169 research outputs found

    Personalize, participate, predict, and prevent: 4Ps in inflammatory bowel disease

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    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), is a complex, immune-mediated, disorder which leads to several gastrointestinal and systemic manifestations determining a poor quality of life, disability, and other negative health outcomes. Our knowledge of this condition has greatly improved over the last few decades, and a comprehensive management should take into account both biological (i.e., disease-related, patient-related) and non-biological (i.e., socioeconomic, cultural, environmental, behavioral) factors which contribute to the disease phenotype. From this point of view, the so called 4P medicine framework, including personalization, prediction, prevention, and participation could be useful for tailoring ad hoc interventions in IBD patients. In this review, we discuss the cutting-edge issues regarding personalization in special settings (i.e., pregnancy, oncology, infectious diseases), patient participation (i.e., how to communicate, disability, tackling stigma and resilience, quality of care), disease prediction (i.e., faecal markers, response to treatments), and prevention (i.e., dysplasia through endoscopy, infections through vaccinations, and post-surgical recurrence). Finally, we provide an outlook discussing the unmet needs for implementing this conceptual framework in clinical practice

    International Society for Cell & Gene Therapy Position Paper: Key considerations to support evidence-based cell and gene therapies and oppose marketing of unproven products

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    The field of regenerative medicine, including cellular immunotherapies, is on a remarkable growth trajectory. Dozens of cell-, tissue-and gene-based products have received marketing authorization worldwide while hundreds-to-thousands are either in preclinical development or under clinical investigation in phased clini-cal trials. However, the promise of regenerative therapies has also given rise to a global industry of direct-to-consumer offerings of prematurely commercialized cell and cell-based products with unknown safety and efficacy profiles. Since its inception, the International Society for Cell & Gene Therapy Committee on the Ethics of Cell and Gene Therapy has opposed the premature commercialization of unproven cell-and gene-based interventions and supported the development of evidence-based advanced therapy products. In the present Guide, targeted at International Society for Cell & Gene Therapy members, we analyze this industry, focusing in particular on distinctive features of unproven cell and cell-based products and the use of tokens of scientific legitimacy as persuasive marketing devices. We also provide an overview of reporting mecha-nisms for patients who believe they have been harmed by administration of unapproved and unproven products and suggest practical strategies to address the direct-to-consumer marketing of such products. Development of this Guide epitomizes our continued support for the ethical and rigorous development of cell and cell-based products with patient safety and therapeutic benefit as guiding principles.& COPY; 2023 International Society for Cell & Gene Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

    Misconceptions, hurdles and recommendations regarding the use of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells in perianal Crohn disease

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    A fistula is defined as an abnormal communication between two epithelium-lined surfaces, and fistula-in-ano consists of an abnormal tract connecting the anal canal or rectum with the perianal skin or vagina [1]. When developing in Crohn disease, fistulas—considered an independent phenotype and referred to as perianal disease [2]— represent a grievous and disabling condition, resulting in significant human and health care costs because of a high relapse rate despite the use of biologics combined with surgery as standard therapy [3]. The advent of novel therapeutic strategies based on minimally inva- sive surgery and mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) offers an unprecedented opportunity. Following the results of a phase 3 trial in which 212 patients were randomly assigned to receive a single local injection of 120 millions of allogeneic adipose tissue-derived MSCs (darvadstrocel, formerly Cx601) or placebo, which showed that MSCs performed better to achieve combined remission (51.5% versus 35.6% at week 24) within a shorter time [4], the European Medicines Agency granted marketing authorization (Alofisel; Takeda, Tokyo, Japan) for use in refractory cases [5]. Since that time, several issues have been raised that hamper its use and jeopardize the knowledge regarding its therapeutic value. This prompted the authors to high- light in this editorial the misconceptions and hurdles that, based on the authors’ own experience, hinder an appropriate application of this new treatment and to establish a list of recommendations whose implementation may help this therapy find its right positioning in the management of this dismal condition

    An International Society for Cell and Gene Therapy Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSC) Committee perspectives on International Standards Organization/Technical Committee 276 Biobanking Standards for bone marrow-MSCs and umbilical cord tissue-derived MSCs for research purposes

