5,269 research outputs found

    Table_1_Intestinal parasites infecting captive non-human primates in Italy.DOCX

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    Non-human primates (NHPs) living in captive conditions are susceptible to intestinal parasites that can contribute to mortality and morbidity, and cause zoonotic infections. Thus, parasite surveys on NHP populations under human care are relevant as part of the evaluation of NHPs welfare and in the zoonotic disease risk assessment, as well as in the exploration of parasite transmission pathways, according to the One-Health concept. This study aimed to identify intestinal parasites infecting NHPs living in two wildlife recovery centers and in a zoological garden, in Italy. Ninety-three fecal samples from Macaca tonkeana, Macaca fascicularis, Sapajus apella, Chlorocebus aethiops, Macaca fuscata, Macaca sylvanus, and Cebus capucinus were collected at Piano dell’Abatino Park (Lazio), and fecal smears and flotation were performed in order to identify parasites according to morphological keys. Additionally, one carcass of M. fuscata from the Bioparco Zoological Garden of Rome (Lazio) and one of M. fascicularis from the Center for the Recovery of Exotic and Maremma Wild Animals (Tuscany) were necropsied and intestinal adult nematodes were collected and characterized at morphological and molecular level, using the mitochondrial cox1 and rrnL markers. Protozoans (Entamoeba coli, Iodamoeba bütschlii, Dientamoeba fragilis-like, Giardia sp.), chromists (Balantidium/Buxtonella sp.) and nematodes (Capillaria sp., Trichuris sp., strongyliform larvae and Oesophagostomum sp.) were found through fecal smears and flotation. The collected adult nematodes from dead NHPs were morphologically identified as whipworms (genus Trichuris). Phylogenetic analyses grouped Trichuris specimens into the Trichuris trichiura complex of species, with specimens from M. fuscata clustering into a host-specific branch, and whipworms from M. fascicularis clustering within a clade formed by Trichuris infecting several primate species, including humans. The results here collected revealed the presence of potentially zoonotic parasites circulating in captive primates in Italy, providing useful information for the formulation of management and care plans for captive NHPs, and for the elaboration of safety measures for visitors and animal keepers.</p

    Image_1_Intestinal parasites infecting captive non-human primates in Italy.TIF

    No full text
    Non-human primates (NHPs) living in captive conditions are susceptible to intestinal parasites that can contribute to mortality and morbidity, and cause zoonotic infections. Thus, parasite surveys on NHP populations under human care are relevant as part of the evaluation of NHPs welfare and in the zoonotic disease risk assessment, as well as in the exploration of parasite transmission pathways, according to the One-Health concept. This study aimed to identify intestinal parasites infecting NHPs living in two wildlife recovery centers and in a zoological garden, in Italy. Ninety-three fecal samples from Macaca tonkeana, Macaca fascicularis, Sapajus apella, Chlorocebus aethiops, Macaca fuscata, Macaca sylvanus, and Cebus capucinus were collected at Piano dell’Abatino Park (Lazio), and fecal smears and flotation were performed in order to identify parasites according to morphological keys. Additionally, one carcass of M. fuscata from the Bioparco Zoological Garden of Rome (Lazio) and one of M. fascicularis from the Center for the Recovery of Exotic and Maremma Wild Animals (Tuscany) were necropsied and intestinal adult nematodes were collected and characterized at morphological and molecular level, using the mitochondrial cox1 and rrnL markers. Protozoans (Entamoeba coli, Iodamoeba bütschlii, Dientamoeba fragilis-like, Giardia sp.), chromists (Balantidium/Buxtonella sp.) and nematodes (Capillaria sp., Trichuris sp., strongyliform larvae and Oesophagostomum sp.) were found through fecal smears and flotation. The collected adult nematodes from dead NHPs were morphologically identified as whipworms (genus Trichuris). Phylogenetic analyses grouped Trichuris specimens into the Trichuris trichiura complex of species, with specimens from M. fuscata clustering into a host-specific branch, and whipworms from M. fascicularis clustering within a clade formed by Trichuris infecting several primate species, including humans. The results here collected revealed the presence of potentially zoonotic parasites circulating in captive primates in Italy, providing useful information for the formulation of management and care plans for captive NHPs, and for the elaboration of safety measures for visitors and animal keepers.</p

    ClusterFix: A Cluster-Based Debiasing Approach without Protected-Group Supervision

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    The failures of Deep Networks can sometimes be ascribed to biases in the data or algorithmic choices. Existing debiasing approaches exploit prior knowledge to avoid unintended solutions; we acknowledge that, in real-world settings, it could be unfeasible to gather enough prior information to characterize the bias, or it could even raise ethical considerations. We hence propose a novel debiasing approach, termed ClusterFix, which does not require any external hint about the nature of biases. Such an approach alters the standard empirical risk minimization and introduces a per-example weight, encoding how critical and far from the majority an example is. Notably, the weights consider how difficult it is for the model to infer the correct pseudo-label, which is obtained in a self-supervised manner by dividing examples into multiple clusters. Extensive experiments show that the misclassification error incurred in identifying the correct cluster allows for identifying examples prone to bias-related issues. As a result, our approach outperforms existing methods on standard benchmarks for bias removal and fairness

