2,504 research outputs found

    The Application of Feedback in Measurement

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    Instrument errors, error reduction, and elements of measurements for measurement systems with feedback instrumentatio

    Capacitive pressure transducer system

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    Closed loop capacitive pressure transducer with extended frequency response for very low pressure measurement

    An investigation of environmental factors associated with the current and proposed jetty systems at Belle Pass, Louisiana

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    The history of the existing jetty system at Belle Pass was investigated to determine its past effect on the littoral currents and beach erosion. Present flow patterns and erosion rates were also studied, along with the prevailing recession rates of local beaches not influenced by the jetty system. Aerial photographs and maps were used in conjunction with periodic hydraulic measurements, ground observations, and physical measurements of beach erosion. A scale model was constructed to further the study of flow patterns and velocities. It is shown that the existing jetty has not adversely affected the coastline in the area; erosive processes have been retarded by the jetty and its companion groin. Future erosion patterns are predicted, and projected effects of the proposed jetty system are given

    Spontaneous dressed-state polarization in the strong driving regime of cavity QED

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    We utilize high-bandwidth phase quadrature homodyne measurement of the light transmitted through a Fabry-Perot cavity, driven strongly and on resonance, to detect excess phase noise induced by a single intracavity atom. We analyze the correlation properties and driving-strength dependence of the atom-induced phase noise to establish that it corresponds to the long-predicted phenomenon of spontaneous dressed-state polarization. Our experiment thus provides a demonstration of cavity quantum electrodynamics in the strong driving regime, in which one atom interacts strongly with a many-photon cavity field to produce novel quantum stochastic behavior.Comment: 4 pages, 4 color figure

    Anomalities in the Analysis of Calibrated Data

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    This study examines effects of calibration errors on model assumptions and data--analytic tools in direct calibration assays. These effects encompass induced dependencies, inflated variances, and heteroscedasticity among the calibrated measurements, whose distributions arise as mixtures. These anomalies adversely affect conventional inferences, to include the inconsistency of sample means; the underestimation of measurement variance; and the distributions of sample means, sample variances, and Student's t as mixtures. Inferences in comparative experiments remain largely intact, although error mean squares continue to underestimate the measurement variances. These anomalies are masked in practice, as conventional diagnostics cannot discern irregularities induced through calibration. Case studies illustrate the principal issues

    Polarization rotation via a monoclinic phase in the piezoelectric 92%PbZn1/3Nb2/3O3-8%PbTiO3

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    The origin of ultrahigh piezoelectricity in the relaxor ferroelectric PbZn1/3Nb2/3O3-PbTiO3 was studied with an electric field applied along the [001] direction. The zero-field rhombohedral R phase starts to follow the direct polarization path to tetragonal symmetry via an intermediate monoclinic M phase, but then jumps irreversibly to an alternate path involving a different type of monoclinic distortion. Details of the structure and domain configuration of this novel phase are described. This result suggests that there is a nearby R-M phase boundary as found in the Pb(Ti,Zr)O3 system.Comment: REVTeX file. 4 pages. New version after referees' comment

    Reorientation of Spin Density Waves in Cr(001) Films induced by Fe(001) Cap Layers

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    Proximity effects of 20 \AA thin Fe layers on the spin density waves (SDWs) in epitaxial Cr(001) films are revealed by neutron scattering. Unlike in bulk Cr we observe a SDW with its wave vector Q pointing along only one {100} direction which depends dramatically on the film thickness t_{Cr}. For t_{Cr} < 250 \AA the SDW propagates out-of-plane with the spins in the film plane. For t_{Cr} > 1000 \AA the SDW propagates in the film plane with the spins out-of-plane perpendicular to the in-plane Fe moments. This reorientation transition is explained by frustration effects in the antiferromagnetic interaction between Fe and Cr across the Fe/Cr interface due to steps at the interface.Comment: 4 pages (RevTeX), 3 figures (EPS

    An analytical treatment of the Clock Paradox in the framework of the Special and General Theories of Relativity

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    In this paper we treat the so called clock paradox in an analytical way by assuming that a constant and uniform force F of finite magnitude acts continuously on the moving clock along the direction of its motion assumed to be rectilinear. No inertial motion steps are considered. The rest clock is denoted as (1), the to-and-fro moving clock is (2), the inertial frame in which (1) is at rest in its origin and (2) is seen moving is I and, finally, the accelerated frame in which (2) is at rest in its origin and (1) moves forward and backward is A. We deal with the following questions: I) What is the effect of the finite force acting on (2) on the proper time intervals measured by the two clocks when they reunite? Does a differential aging between the two clocks occur, as it happens when inertial motion and infinite values of the accelerating force is considered? The Special Theory of Relativity is used in order to describe the hyperbolic motion of (2) in the frame I II) Is this effect an absolute one, i.e. does the accelerated observer A comoving with (2) obtain the same results as that in I, both qualitatively and quantitatively, as it is expected? We use the General Theory of Relativity in order to answer this question.Comment: LaTex2e, 19 pages, no tables, no figures. Rewritten version, it amends the previous one whose results about the treatment with General Relativity were wrong. References added. Eq. (55) corrected. More refined version. Comments and suggestions are warmly welcom

    X-Ray Synchrotron White Beam Excitation of Auger Electrons

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    Auger electron spectra have been measured at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), using the full white beam x-ray spectrum as the excitation source. Ordinary Auger spectra obtained in the laboratory with an electron beam source must employ derivative techniques to distinguish the Auger structures from the large background due to the excitation beam. The synchrotron white beam eliminates this source of background and produces signal rates as high as 107 cps. Superior signal-to-background ratios are found for Auger peaks above a few hundred eV, and count rates are large enough to suggest microprobe applications. X-ray induced Auger satellite peaks were observed with intensities much greater than the electron-induced counterpart; this anomaly is not completely understood
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