37 research outputs found

    Characteristics of severe asthma patients on biologics: a real-life European registry study

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    Background The use of anti-interleukin-5 (IL5) for severe asthma is based on criteria from randomised controlled trials (RCTs), but in real-life patients might not fulfil the eligibility criteria but may benefit from biologics. We aimed to characterise patients starting anti-IL5(R) in Europe and evaluate the discrepancies between initiation of anti-IL5(R) in real life and in RCTs. Materials and methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis with data from the severe asthma patients at the start of anti-IL5(R) in the Severe Heterogeneous Asthma Research collaboration Patient-centred (SHARP Central) registry. We compared the baseline characteristics of the patients starting anti-IL5(R) from 11 European countries within SHARP with the baseline characteristics of the severe asthma patients from 10 RCTs (four for mepolizumab, three for benralizumab and three for reslizumab). Patients were evaluated following eligibility criteria from the RCTs of anti-IL5 therapies. Results Patients starting anti-IL5(R) in Europe (n=1231) differed in terms of smoking history, clinical characteristics and medication use. The characteristics of severe asthma patients in the SHARP registry differed from the characteristics of patients in RCTs. Only 327 (26.56%) patients fulfilled eligibility criteria of all the RCTs; 24 patients were eligible for mepolizumab, 100 for benralizumab and 52 reslizumab. The main characteristics of ineligibility were: ≄10 pack-years, respiratory diseases other than asthma, Asthma Control Questionnaire score ≀1.5 and low-dose inhaled corticosteroids. Conclusion A large proportion of patients in the SHARP registry would not have been eligible for anti-IL5(R) treatment in RCTs, demonstrating the importance of real-life cohorts in describing the efficacy of biologics in a broader population of patients with severe asthma

    Understanding the biology, morbidity and social contexts of adolescent tuberculosis: a prospective observational cohort study protocol (Teen TB)

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    INTRODUCTION: A considerable burden of the tuberculosis (TB) epidemic is found in adolescents. The reasons for increased susceptibility to TB infection and higher incidence of TB disease in adolescence, compared with the 5-10 years old age group, are incompletely understood. Despite the pressing clinical and public health need to better understand and address adolescent TB, research in this field remains limited. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Teen TB is an ongoing prospective observational cohort study that aims to better understand the biology, morbidity and social context of adolescent TB. The study plans to recruit 50 adolescents (10-19 years old) with newly diagnosed microbiologically confirmed pulmonary TB disease and 50 TB-exposed controls without evidence of TB disease in Cape Town, South Africa, which is highly endemic for TB. At baseline, cases and controls will undergo a detailed clinical evaluation, chest imaging, respiratory function assessments and blood collection for viral coinfections, inflammatory cytokines and pubertal hormone testing. At 2 weeks, 2 months and 12 months, TB disease cases will undergo further chest imaging and additional lung function testing to explore the patterns of respiratory abnormalities. At week 2, cases will complete a multicomponent quantitative questionnaire about psychological and social impacts on their experiences and longitudinal, in-depth qualitative data will be collected from a nested subsample of 20 cases and their families. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study protocol has received ethical approval from the Stellenbosch University Health Research Ethics Committee (N19/10/148). The study findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications, academic conferences and formal presentations to health professionals. Results will also be made available to participants and caregivers