    Design through body memory for the regeneration of urban areas

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    This contribution stems from a reflection developed in a field that lies between interior architecture and psychology and will touch on the relationship between memory on the one hand and perception, sensory experience, creativity, and the relationship between people and inhabited spaces on the other. Special attentionwill be devoted to the role of design in urban regeneration and its dialogue with the historic city. Lazzaretto Nuovo in Venice will be presented as a case study on which rearrangement concepts will be proposed, in the perspective of its possible reinterpretation through interior and spatial design

    The in vacuo release of Ar and rare gases from minerals: 3. The degassing of He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe from irradiated apatite

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    The mechanisms of in vacuo release of Ar are investigated by bringing them into context with nine other rare gas isotopes and by studying the mineralogical modifications that occur in their host mineral. A 200 mg shard of Durango fluorapatite was step-heated after neutron irradiation. It contained radiogenic 4He from natural U decay and artificially produced major rare gas isotopes: 20Ne from F, 37Ar from Ca, 38Ar from Cl, 80Kr and 82Kr from Br, 128Xe from I, 131Xe from Ba and 134Xe from U. The 4He release rate was compared with that from an unirradiated aliquot. Helium was expected, and observed, to degas at the lowest furnace temperatures, with nearly complete exhaustion by 1300 °C. Neon followed a bimodal degassing pattern, with a peak of the release rate at 1178 °C and a higher one at 1406 °C. Argon degassing showed a similar bimodality. Krypton and xenon were both mostly released in a single, concentrated burst between 1362 and 1460 °C. The two Xe isotopes 128 and 131, produced from I and Ba, respectively, followed exactly the same degassing pattern. The crystallographic site of the target element had no control on the movement of the irradiation-produced rare gas atom. The He release from the irradiated and unirradiated aliquots gave two overlapping alignments in the Arrhenius diagram at temperatures between 450 and 1300 °C. The two slopes are indistinguishable at the 1 sigma level and yield an average activation energy of 62 ± 5 kJ/mol. In the 450–1300 °C temperature interval, all five rare gases showed parallel trends with an activation energy around 62 kJ/mol and release rate constants decreasing from He to Xe by about 4 orders of magnitude. Arrhenian trajectories for the Kr and Xe degassing rate merge and sharply steepen in the 1362 °C step, with a degassing rate in the 1406 °C step about 400 times higher than at lower temperatures and an activation energy of 1.28 MJ/mol. The high-T modes of the bimodal Ar and Ne release also merge on the same steep Arrhenius line, with release rate constants indistinguishable from those of Kr and Xe. This break in Arrhenius slope and the merger of four trajectories that were widely separated below 1300 °C indicate a major, energetically very costly event between 1300 and 1362 °C. The possible structural reordering was investigated with four mineralogical techniques: Raman spectroscopy, X ray diffractometry, transmission electron microscopy, and microchemical analysis by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy. Total loss of F may have transiently modified the apatite structure. Complete outgassing of Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe was only achieved after the defluorination reaction and attending displacive structural reorganization. Like in hydrated minerals, in K-feldspar, and in leucite, degassing of heavy noble gases in apatite occurs by at least two different physical mechanisms. In all of these minerals downslope extrapolation of in vacuo Ar degassing in the laboratory to temperatures of geological interest does not appear warranted

    DataSheet1_p66Shc deficiency in CLL cells enhances PD-L1 expression and suppresses immune synapse formation.docx

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    Introduction: Escape from immunosurveillance is a hallmark of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. In the protective niche of lymphoid organs, leukemic cells suppress the ability of T lymphocytes to form the immune synapse (IS), thereby hampering T-cell mediated anti-tumoral activities. By binding its cognate receptor PD-1 at the surface of T lymphocytes, the inhibitory ligand PD-L1, which is overexpressed in CLL cells, mediates the T-cell suppressive activities of CLL cells. However, the molecular mechanism underlying PD-L1 overexpression in CLL cells remains unknown. We have previously reported a defective expression of the pro-apoptotic and pro-oxidant adaptor p66Shc in CLL cells, which is causally related to an impairment in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and to the activation of the ROS-sensitive transcription factor NF-ÎşB. The fact that PD-L1 expression is regulated by NF-ÎşB suggests a mechanistic relationship between p66Shc deficiency and PD-L1 overexpression in CLL cells.Methods: 62 treatment-naive CLL patients and 43 healthy donors were included in this study. PD-L1 and p66Shc expression was quantified in B cells by flow cytometry and qRT-PCR. IS architecture and local signaling was assessed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. CD8+ cell killing activity was assessed by flow cytometry.Results: Here we show that residual p66Shc expression in leukemic cells isolated both from CLL patients and from the CLL mouse model EÎĽ-TCL1 inversely correlated with PD-L1 expression. We also show that the PD-L1 increase prevented leukemic cells from forming ISs with T lymphocytes. Reconstitution of p66Shc, but not of a ROS-defective mutant, in both CLL cells and the CLL-derived cell line MEC-1, enhanced intracellular ROS and decreased PD-L1 expression. Similar results were obtained following treatment of CLL cells with H2O2 as exogenous source of ROS, that normalized PD-L1 expression and recovered IS formation.Discussion: Our data provide direct evidence that the p66Shc-deficiency-related ROS depletion in CLL cells concurs to enhance PD-L1 expression and provides a mechanistic basis for the suppression of T cell-mediated anti-tumoral functions in the immunosuppressive lymphoid niche.</p

