1,870 research outputs found

    Testing SOAR Tools in Use

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    Modern security operation centers (SOCs) rely on operators and a tapestry of logging and alerting tools with large scale collection and query abilities. SOC investigations are tedious as they rely on manual efforts to query diverse data sources, overlay related logs, and correlate the data into information and then document results in a ticketing system. Security orchestration, automation, and response (SOAR) tools are a new technology that promise to collect, filter, and display needed data; automate common tasks that require SOC analysts' time; facilitate SOC collaboration; and, improve both efficiency and consistency of SOCs. SOAR tools have never been tested in practice to evaluate their effect and understand them in use. In this paper, we design and administer the first hands-on user study of SOAR tools, involving 24 participants and 6 commercial SOAR tools. Our contributions include the experimental design, itemizing six characteristics of SOAR tools and a methodology for testing them. We describe configuration of the test environment in a cyber range, including network, user, and threat emulation; a full SOC tool suite; and creation of artifacts allowing multiple representative investigation scenarios to permit testing. We present the first research results on SOAR tools. We found that SOAR configuration is critical, as it involves creative design for data display and automation. We found that SOAR tools increased efficiency and reduced context switching during investigations, although ticket accuracy and completeness (indicating investigation quality) decreased with SOAR use. Our findings indicated that user preferences are slightly negatively correlated with their performance with the tool; overautomation was a concern of senior analysts, and SOAR tools that balanced automation with assisting a user to make decisions were preferred

    A review of planting principles to identify the right place for the right tree for ‘net zero plus’ woodlands : Applying a place-based natural capital framework for Sustainable, Efficient and Equitable (SEE) decisions

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    Acknowledgements: This paper is in part supported by the NetZeroPlus (NZ+) grant funded by UKRI-BBSRC award BB/V011588/1 and also by the Dragon Capital Chair in Biodiversity Economics. Turing-HSBC-ONS Economic Data Science Award “Learning Tools for Land Use Analysis and Decision Support Utilising Earth Observation, Natural Capital and Economic Data. [Corrections added on 19 May 2022, after first online publication: additional funding information has been added.]Peer reviewedPublisher PD

    Demonstrating the Source of Inherent Instability in NiFe LDH Based OER Electrocatalysts

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    Nickel iron layered double hydroxides are known to be one of the most highly active catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction in alkaline conditions. The high electrocatalytic activity of the material however cannot be sustained within the active voltage window on timescales consistent with commercial requirements. The goal of this work is to identify and prove the source of inherent catalyst instability by tracking changes in the material during OER activity. By combining in situ and ex situ Raman analyses we elucidate long term effects on the catalyst performance from a changing crystallographic phase. In particular, we attribute electrochemically stimulated compositional degradation at active sites as the principal cause of the sharp loss of activity from NiFe LDHs shortly after the alkaline cell is turned on. EDX, XPS, and EELS analyses performed after OER also reveal noticeable leaching of Fe metals compared to Ni, principally from highly active edge sites. In addition, post cycle analysis identified a ferrihydrite by product formed from the leached Fe. Density functional theory calculations shed light on the thermodynamic driving force for the leaching of Fe metals and propose a dissolution pathway which involves [FeO4]2 amp; 8722; removal at relevant OER potential

    Genomic investigations of unexplained acute hepatitis in children

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    Since its first identification in Scotland, over 1,000 cases of unexplained paediatric hepatitis in children have been reported worldwide, including 278 cases in the UK1. Here we report an investigation of 38 cases, 66 age-matched immunocompetent controls and 21 immunocompromised comparator participants, using a combination of genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic and immunohistochemical methods. We detected high levels of adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) DNA in the liver, blood, plasma or stool from 27 of 28 cases. We found low levels of adenovirus (HAdV) and human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) in 23 of 31 and 16 of 23, respectively, of the cases tested. By contrast, AAV2 was infrequently detected and at low titre in the blood or the liver from control children with HAdV, even when profoundly immunosuppressed. AAV2, HAdV and HHV-6 phylogeny excluded the emergence of novel strains in cases. Histological analyses of explanted livers showed enrichment for T cells and B lineage cells. Proteomic comparison of liver tissue from cases and healthy controls identified increased expression of HLA class 2, immunoglobulin variable regions and complement proteins. HAdV and AAV2 proteins were not detected in the livers. Instead, we identified AAV2 DNA complexes reflecting both HAdV-mediated and HHV-6B-mediated replication. We hypothesize that high levels of abnormal AAV2 replication products aided by HAdV and, in severe cases, HHV-6B may have triggered immune-mediated hepatic disease in genetically and immunologically predisposed children