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    International audienceThe rapidly growing field of mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) basic and translational research requires standardization of terminology and functional characterization. The International Standards Organization’s (ISO) Technical Committee (TC) on Biotechnology, working with extensive input from the International Society for Cells and Gene Therapy (ISCT), has recently published ISO standardization documents that are focused on biobanking of MSCs from two tissue sources, Wharton’s Jelly, MSC(WJ) and Bone Marrow, MSC(M)), for research and development purposes and development. This manuscript explains the path towards the consensus on the following two documents: the Technical Standard ISO/TS 22859 for MSC(WJ) and the full ISO Standard 24651 for MSC(M) biobanking. The ISO standardization documents are aligned with ISCT’s MSC committee position and recommendations on nomenclature because there was active input and incorporation of ISCT MSC committee recommendations in the development of these standards. The ISO standardization documents contain both requirements and recommendations for functional characterization of MSC(WJ) and MSC(M) using a matrix of assays. Importantly, the ISO standardization documents have a carefully defined scope and are meant for research use of culture expanded MSC(WJ) and MSC(M). The ISO standardization documents can be updated in a revision process and will be systematically reviewed after 3-5 years as scientific insights grow. They represent international consensus on MSC identity, definition, and characterization; are rigorous in detailing multivariate characterization of MSCs and represent an evolving-but-important first step in standardization of MSC biobanking and characterization for research use and development

    A Clinical and Pathophysiological Overview of Intestinal and Systemic Diseases Associated with Pancreatic Disorders: Causality or Casualty?

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    : The relationship between chronic intestinal disease, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and celiac disease (CelD), and pancreatic disorders has been little investigated. Although an increased risk of acute pancreatitis (AP), exocrine pancreatic insufficiency with or without chronic pancreatitis, and chronic asymptomatic pancreatic hyperenzymemia have been described in these patients, the pathogenetic link remains unclear. It may potentially involve drugs, altered microcirculation, gut permeability/motility with disruption of enteric-mediated hormone secretion, bacterial translocation, and activation of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue related to chronic inflammation. In addition, the risk of pancreatic cancer seems to be increased in both IBD and CelD patients with unknown pathogenesis. Finally, other systemic conditions (e.g., IgG4-related disease, sarcoidosis, vasculitides) might affect pancreatic gland and the intestinal tract with various clinical manifestations. This review includes the current understandings of this enigmatic association, reporting a clinical and pathophysiological overview about this topic

    Cell transplantation-based regenerative medicine in liver diseases

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    This review aims to evaluate the current preclinical state of liver bioengineering, the clinical context for liver cell therapies, the cell sources, the delivery routes, and the results of clinical trials for end-stage liver disease. Different clinical settings, such as inborn errors of metabolism, acute liver failure, chronic liver disease, liver cirrhosis, and acute-on-chronic liver failure, as well as multiple cellular sources were analyzed; namely, hepatocytes, hepatic progenitor cells, biliary tree stem/progenitor cells, mesenchymal stromal cells, and macrophages. The highly heterogeneous clinical scenario of liver disease and the availability of multiple cellular sources endowed with different biological properties make this a multidisciplinary translational research challenge. Data on each individual liver disease and more accurate endpoints are urgently needed, together with a characterization of the regenerative pathways leading to potential therapeutic benefit. Here, we critically review these topics and identify related research needs and perspectives in preclinical and clinical settings

    Serum anti-tissue transglutaminase IgA and prediction of duodenal villous atrophy in adults with suspected coeliac disease without IgA deficiency (Bi.A.CeD): a multicentre, prospective cohort study

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    Background: Whether coeliac disease in adults can be diagnosed with serology alone remains controversial. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of serum anti-tissue transglutaminase IgA (tTG-IgA) in the diagnosis of coeliac disease. Methods: In this multicentre, prospective cohort study, adult participants (aged ≥18 years) with suspected coeliac disease without IgA deficiency who were not on a gluten-free diet and who had a local serum tTG-IgA measurement, were enrolled from Feb 27, 2018, to Dec 24, 2020, by 14 tertiary referral centres (ten from Europe, two from Asia, one from Oceania, and one from South America) to undergo local endoscopic duodenal biopsy. Local serum tTG-IgA was measured with 14 different test brands and concentration expressed as a multiple of each test's upper limit of normal (ULN), and defined as positive when greater than 1 times the ULN. The main study outcome was the reliability of serum tests for the diagnosis of coeliac disease, as defined by duodenal villous atrophy (Marsh type 3 or Corazza-Villanacci grade B). Histology was evaluated by the local pathologist, with discordant cases (positive tTG-IgA without duodenal villous atrophy or negative tTG-IgA with duodenal villous atrophy) re-evaluated by a central pathologist. The reliability of serum tests for the prediction of duodenal villous atrophy was evaluated according to sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for categorical and continuous data. Findings: We enrolled 436 participants with complete local data on serum tTG-IgA and duodenal histology (296 [68%] women and 140 [32%] men; mean age 40 years [SD 15]). Positive serum tTG-IgA was detected in 363 (83%) participants and negative serum tTG-IgA in 73 (17%). Of the 363 participants with positive serum tTG-IgA, 341 had positive histology (true positives) and 22 had negative histology (false positives) after local review. Of the 73 participants with negative serum tTG-IgA, seven had positive histology (false negatives) and 66 had negative histology (true negatives) after local review. The positive predictive value was 93·9% (95% CI 89·2-98·6), the negative predictive value was 90·4% (85·5-95·3), sensitivity was 98·0% (95·3-100·0), and specificity was 75·0% (66·6-83·4). After central re-evaluation of duodenal histology in 29 discordant cases, there were 348 true positive cases, 15 false positive cases, 66 true negative cases, and seven false negative cases, resulting in a positive predictive value of 95·9% (92·0-99·8), a negative predictive value of 90·4% (85·5-95·3), a sensitivity of 98·0% (95·3-100·0), and a specificity of 81·5% (73·9-89·1). Either using the local or central definition of duodenal histology, the positive predictive value of local serum tTG-IgA increased when the serological threshold was defined at increasing multiples of the ULN (p<0·0001). The AUC for serum tTG-IgA for the prediction of duodenal villous atrophy was 0·87 (95% CI 0·81-0·92) when applying the categorical definition of serum tTG-IgA (positive [>1 × ULN] vs negative [≤1 × ULN]), and 0·93 (0·89-0·96) when applying the numerical definition of serum tTG-IgA (multiples of the ULN). Additional endoscopic findings included peptic gastritis (nine patients), autoimmune atrophic gastritis (three), reflux oesophagitis (31), gastric or duodenal ulcer (three), and Barrett's oesophagus (one). In the 1-year follow-up, a midgut ileum lymphoma was diagnosed in a woman on a gluten-free diet. Interpretation: Our data showed that biopsy could be reasonably avoided in the diagnosis of coeliac disease in adults with reliable suspicion of coeliac disease and high serum tTG-IgA. Funding: None