    Volatility Transmissionin Agricultural Markets: Evidence from the Russia-Ukraine Conflict

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    This study investigates the impacts of the Russia-Ukraine conflict on agricultural commodities price volatilities. The analysis is conducted considering the movements in crude oil prices and their consequences in the global and Brazilian agricultural commodities markets. We employ a bivariate DCC-GARCH model to examine the volatility spillover and volatility contagion among the crude oil, wheat, corn, and soybean markets. Our results indicate an increase in volatility transmission after a military conflict. The increase in price cross-correlation in this period confirms the existence of contagious in crude oil and agricultural markets. The impacts seem to be greater at the international level, especially in the wheat and corn markets, highlighting the importance of Russia and Ukraine in grain production. Despite the participation of Brazil in global market, volatility transmission was similar to the pre-conflict period in local markets, indicating that emerging countries had also experienced other effects, as the exchange rate fluctuation

    Factors Influencing The First Thousand Days Of Life: The importance of Nurturing Care

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    Background: WHO, Unicef, the World Bank and the Maternal and Child Health Partnership wrote the document "Nurturing care for early child development: a global framework action".This paper highlights the benefits of early intervention and thus the need to invest more in health during this period.The aim of our study is to assess how much social support received by pregnant mothers can influence maternity outcomes. Materials and Methods: The retrospective observational study was conducted on a sample of mothers enrolled via social networks, who were administered a questionnaire from 1 July to 1 September 2021.The questionnaire consisted of 37 questions, 6 of which were used to calculate the "Maternity Social Support Scale".The ODDs Ratio was calculated. Results:Our sample consisted of 3447 women. 59.01% were between 26 and 35 years of age.The mean Maternity Social Support Scale (MSSS) score was calculated to be 23.9 points.A low MSSS score correlated with a higher probability of stopping breastfeeding before 6 months of age(OR:1. 2;C.I:1.1-1.4) and of having a caesarean section(OR:1.2;C.I:1.1-1.4) and to a lower probability of having a spontaneous labour(OR:0.9;C.I:0.7-0.9) and a spontaneous delivery(OR:0.8;C.I:0.7-0.9). In contrast, a high MSSS score had a lower likelihood of ceasing breastfeeding before 6 months (OR:0.8;C.I:0.7-0.9) and caesarean section(OR:0.8;C.I:0.7-0.9) and higher likelihood of spontaneous onset labour(OR:1.2;C.I:1.1-1.3) and spontaneous delivery(OR:1.2;C.I:1.1-1.4). Conclusions:Pregnancy, childbirth and maternity outcomes are strongly influenced and conditioned by the social context in which they occur and the support the woman may receive.The presence or lack of this support may affect the health of newborns

    Flotation Sludges from Precious Metal Recovery Processes: From Waste to Secondary Raw Material in Ceramics

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    In this study, we investigated flotation muds (FM) deriving from the recovery processes of precious metals contained in e-waste (wastes from electronics) and exhausted catalysts. FM consist of an amorphous phase, corresponding to a Ca- and Al-rich silicatic glass, potentially usable as a secondary raw material (SRM) to obtain a final ceramic product (CFM). A high FM amount was used in our ceramic tests, and suitably mixed with variable percentages of other phases. Chemical analysis, phase composition, microstructure, pore pattern and technological properties of the new ceramic products were determined using different analytical techniques, including bulk XRF, XRD, SEM-EDS and µCT. The CFM product predominantly consists of nepheline, pyroxene and wollastonite as the main crystalline phases, with a minor amorphous phase occurring as a compact interstitial matrix. The ceramic product has a porous interconnected microstructure. Nevertheless, this microstructure does not negatively affect the mechanical properties of the ceramic product, as testified by the geo-mechanical tests, revealing good properties in terms of bending and uniaxial strength. These preliminary results point out that FM recycling is feasible, at least at the laboratory scale
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