    Characteristics and treatment regimens across ERS SHARP severe asthma registries

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    Little is known about the characteristics and treatments of patients with severe asthma across Europe, but both are likely to vary. This is the first study in the European Respiratory Society Severe Heterogeneous Asthma Research collaboration, Patient-centred (SHARP) Clinical Research Collaboration and it is designed to explore these variations. Therefore, we aimed to compare characteristics of patients in European severe asthma registries and treatments before starting biologicals. This was a cross-sectional retrospective analysis of aggregated data from 11 national severe asthma registries that joined SHARP with established patient databases. Analysis of data from 3236 patients showed many differences in characteristics and lifestyle factors. Current smokers ranged from 0% (Poland and Sweden) to 9.5% (Belgium), mean body mass index ranged from 26.2 (Italy) to 30.6 kg\ub7m 122 (the UK) and the largest difference in mean pre-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s % predicted was 20.9% (the Netherlands versus Hungary). Before starting biologicals patients were treated differently between countries: mean inhaled corticosteroid dose ranged from 700 to 1335 \ub5g\ub7day 121 between those from Slovenia versus Poland when starting anti-interleukin (IL)-5 antibody and from 772 to 1344 \ub5g\ub7day 121 in those starting anti-IgE (Slovenia versus Spain). Maintenance oral corticosteroid use ranged from 21.0% (Belgium) to 63.0% (Sweden) and from 9.1% (Denmark) to 56.1% (the UK) in patients starting anti-IL-5 and anti-IgE, respectively. The severe asthmatic population in Europe is heterogeneous and differs in both clinical characteristics and treatment, often appearing not to comply with the current European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society guidelines definition of severe asthma. Treatment regimens before starting biologicals were different from inclusion criteria in clinical trials and varied between countries

    Treatment Eligibility of Real-Life Mepolizumab-Treated Severe Asthma Patients

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    Background: Patients with severe asthma not meeting the strict trial eligibility criteria for mepolizumab are now routinely treated with this biological in clinical practice, but it remains unclear whether these ineligible patients respond differently to mepolizumab treatment. Objective: This study investigated the extent and reasons for trial ineligibility of real-life, mepolizumab-treated patients with severe asthma and compared the characteristics of these patients with trial populations. Subsequently, therapeutic response in ineligible patients was assessed on the basis of oral corticosteroid (OCS) reduction. Methods: Trial eligibility, population differences, and therapeutic response were assessed using the baseline characteristics of mepolizumab-receiving patients with severe asthma treated in the Amsterdam University Medical Centres and OCS dose at 6 months for OCS-dependent patients extracted from patients' electronic health records. Eligibility criteria and population characteristics from trials investigating mepolizumab were extracted from their original publications. Results: A total of 82.4% of 119 mepolizumab-receiving, real-life patients with severe asthma were ineligible for trial inclusion, wherein 42.9% and 39.5% were excluded on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria, respectively. The clinical care population was older, more often male and demonstrating a better lung function under lower OCS maintenance dosages in comparison with trial populations. A total of 50% of 66 ineligible, OCS-dependent mepolizumab-treated patients were able to reduce their maintenance OCS dosage to ≀5 mg prednisone/day. Conclusions: A large proportion of the real-life, mepolizumab-treated population with severe asthma would be excluded from trial participation, and significant differences in population characteristics exist. Regardless, a large fraction of ineligible patients in clinical care can reduce maintenance OCS dosage under mepolizumab therapy

    Characteristics and treatment regimens across ERS SHARP severe asthma registries

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    To access publisher's full text version of this article click on the hyperlink belowLittle is known about the characteristics and treatments of patients with severe asthma across Europe, but both are likely to vary. This is the first study in the European Respiratory Society Severe Heterogeneous Asthma Research collaboration, Patient-centred (SHARP) Clinical Research Collaboration and it is designed to explore these variations. Therefore, we aimed to compare characteristics of patients in European severe asthma registries and treatments before starting biologicals.This was a cross-sectional retrospective analysis of aggregated data from 11 national severe asthma registries that joined SHARP with established patient databases.Analysis of data from 3236 patients showed many differences in characteristics and lifestyle factors. Current smokers ranged from 0% (Poland and Sweden) to 9.5% (Belgium), mean body mass index ranged from 26.2 (Italy) to 30.6 kg·m-2 (the UK) and the largest difference in mean pre-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s % predicted was 20.9% (the Netherlands versus Hungary). Before starting biologicals patients were treated differently between countries: mean inhaled corticosteroid dose ranged from 700 to 1335 ”g·day-1 between those from Slovenia versus Poland when starting anti-interleukin (IL)-5 antibody and from 772 to 1344 ”g·day-1 in those starting anti-IgE (Slovenia versus Spain). Maintenance oral corticosteroid use ranged from 21.0% (Belgium) to 63.0% (Sweden) and from 9.1% (Denmark) to 56.1% (the UK) in patients starting anti-IL-5 and anti-IgE, respectively.The severe asthmatic population in Europe is heterogeneous and differs in both clinical characteristics and treatment, often appearing not to comply with the current European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society guidelines definition of severe asthma. Treatment regimens before starting biologicals were different from inclusion criteria in clinical trials and varied between countries