    Pancreatic steatosis and metabolic pancreatic disease: a new entity?

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    : Overweight and obesity are some of the most important health challenges. Many diseases are related to these metabolic disorders, and, among them, the pancreatic fat accumulation, also called "pancreatic steatosis" or "nonalcoholic fatty pancreas", seems to have an emerging role in different conditions. There are different method to evaluate the fat content in the pancreas, such as histology, different imaging techniques and endoscopic ultrasound, but there is no gold standard for the correct diagnosis and for the identification of "inter/intralobular" and "intra-acinar" pancreatic fat. However, the fat storage in the pancreas is linked to chronic inflammation and to several conditions, such as acute and chronic pancreatitis, type 2 diabetes mellitus and pancreatic cancer. In addition, pancreatic fat accumulation has also been demonstrated to play a role in surgical outcome after pancreatectomy, in particular for the development of postoperative pancreatic fistula. Different possible therapeutic approaches have been proposed, but there is still a lack of evidence. The aim of this review is to report the current evidence about the relationship between the obesity, the pancreatic fat accumulation and its potential role in pancreatic diseases

    Transplant for non-malignant disorders: an International Society for Cell & Gene Therapy Stem Cell Engineering Committee report on the role of alternative donors, stem cell sources and graft engineering

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    : Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is curative for many non-malignant disorders. As HSCT and supportive care technologies improve, this life-saving treatment may be offered to more and more patients. With the development of new preparative regimens, expanded alternative donor availability, and graft manipulation techniques, there are many options when choosing the best regimen for patients. Herein the authors review transplant considerations, transplant goals, conditioning regimens, donor choice, and graft manipulation strategies for patients with non-malignant disorders undergoing HSCT

    The features and clinical outcomes of inflammatory bowel disease associated with autoimmune pancreatitis: A greater awareness is needed

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    : The prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been described in 5% to 40% of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) patients. The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence, endoscopic features, and outcome of IBD in association with AIP.A retrospective analysis including all consecutive patients with AIP and a histological diagnosis of IBD from 2010 to 2020 was performed. Demographical data, AIP, and IBD features, as well as clinical course, were recorded.Among 267 AIP patients, 45 were diagnosed with ulcerative colitis (UC) (27 men, mean age 31.6), all with a diagnosis of type 2 AIP. The most frequent presentation of AIP was acute pancreatitis (55.5%). Both diffuse (51.1%) and focal (48.9%) pancreatic involvement were observed. The AIP relapse rate was 11.1% over a mean follow-up of 55 months. In 69% of patients, the interval time between the diagnosis of AIP and UC was <1 year. When UC was present at AIP onset, UC was in clinical remission in 50% of patients. Fecal calprotectin levels, when available, were elevated in 86.6% of these patients. Mostly, mild-moderate pancolitis was initially diagnosed (55.5%). During follow-up, escalation therapy for UC was required in 40% of patients after a mean time of 45 months. Two patients (4.4%) underwent colectomy.The prevalence of UC in AIP patients was 17%. Mild pancolitis with a low rate of colectomy was found. Greater awareness is needed to avoid a delayed diagnosis of UC, and the dosage of fecal calprotectin levels could have a role in this setting
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