    Maternal diet alters long-term innate immune cell memory in fetal and juvenile hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in nonhuman primate offspring

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    Summary: Maternal overnutrition increases inflammatory and metabolic disease risk in postnatal offspring. This constitutes a major public health concern due to increasing prevalence of these diseases, yet mechanisms remain unclear. Here, using nonhuman primate models, we show that maternal Western-style diet (mWSD) exposure is associated with persistent pro-inflammatory phenotypes at the transcriptional, metabolic, and functional levels in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) from 3-year-old juvenile offspring and in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) from fetal and juvenile bone marrow and fetal liver. mWSD exposure is also associated with increased oleic acid in fetal and juvenile bone marrow and fetal liver. Assay for transposase-accessible chromatin with sequencing (ATAC-seq) profiling of HSPCs and BMDMs from mWSD-exposed juveniles supports a model in which HSPCs transmit pro-inflammatory memory to myeloid cells beginning in utero. These findings show that maternal diet alters long-term immune cell developmental programming in HSPCs with proposed consequences for chronic diseases featuring altered immune/inflammatory activation across the lifespan

    A Grounded Theory Model of Relationship Decision-Making in Non-Offending Partners of Individuals Accused of Sexual Offending

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    Non-offending partners of individuals who have committed sexual offenses often choose to end their relationship given the many negative consequences they face as a result of their partner’s offending behavior. Despite a focus on relationships in rehabilitation frameworks and the importance of the relationship for the individual who has offended and their partner, research has thus far failed to examine the process underlying why non-offending partners decide to stay in or leave their relationship following an offense. In this study we developed the first descriptive model of relationship decision-making in non-offending partners. Twenty-three individuals whose current or previous partners were accused of sexual offending were interviewed about affective, behavioral, cognitive, and contextual factors contributing to their decision to stay with or leave their partner. Participants’ narrative accounts were analyzed using Grounded Theory. Our resulting model consists of four main periods: (1) background factors, (2) relationship factors, (3) finding out, and (4) relationship decision-making. Clinical implications, limitations, and directions for future research are discussed

    Results from a Prototype TES Detector for the Ricochet Experiment

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    International audienceCoherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CEν\nuNS) offers valuable sensitivity to physics beyond the Standard Model. The Ricochet experiment will use cryogenic solid-state detectors to perform a precision measurement of the CEν\nuNS spectrum induced by the high neutrino flux from the Institut Laue-Langevin nuclear reactor. The experiment will employ an array of detectors, each with a mass of ∼\sim30 g and a targeted energy threshold of 50 eV. Nine of these detectors (the "Q-Array") will be based on a novel Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) readout style, in which the TES devices are thermally coupled to the absorber using a gold wire bond. We present initial characterization of a Q-Array-style detector using a 1 gram silicon absorber, obtaining a baseline root-mean-square resolution of less than 40 eV

    An integrated approach to address diabetes in the context of food insecurity: Delivering health study protocol

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    Background: Diabetes self-management education and support (DSMES) interventions among food insecure individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) have found modest improvements in nutrition and health outcomes but are limited by barriers to attendance and retention. This study applies a community-based participatory research approach, engaging community members at all levels of intervention planning, development, implementation, and dissemination, to deliver a plain-language DSMES curriculum to food insecure community members with T2D. Methods: This is a single-arm, pre-post design assessing the efficacy of a 12-week home-delivered DSMES curriculum and T2D-appropriate food box intervention to improve the nutrition and health outcomes of food insecure individuals with T2D. The intervention consists of a weekly food box delivery and handout with video links on key DSMES topics, developed and refined using community advisor feedback. Up to 100 English-, Spanish-, or Marshallese-speaking adult participants with T2D (HbA1c ≥ 7%) and food insecurity are being recruited from food pantries in northwest Arkansas. Data is collected at pre-intervention and immediately post-intervention. The primary study outcome is change in HbA1c. Secondary measures include diet quality (Healthy Eating Index-2015, calculated from 3 24-h dietary recall interviews via phone), body mass index, blood pressure, skin carotenoids, food security, T2D self-management behaviors, T2D self-efficacy, and T2D-related distress. Results: Recruitment began in August 2021 and enrollment is anticipated to be complete in March 2023. Conclusion: Findings from this study will provide a rich understanding of diabetes-related health outcomes and dietary patterns of individuals with food insecurity and T2D and inform future food-focused DSMES interventions in this setting

    Genome-wide screening reveals the genetic basis of mammalian embryonic eye development