    Bi-allelic Loss-of-Function CACNA1B Mutations in Progressive Epilepsy-Dyskinesia.

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    The occurrence of non-epileptic hyperkinetic movements in the context of developmental epileptic encephalopathies is an increasingly recognized phenomenon. Identification of causative mutations provides an important insight into common pathogenic mechanisms that cause both seizures and abnormal motor control. We report bi-allelic loss-of-function CACNA1B variants in six children from three unrelated families whose affected members present with a complex and progressive neurological syndrome. All affected individuals presented with epileptic encephalopathy, severe neurodevelopmental delay (often with regression), and a hyperkinetic movement disorder. Additional neurological features included postnatal microcephaly and hypotonia. Five children died in childhood or adolescence (mean age of death: 9 years), mainly as a result of secondary respiratory complications. CACNA1B encodes the pore-forming subunit of the pre-synaptic neuronal voltage-gated calcium channel Cav2.2/N-type, crucial for SNARE-mediated neurotransmission, particularly in the early postnatal period. Bi-allelic loss-of-function variants in CACNA1B are predicted to cause disruption of Ca2+ influx, leading to impaired synaptic neurotransmission. The resultant effect on neuronal function is likely to be important in the development of involuntary movements and epilepsy. Overall, our findings provide further evidence for the key role of Cav2.2 in normal human neurodevelopment.MAK is funded by an NIHR Research Professorship and receives funding from the Wellcome Trust, Great Ormond Street Children's Hospital Charity, and Rosetrees Trust. E.M. received funding from the Rosetrees Trust (CD-A53) and Great Ormond Street Hospital Children's Charity. K.G. received funding from Temple Street Foundation. A.M. is funded by Great Ormond Street Hospital, the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), and Biomedical Research Centre. F.L.R. and D.G. are funded by Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre. K.C. and A.S.J. are funded by NIHR Bioresource for Rare Diseases. The DDD Study presents independent research commissioned by the Health Innovation Challenge Fund (grant number HICF-1009-003), a parallel funding partnership between the Wellcome Trust and the Department of Health, and the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute (grant number WT098051). We acknowledge support from the UK Department of Health via the NIHR comprehensive Biomedical Research Centre award to Guy's and St. Thomas' National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust in partnership with King's College London. This research was also supported by the NIHR Great Ormond Street Hospital Biomedical Research Centre. J.H.C. is in receipt of an NIHR Senior Investigator Award. The research team acknowledges the support of the NIHR through the Comprehensive Clinical Research Network. The views expressed are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the NHS, the NIHR, Department of Health, or Wellcome Trust. E.R.M. acknowledges support from NIHR Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre, an NIHR Senior Investigator Award, and the University of Cambridge has received salary support in respect of E.R.M. from the NHS in the East of England through the Clinical Academic Reserve. I.E.S. is supported by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (Program Grant and Practitioner Fellowship)

    Recontacting patients in clinical genetics services: recommendations of the European Society of Human Genetics

