95 research outputs found

    Introduzione

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    La natura corporea delle immagini

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    Il volume esami natura e funzione dell'immagine nel contesto delle psicologie materialiste antiche da Empedocle a Lucrezi

    La natura corporea delle immagini

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    Platone e l’esperienza : sette studi lessicologici

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    Development of Three Molecular Diagnostic Tools for the Identification of the False Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

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    Three molecular protocols using qPCR TaqMan probe, SYBR Green, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) methods were set up for the identification of larvae and adults of an African invasive moth, Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick, 1913) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). The DNA extracts from larval and adult samples of T. leucotreta were perfectly amplified with an average Ct value of 19.47 ± 2.63. All assays were demonstrated to be inclusive for T. leucotreta and exclusive for the nontarget species tested; the absence of false positives for nontarget species showed a 100% of diagnostic specificity and diagnostic sensitivity for all assays. With the SYBR Green protocol, the Cq values were only considered for values less than 22 (cutoff value) to prevent false-positive results caused by the late amplification of nonspecific amplicons. The limit of detection (LoD) for the qPCR probe protocol was equal to 0.02 pg/μl while a value equal to 0.128 pg/μl for the qPCR SYBR Green assay and LAMP method were established, respectively. The intrarun variabilities of reproducibility and repeatability in all the assays evaluated as CV%, ranged between 0.21 and 6.14, and between 0.33 and 9.52, respectively; the LAMP values were slightly higher than other assays, indicating a very low interrun variability. In order for an operator to choose the most desirable method, several parameters were considered and discussed. For future development of these assays, it is possible to hypothesize the setup of a diagnostic kit including all the three methods combined, to empower the test reliability and robustness

    TaqMan probe assays on different biological samples for the identification of three ambrosia beetle species, Xylosandrus compactus (Eichoff), X. crassiusculus (Motschulsky) and X. germanus (Blandford) (Coleoptera Curculionidae Scolytinae)

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    Molecular assays based on qPCR TaqMan Probes were developed to identify three species of the genus Xylosandrus, X. compactus, X. crassiusculus and X. germanus (Coleoptera Curculionidae Scolytinae). These ambrosia beetles are xylophagous species alien to Europe, causing damages to many ornamental and fruiting trees as well as shrubs. DNA extraction was carried out from adults, larvae and biological samples derived from insect damages on infested plants. For X. compactus, segments of galleries in thin infested twigs were cut and processed; in the case of X. crassiusculus, raw frass extruded from exit holes was used, while DNA of X. germanus was extracted from small wood chips removed around insect exit holes. The assays were inclusive for the target species and exclusive for all the non-target species tested. The LoD was 3.2 pg/μL for the frass of X. crassiusculus and 0.016 ng/μL for the woody matrices of the other two species. Both repeatability and reproducibility were estimated on adults and woody samples, showing very low values ranging between 0.00 and 4.11. Thus, the proposed diagnostic assays resulted to be very efficient also on the woody matrices used for DNA extraction, demonstrating the applicability of the protocol in the absence of dead specimens or living stages

    Lo straniero e le voci della città

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    L’ARTICOLAZIONE ARGOMENTATIVA DI PLAT. SOPH. 237B7-239A11 E LA NATURA DEL MEDAMOS ON

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    In Soph. 237b7-239a11 Plato lays out a sequence of arguments that are generally considered homogenous. An analysis of each argument can shed light on the need to differentiate their respective nature. Firstly, it will be shown that the arguments do not work only at the linguistic level, contrary to the way these passages are interpreted by most of commentators. The meta-linguistic nature of the third argument will be particularly emphasised. Secondly, it will be argued that the three arguments follow each other according to a crescendo. The implications of this argumentative structure will be specifically appreciated. Both these results of the analysis induce to attribute a crucial importance to the notion of medamos on: the arguments do not aim to definitively exclude the possibility of a Parmenidean non-being; they play a positive role within the inquiry of the Stranger of Elea, inasmuch the thematisation of Parmenidean non-being is seriously taken into account and embraced at this stage of the dialogue. In fact it is only through this dialectical step that the Stranger gains the chance to proceed in the direction of a relational ontology and a new concept of non-being. The positive role played by the medamos on presupposes that this expression and the equivalent ones are not mere absurdities and can find place in the Platonic use of language; this implies that the notion of medamos on must have a justification in the framework of Platonic relational ontology and conception of language. The consideration of this aspect eventually gives the opportunity to return to the three arguments and present an explanation of their positioning in that stage of the dialogue

    La clausola hos ouk eidosi (Theaet. 196 d 9) e il modello della colombaia

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    The clause ὡς οὐκ εἰδόσι in Theaet. 196 d 9, seemingly negligible or merely ambiguous, is rather particularly significant. It has a dual semantic value that emblematically expresses the complexity of the Aviary model in the Theaetetus as it is presented by Socrates, the character, and conceived by Plato, the author. The intertextual cross-references (in particular with the Meno and the Sophist) and the intratextual ones (similar clauses in Theaet 152 c 5-69 and 198 c 7-8) allow to show how that clause should be understood both in a subjective causal sense and in a comparative-hypothetical sense: these two nuances of meaning correspond to the two levels of reading the dialogue (respectively, the dramatic interaction among the characters and the deep development of the whole argument faced in the Theaetetus) and allow to highlight the positive and negative components of the epistemological hypothesis underlying the Aviary model
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