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    Background: Microphthalmia, anophthalmia, and coloboma (MAC) spectrum disease encompasses a group of eye malformations which play a role in childhood visual impairment. Although the predominant cause of eye malformations is known to be heritable in nature, with 80% of cases displaying loss-of-function mutations in the ocular developmental genes OTX2 or SOX2, the genetic abnormalities underlying the remaining cases of MAC are incompletely understood. This study intended to identify the novel genes and pathways required for early eye development. Additionally, pathways involved in eye formation during embryogenesis are also incompletely understood. This study aims to identify the novel genes and pathways required for early eye development through systematic forward screening of the mammalian genome. Results: Query of the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC) database (data release 17.0, August 01, 2022) identified 74 unique knockout lines (genes) with genetically associated eye defects in mouse embryos. The vast majority of eye abnormalities were small or absent eyes, findings most relevant to MAC spectrum disease in humans. A literature search showed that 27 of the 74 lines had previously published knockout mouse models, of which only 15 had ocular defects identified in the original publications. These 12 previously published gene knockouts with no reported ocular abnormalities and the 47 unpublished knockouts with ocular abnormalities identified by the IMPC represent 59 genes not previously associated with early eye development in mice. Of these 59, we identified 19 genes with a reported human eye phenotype. Overall, mining of the IMPC data yielded 40 previously unimplicated genes linked to mammalian eye development. Bioinformatic analysis showed that several of the IMPC genes colocalized to several protein anabolic and pluripotency pathways in early eye development. Of note, our analysis suggests that the serine-glycine pathway producing glycine, a mitochondrial one-carbon donator to folate one-carbon metabolism (FOCM), is essential for eye formation. Conclusions: Using genome-wide phenotype screening of single-gene knockout mouse lines, STRING analysis, and bioinformatic methods, this study identified genes heretofore unassociated with MAC phenotypes providing models to research novel molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in eye development. These findings have the potential to hasten the diagnosis and treatment of this congenital blinding disease