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    Technological advances have increased the availability of genomic data in research and the clinic. If, over time, interpretation of the significance of the data changes, or new information becomes available, the question arises as to whether recontacting the patient and/or family is indicated. The Public and Professional Policy Committee of the European Society of Human Genetics (ESHG), together with research groups from the UK and the Netherlands, developed recommendations on recontacting which, after public consultation, have been endorsed by ESHG Board. In clinical genetics, recontacting for updating patients with new, clinically significant information related to their diagnosis or previous genetic testing may be justifiable and, where possible, desirable. Consensus about the type of information that should trigger recontacting converges around its clinical and personal utility. The organization of recontacting procedures and policies in current health care systems is challenging. It should be sustainable, commensurate with previously obtained consent, and a shared responsibility between healthcare providers, laboratories, patients, and other stakeholders. Optimal use of the limited clinical resources currently available is needed. Allocation of dedicated resources for recontacting should be considered. Finally, there is a need for more evidence, including economic and utility of information for people, to inform which strategies provide the most cost-effective use of healthcare resources for recontacting

    Genetic correlation between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and schizophrenia

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    A. Palotie on työryhmÀn Schizophrenia Working Grp Psychiat jÀsen.We have previously shown higher-than-expected rates of schizophrenia in relatives of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), suggesting an aetiological relationship between the diseases. Here, we investigate the genetic relationship between ALS and schizophrenia using genome-wide association study data from over 100,000 unique individuals. Using linkage disequilibrium score regression, we estimate the genetic correlation between ALS and schizophrenia to be 14.3% (7.05-21.6; P = 1 x 10(-4)) with schizophrenia polygenic risk scores explaining up to 0.12% of the variance in ALS (P = 8.4 x 10(-7)). A modest increase in comorbidity of ALS and schizophrenia is expected given these findings (odds ratio 1.08-1.26) but this would require very large studies to observe epidemiologically. We identify five potential novel ALS-associated loci using conditional false discovery rate analysis. It is likely that shared neurobiological mechanisms between these two disorders will engender novel hypotheses in future preclinical and clinical studies.Peer reviewe

    Recontacting in clinical practice: an investigation of the views of healthcare professionals and clinical scientists in the United Kingdom

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    This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from the publisher via the DOI in this record.Advance online publication 4 January 2017This article explores the views and experiences of healthcare professionals and clinical scientists in genetics about the existence of a duty and /or responsibility to recontact former patients when the genetic information relevant to their health, or that of family members, changes in a potentially important manner. It is based on N=30 semi-structured interviews guided by vignettes of recontacting scenarios. The sample included healthcare professionals in the United Kingdom from different medical specialties (clinical genetics, other ‘mainstream’ specialties now offering genetic testing), and scientists from regional genetics laboratories. While viewing recontacting as desirable under certain circumstances, most respondents expressed concerns about its feasibility within the current constraints of the National Health Service (NHS). The main barriers identified were insufficient resources (time, staff, and suitable IT infrastructures) and lack of clarity about role boundaries and responsibilities. All of these are further complicated by genetic testing being increasingly offered by mainstream specialties. Reaching a consensus about roles and responsibilities of clinical specialties with regard to recontacting former patients in the light of evolving genetic information, and about what resources and infrastructures would be needed, was generally seen as a pre-requisite to developing guidelines about recontact.The project is funded by the Economic and Social Research Council of the United Kingdom (grant reference: ES/L002868/1

    Recontact in clinical practice: a survey of clinical genetics services in the United Kingdom

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    Purpose: To ascertain whether and how recontacting occurs in the United Kingdom. Method: A Web-based survey was administered online between October 2014 and July 2015. A link to the survey was circulated via an e-mail invitation to the clinical leads of the United Kingdom’s 23 clinical genetics services, with follow-up with senior clinical genetics staff. Results: The majority of UK services reported that they recontact patients and their family members. However, recontacting generally occurs in an ad hoc fashion when an unplanned event causes clinicians to review a file (a “trigger”). There are no standardized recontacting practices in the United Kingdom. More than half of the services were unsure whether formalized recontacting systems should be implemented. Some suggested greater patient involvement in the process of recontacting. Conclusion: This research suggests that a thorough evaluation of the efficacy and sustainability of potential recontacting systems within the National Health Service would be necessary before deciding whether and how to implement such a service or to create guidelines on best-practice models.This article is freely available via Open Access. Click on the 'Additional Link' above to access the full-text from the publisher's site.Publishe
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