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia were, therefore, higher for auto-Abs neutralizing IFN-alpha 2 only (OR [95% CI] = 67.6 [5.7-9,196.6]) than for auto-Abs neutralizing IFN-. only (OR [95% CI] = 2.6 [1.2-5.3]). ORs were also higher for auto-Abs neutralizing high concentrations (OR [95% CI] = 12.9 [4.6-35.9]) than for those neutralizing low concentrations (OR [95% CI] = 5.5 [3.1-9.6]) of IFN-omega and/or IFN-alpha 2

    Evaluation of a quality improvement intervention to reduce anastomotic leak following right colectomy (EAGLE): pragmatic, batched stepped-wedge, cluster-randomized trial in 64 countries

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    Background Anastomotic leak affects 8 per cent of patients after right colectomy with a 10-fold increased risk of postoperative death. The EAGLE study aimed to develop and test whether an international, standardized quality improvement intervention could reduce anastomotic leaks. Methods The internationally intended protocol, iteratively co-developed by a multistage Delphi process, comprised an online educational module introducing risk stratification, an intraoperative checklist, and harmonized surgical techniques. Clusters (hospital teams) were randomized to one of three arms with varied sequences of intervention/data collection by a derived stepped-wedge batch design (at least 18 hospital teams per batch). Patients were blinded to the study allocation. Low- and middle-income country enrolment was encouraged. The primary outcome (assessed by intention to treat) was anastomotic leak rate, and subgroup analyses by module completion (at least 80 per cent of surgeons, high engagement; less than 50 per cent, low engagement) were preplanned. Results A total 355 hospital teams registered, with 332 from 64 countries (39.2 per cent low and middle income) included in the final analysis. The online modules were completed by half of the surgeons (2143 of 4411). The primary analysis included 3039 of the 3268 patients recruited (206 patients had no anastomosis and 23 were lost to follow-up), with anastomotic leaks arising before and after the intervention in 10.1 and 9.6 per cent respectively (adjusted OR 0.87, 95 per cent c.i. 0.59 to 1.30; P = 0.498). The proportion of surgeons completing the educational modules was an influence: the leak rate decreased from 12.2 per cent (61 of 500) before intervention to 5.1 per cent (24 of 473) after intervention in high-engagement centres (adjusted OR 0.36, 0.20 to 0.64; P < 0.001), but this was not observed in low-engagement hospitals (8.3 per cent (59 of 714) and 13.8 per cent (61 of 443) respectively; adjusted OR 2.09, 1.31 to 3.31). Conclusion Completion of globally available digital training by engaged teams can alter anastomotic leak rates. Registration number: NCT04270721 (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov)

    Subcutaneous anti-COVID-19 hyperimmune immunoglobulin for prevention of disease in asymptomatic individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised clinical trialResearch in context

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    Summary: Background: Anti-COVID-19 hyperimmune immunoglobulin (hIG) can provide standardized and controlled antibody content. Data from controlled clinical trials using hIG for the prevention or treatment of COVID-19 outpatients have not been reported. We assessed the safety and efficacy of subcutaneous anti-COVID-19 hyperimmune immunoglobulin 20% (C19-IG20%) compared to placebo in preventing development of symptomatic COVID-19 in asymptomatic individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: We did a multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, in asymptomatic unvaccinated adults (≄18 years of age) with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection within 5 days between April 28 and December 27, 2021. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive a blinded subcutaneous infusion of 10 mL with 1 g or 2 g of C19-IG20%, or an equivalent volume of saline as placebo. The primary endpoint was the proportion of participants who remained asymptomatic through day 14 after infusion. Secondary endpoints included the proportion of individuals who required oxygen supplementation, any medically attended visit, hospitalisation, or ICU, and viral load reduction and viral clearance in nasopharyngeal swabs. Safety was assessed as the proportion of patients with adverse events. The trial was terminated early due to a lack of potential benefit in the target population in a planned interim analysis conducted in December 2021. ClinicalTrials.gov registry: NCT04847141. Findings: 461 individuals (mean age 39.6 years [SD 12.8]) were randomized and received the intervention within a mean of 3.1 (SD 1.27) days from a positive SARS-CoV-2 test. In the prespecified modified intention-to-treat analysis that included only participants who received a subcutaneous infusion, the primary outcome occurred in 59.9% (91/152) of participants receiving 1 g C19-IG20%, 64.7% (99/153) receiving 2 g, and 63.5% (99/156) receiving placebo (difference in proportions 1 g C19-IG20% vs. placebo, −3.6%; 95% CI -14.6% to 7.3%, p = 0.53; 2 g C19-IG20% vs placebo, 1.1%; −9.6% to 11.9%, p = 0.85). None of the secondary clinical efficacy endpoints or virological endpoints were significantly different between study groups. Adverse event rate was similar between groups, and no severe or life-threatening adverse events related to investigational product infusion were reported. Interpretation: Our findings suggested that administration of subcutaneous human hyperimmune immunoglobulin C19-IG20% to asymptomatic individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection was safe but did not prevent development of symptomatic COVID-19. Funding: Grifols

    Cognitive Function with PCSK9 Inhibitors: A 24-Month Follow-Up Observational Prospective Study in the Real World—MEMOGAL Study