    Science goals and mission architecture of the Europa Lander mission concept

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    © The Author(s), 2022. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Hand, K., Phillips, C., Murray, A., Garvin, J., Maize, E., Gibbs, R., Reeves, G., San Martin, A., Tan-Wang, G., Krajewski, J., Hurst, K., Crum, R., Kennedy, B., McElrath, T., Gallon, J., Sabahi, D., Thurman, S., Goldstein, B., Estabrook, P., Lee, S. W., Dooley, J. A., Brinckerhoff, W. B., Edgett, K. S., German, C. R., Hoehler, T. M., Hörst, S. M., Lunine, J. I., Paranicas, C., Nealson, K., Smith, D. E., Templeton, A. S., Russell, M. J., Schmidt, B., Christner, B., Ehlmann, B., Hayes, A., Rhoden, A., Willis, P., Yingst, R. A., Craft, K., Cameron, M. E., Nordheim, T., Pitesky, J., Scully, J., Hofgartner, J., Sell, S. W., Barltrop, K. J., Izraelevitz, J., Brandon, E. J., Seong, J., Jones, J.-P., Pasalic, J., Billings, K. J., Ruiz, J. P., Bugga, R. V., Graham, D., Arenas, L. A., Takeyama, D., Drummond, M., Aghazarian, H., Andersen, A. J., Andersen, K. B., Anderson, E. W., Babuscia, A., Backes, P. G., Bailey, E. S., Balentine, D., Ballard, C. G., Berisford, D. F., Bhandari, P., Blackwood, K., Bolotin, G. S., Bovre, E. A., Bowkett, J., Boykins, K. T., Bramble, M. S., Brice, T. M., Briggs, P., Brinkman, A. P., Brooks, S. M., Buffington, B. B., Burns, B., Cable, M. L., Campagnola, S., Cangahuala, L. A., Carr, G. A., Casani, J. R., Chahat, N. E., Chamberlain-Simon, B. K., Cheng, Y., Chien, S. A., Cook, B. T., Cooper, M., DiNicola, M., Clement, B., Dean, Z., Cullimore, E. A., Curtis, A. G., Croix, J-P. de la, Pasquale, P. Di, Dodd, E. M., Dubord, L. A., Edlund, J. A., Ellyin, R., Emanuel, B., Foster, J. T., Ganino, A. J., Garner, G. J., Gibson, M. T., Gildner, M., Glazebrook, K. J., Greco, M. E., Green, W. M., Hatch, S. J., Hetzel, M. M., Hoey, W. A., Hofmann, A. E., Ionasescu, R., Jain, A., Jasper, J. D., Johannesen, J. R., Johnson, G. K., Jun, I., Katake, A. B., Kim-Castet, S. Y., Kim, D. I., Kim, W., Klonicki, E. F., Kobeissi, B., Kobie, B. D., Kochocki, J., Kokorowski, M., Kosberg, J. A., Kriechbaum, K., Kulkarni, T. P., Lam, R. L., Landau, D. F., Lattimore, M. A., Laubach, S. L., Lawler, C. R., Lim, G., Lin, J. Y., Litwin, T. E., Lo, M. W., Logan, C. A., Maghasoudi, E., Mandrake, L., Marchetti, Y., Marteau, E., Maxwell, K. A., Namee, J. B. Mc, Mcintyre, O., Meacham, M., Melko, J. P., Mueller, J., Muliere, D. A., Mysore, A., Nash, J., Ono, H., Parker, J. M., Perkins, R. C., Petropoulos, A. E., Gaut, A., Gomez, M. Y. Piette, Casillas, R. P., Preudhomme, M., Pyrzak, G., Rapinchuk, J., Ratliff, J. M., Ray, T. L., Roberts, E. T., Roffo, K., Roth, D. C., Russino, J. A., Schmidt, T. M., Schoppers, M. J., Senent, J. S., Serricchio, F., Sheldon, D. J., Shiraishi, L. R., Shirvanian, J., Siegel, K. J., Singh, G., Sirota, A. R., Skulsky, E. D., Stehly, J. S., Strange, N. J., Stevens, S. U., Sunada, E. T., Tepsuporn, S. P., Tosi, L. P. C., Trawny, N., Uchenik, I., Verma, V., Volpe, R. A., Wagner, C. T., Wang, D., Willson, R. G., Wolff, J. L., Wong, A. T., Zimmer, A. K., Sukhatme, K. G., Bago, K. A., Chen, Y., Deardorff, A. M., Kuch, R. S., Lim, C., Syvertson, M. L., Arakaki, G. A., Avila, A., DeBruin, K. J., Frick, A., Harris, J. R., Heverly, M. C., Kawata, J. M., Kim, S.-K., Kipp, D. M., Murphy, J., Smith, M. W., Spaulding, M. D., Thakker, R., Warner, N. Z., Yahnker, C. R., Young, M. E., Magner, T., Adams, D., Bedini, P., Mehr, L., Sheldon, C., Vernon, S., Bailey, V., Briere, M., Butler, M., Davis, A., Ensor, S., Gannon, M., Haapala-Chalk, A., Hartka, T., Holdridge, M., Hong, A., Hunt, J., Iskow, J., Kahler, F., Murray, K., Napolillo, D., Norkus, M., Pfisterer, R., Porter, J., Roth, D., Schwartz, P., Wolfarth, L., Cardiff, E. H., Davis, A., Grob, E. W., Adam, J. R., Betts, E., Norwood, J., Heller, M. M., Voskuilen, T., Sakievich, P., Gray, L., Hansen, D. J., Irick, K. W., Hewson, J. C., Lamb, J., Stacy, S. C., Brotherton, C. M., Tappan, A. S., Benally, D., Thigpen, H., Ortiz, E., Sandoval, D., Ison, A. M., Warren, M., Stromberg, P. G., Thelen, P. M., Blasy, B., Nandy, P., Haddad, A. W., Trujillo, L. B., Wiseley, T. H., Bell, S. A., Teske, N. P., Post, C., Torres-Castro, L., Grosso, C. Wasiolek, M. Science goals and mission architecture of the Europa Lander mission concept. The Planetary Science Journal, 3(1), (2022): 22, https://doi.org/10.3847/psj/ac4493.Europa is a premier target for advancing both planetary science and astrobiology, as well as for opening a new window into the burgeoning field of comparative oceanography. The potentially habitable subsurface ocean of Europa may harbor life, and the globally young and comparatively thin ice shell of Europa may contain biosignatures that are readily accessible to a surface lander. Europa's icy shell also offers the opportunity to study tectonics and geologic cycles across a range of mechanisms and compositions. Here we detail the goals and mission architecture of the Europa Lander mission concept, as developed from 2015 through 2020. The science was developed by the 2016 Europa Lander Science Definition Team (SDT), and the mission architecture was developed by the preproject engineering team, in close collaboration with the SDT. In 2017 and 2018, the mission concept passed its mission concept review and delta-mission concept review, respectively. Since that time, the preproject has been advancing the technologies, and developing the hardware and software, needed to retire risks associated with technology, science, cost, and schedule.K.P.H., C.B.P., E.M., and all authors affiliated with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory carried out this research at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (grant No. 80NM0018D0004). J.I.L. was the David Baltimore Distinguished Visiting Scientist during the preparation of the SDT report. JPL/Caltech2021
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