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    Introduction The cognitive safety of monoclonal antibody proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitors (PCSK9i) has been established in clinical trials, but not yet in real-world observational studies. We assessed the cognitive function in patients initiating PCSK9i, and differences in cognitive function domains, to analyze subgroups by the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) achieved, and differences between alirocumab and evolocumab. Methods This has a multicenter, quasi-experimental design carried out in 12 Spanish hospitals from May 2020 to February 2023. Cognitive function was assessed using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Results Among 158 patients followed for a median of 99 weeks, 52% were taking evolocumab and 48% alirocumab; the mean change from baseline in MoCA score at follow-up was + 0.28 [95% CI (− 0.17 to 0.73; p = 0.216)]. There were no significant differences in the secondary endpoints—the visuospatial/executive domain + 0.04 (p = 0.651), naming domain − 0.01 (p = 0.671), attention/memory domain + 0.01 (p = 0.945); language domain − 0.10 (p = 0.145), abstraction domain + 0.03 (p = 0.624), and orientation domain − 0.05 (p = 0.224)—but for delayed recall memory the mean change was statistically significant (improvement) + 0.44 (p = 0.001). Neither were there any differences in the three stratified subgroups according to lowest attained LDL-C level—0–54 mg/dL, 55–69 mg/dL and ≄ 70 mg/dL; p = 0.454—or between alirocumab and evolocumab arms. Conclusion We did not find effect of monoclonal antibody PCSK9i on neurocognitive function over 24 months of treatment, either in global MoCA score or different cognitive domains. An improvement in delayed recall memory was shown. The study showed no differences in the cognitive function between the prespecified subgroups, even among patients who achieved very low levels of LDL-C. There were no differences between alirocumab and evolocumab. Registration ClinicalTtrials.gov Identifier number NCT04319081Open Access funding provided thanks to the CRUE-CSIC agreement with Springer NatureS

    Efficacy of Vafidemstat in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Highlights the KDM1A/RCOR1/HDAC Epigenetic Axis in Multiple Sclerosis

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    Lysine specific demethylase 1 (LSD1; also known as KDM1A), is an epigenetic modulator that modifies the histone methylation status. KDM1A forms a part of protein complexes that regulate the expression of genes involved in the onset and progression of diseases such as cancer, central nervous system (CNS) disorders, viral infections, and others. Vafidemstat (ORY-2001) is a clinical stage inhibitor of KDM1A in development for the treatment of neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. However, the role of ORY-2001 targeting KDM1A in neuroinflammation remains to be explored. Here, we investigated the effect of ORY-2001 on immune-mediated and virus-induced encephalomyelitis, two experimental models of multiple sclerosis and neuronal damage. Oral administration of ORY-2001 ameliorated clinical signs, reduced lymphocyte egress and infiltration of immune cells into the spinal cord, and prevented demyelination. Interestingly, ORY-2001 was more effective and/or faster acting than a sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor antagonist in the effector phase of the disease and reduced the inflammatory gene expression signature characteristic ofEAE in the CNS of mice more potently. In addition, ORY-2001 induced gene expression changes concordant with a potential neuroprotective function in the brain and spinal cord and reduced neuronal glutamate excitotoxicity-derived damage in explants. These results pointed to ORY-2001 as a promising CNS epigenetic drug able to target neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases and provided preclinical support for the subsequent design of early-stage clinical trials

    Robust In Vitro and In Vivo Immunosuppressive and Anti-inflammatory Properties of Inducible Caspase-9-mediated Apoptotic Mesenchymal Stromal/Stem Cell

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    Mesenchymal stromal stem/cells (MSC) therapies are clinically used in a wide range of disorders based on their robust HLA-independent immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the mechanisms underlying MSC therapeutic activity remain elusive as demonstrated by the unpredictable therapeutic efficacy of MSC infusions reported in multiple clinical trials. A seminal recent study showed that infused MSCs are actively induced to undergo apoptosis by recipient cytotoxic T cells, a mechanism that triggers in vivo recipient-induced immunomodulation by such apoptotic MSCs, and the need for such recipient cytotoxic cell activity could be replaced by the administration of ex vivo-generated apoptotic MSCs. Moreover, the use of MSC-derived extracellular vesicles (MSC-EVs) is being actively explored as a cell-free therapeutic alternative over the parental MSCs. We hypothesized that the introduction of a "suicide gene" switch into MSCs may offer on-demand in vivo apoptosis of transplanted MSCs. Here, we prompted to investigate the utility of the iCasp9/AP1903 suicide gene system in inducing apoptosis of MSCs. iCasp9/AP1903-induced apoptotic MSCs (MSCiCasp9+) were tested in vitro and in in vivo models of acute colitis. Our data show a very similar and robust immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory properties of both "parental" alive MSCGFP+ cells and apoptotic MSCiCasp9+ cells in vitro and in vivo regardless of whether apoptosis was induced in vivo or in vitro before administering MSCiCasp9+ lysates. This development of an efficient iCasp9 switch may potentiate the safety of MSC-based therapies in the case of an adverse event and, will also circumvent current logistic technical limitations and biological uncertainties associated to MSC-EVs